Matching Items (6)

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Contingency Analysis for Coupled Power-Water Networks

Description

A mathematical approach was developed to evaluate the resilience of coupled power-water networks using a variant of contingency analysis adapted from electric transmission studies. In particular, the “what if” scenarios

A mathematical approach was developed to evaluate the resilience of coupled power-water networks using a variant of contingency analysis adapted from electric transmission studies. In particular, the “what if” scenarios explored in power systems research were extended and applied for coupled power-water network research by evaluating how stressors and failures in the water network can propagate across system boundaries and into the electric network. Reduction in power system contingency reserves was the metric for determining violation of N-1 contingency reliability. Geospatial considerations were included using high-resolution, publicly available Geographic Information System data on infrastructure in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area that was used to generate a power network with 599 transmission lines and total generation capacity of 18.98 GW and a water network with 2,624 water network lines and capacity to serve up to 1.72M GPM of surface water. The steady-state model incorporated operating requirements for the power network—e.g., contingency reserves—and the water network—e.g., pressure ranges—while seeking to meet electric load and water demand. Interconnections developed between the infrastructures demonstrated how alternations to the system state and/or configuration of one network affect the other network, with results demonstrated through co-simulation of the power network and water network using OpenDSS and EPANET, respectively. Results indicate four key findings that help operators understand the interdependent behavior of the coupled power-water network: (i) two water failure scenarios (water flowing out of Waddell dam and CAP canal flowing west of Waddell dam) are critical to power-water network N-1 contingency reliability above 60% power system loading and at 100% water system demand, (ii) fast-starting natural gas generating units are necessary to maintain N-1 contingency reliability below 60% power system loading, (iii) Coolidge Station was the power plant to most frequently undergo a reduction in reserves amongst the water failure scenarios that cause a violation of N-1 reliability, (iv) power network vulnerability to water network failures was non-linear because it depends on the generating units that are dispatched, which can vary as line thermal limits or unit generation capacities are reached.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Techno-economic analysis of a concentrating solar power plant using reduction/oxidation metal oxides for thermochemical energy storage

Description

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant technology can produce reliable and dispatchable electric power from an intermittent solar resource. Recent advances in thermochemical energy storage (TCES) can offer further improvements to

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant technology can produce reliable and dispatchable electric power from an intermittent solar resource. Recent advances in thermochemical energy storage (TCES) can offer further improvements to increase off-sun operating hours, improve system efficiency, and the reduce cost of delivered electricity. This work describes a 111.7 MWe CSP plant with TCES using a mixed ionic-electronic conducting metal oxide, CAM28, as both the heat transfer and thermal energy storage media. Turbine inlet temperatures reach 1200 °C in the combined cycle power block. A techno-economic model of the CSP system is developed to evaluate design considerations to meet targets for low-cost and renewable power with 6-14 hours of dispatchable storage for off-sun power generation. Hourly solar insolation data is used for Barstow, California, USA. Baseline design parameters include a 6-hour storage capacity and a 1.8 solar multiple. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of engineering parameters on total installed cost, generation capacity, and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Calculated results indicate a full-scale 111.7 MWe system at $274 million in installed cost can generate 507 GWh per year at a levelized cost of $0.071 per kWh. Expected improvements to design, performance, and costs illustrate options to reduce energy costs to less than $0.06 per kWh.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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A Steady State Thermodynamic Model of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermochemical Energy Storage

Description

Fluids such as steam, oils, and molten salts are commonly used to store and transfer heat in a concentrating solar power (CSP) system. Metal oxide materials have received increasing attention

Fluids such as steam, oils, and molten salts are commonly used to store and transfer heat in a concentrating solar power (CSP) system. Metal oxide materials have received increasing attention for their reversible reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction that permits receiving, storing, and releasing energy through sensible and chemical potential. This study investigates the performance of a 111.7 MWe CSP system coupled with a thermochemical energy storage system (TCES) that uses a redox active metal oxide acting as the heat transfer fluid. A one-dimensional thermodynamic model is introduced for the novel CSP system design, with detailed designs of the underlying nine components developed from first principles and empirical data of the heat transfer media. The model is used to (a) size components, (b) examine intraday operational behaviors of the system against varying solar insolation, (c) calculate annual productivity and performance characteristics over a simulated year, and (d) evaluate factors that affect system performance using sensitivity analysis. Time series simulations use hourly direct normal irradiance (DNI) data for Barstow, California, USA. The nominal system design uses a solar multiple of 1.8 with a storage capacity of six hours for off-sun power generation. The mass of particles to achieve six hours of storage weighs 5,140 metric tonnes. Capacity factor increases by 3.55% for an increase in storage capacity to eight hours which requires an increase in storage volume by 33% or 737 m3, or plant design can be improved by decreasing solar multiple to 1.6 to increase the ratio of annual capacity factor to solar multiple. The solar reduction receiver is the focal point for the concentrated solar energy for inducing an endothermic reaction in the particles under low partial pressure of oxygen, and the reoxidation reactor induces the opposite exothermic reaction by mixing the particles with air to power an air Brayton engine. Stream flow data indicate the solar receiver experiences the largest thermal loss of any component, excluding the solar field. Design and sensitivity analysis of thermal insulation layers for the solar receiver show that additional RSLE-57 insulation material achieves the greatest increase in energetic efficiency of the five materials investigated.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Anticipating and adapting to increases in water distribution infrastructure failure caused by interdependencies and heat exposure from climate change

Description

This dissertation advances the capability of water infrastructure utilities to anticipate and adapt to vulnerabilities in their systems from temperature increase and interdependencies with other infrastructure systems. Impact assessment models

This dissertation advances the capability of water infrastructure utilities to anticipate and adapt to vulnerabilities in their systems from temperature increase and interdependencies with other infrastructure systems. Impact assessment models of increased heat and interdependencies were developed which incorporate probability, spatial, temporal, and operational information. Key findings from the models are that with increased heat the increased likelihood of water quality non-compliances is particularly concerning, the anticipated increases in different hardware components generate different levels of concern starting with iron pipes, then pumps, and then PVC pipes, the effects of temperature increase on hardware components and on service losses are non-linear due to spatial criticality of components, and that modeling spatial and operational complexity helps to identify potential pathways of failure propagation between infrastructure systems. Exploring different parameters of the models allowed for comparison of institutional strategies. Key findings are that either preventative maintenance or repair strategies can completely offset additional outages from increased temperatures though-- improved repair times reduce overall duration of outages more than preventative maintenance, and that coordinated strategies across utilities could be effective for mitigating vulnerability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Reconciling consumer and utility objectives in the residential solar PV market

Description

Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet

Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses--utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses--to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market

penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations--Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle--with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location--solar insolation and load profile--was also found to affect the time of

year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Improving solar PV scheduling using statistical techniques

Description

The inherent intermittency in solar energy resources poses challenges to scheduling generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Energy storage devices are often used to mitigate variability in renewable asset generation and

The inherent intermittency in solar energy resources poses challenges to scheduling generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Energy storage devices are often used to mitigate variability in renewable asset generation and provide a mechanism to shift renewable power between periods of the day. In the absence of storage, however, time series forecasting techniques can be used to estimate future solar resource availability to improve the accuracy of solar generator scheduling. The knowledge of future solar availability helps scheduling solar generation at high-penetration levels, and assists with the selection and scheduling of spinning reserves. This study employs statistical techniques to improve the accuracy of solar resource forecasts that are in turn used to estimate solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The first part of the study involves time series forecasting of the global horizontal irradiation (GHI) in Phoenix, Arizona using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) models. A comparative study is completed for time series forecasting models developed with different time step resolutions, forecasting start time, forecasting time horizons, training data, and transformations for data measured at Phoenix, Arizona. Approximately 3,000 models were generated and evaluated across the entire study. One major finding is that forecasted values one day ahead are near repeats of the preceding day—due to the 24-hour seasonal differencing—indicating that use of statistical forecasting over multiple days creates a repeating pattern. Logarithmic transform data were found to perform poorly in nearly all cases relative to untransformed or square-root transform data when forecasting out to four days. Forecasts using a logarithmic transform followed a similar profile as the immediate day prior whereas forecasts using untransformed and square-root transform data had smoother daily solar profiles that better represented the average intraday profile. Error values were generally lower during mornings and evenings and higher during midday. Regarding one-day forecasting and shorter forecasting horizons, the logarithmic transformation performed better than untransformed data and square-root transformed data irrespective of forecast horizon for data resolutions of 1-hour, 30-minutes, and 15-minutes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016