Matching Items (27)

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Eating Disorders And Sexual Orientation

Description

In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across

In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across sexual orientations were examined. The sociocultural model of eating disorders was also examined for these women across sexual orientations. The participants were organized into three different sexual orientation groups for analysis: heterosexual (group 1), bisexual, pansexual, and polysexual (group 2), and lesbian, gay, queer, transsexual, asexual, and other (group 3). Using cross-sectional data, it was revealed that there were significant group differences when comparing the three sexual orientation groups on loss of control over eating, but no significant group differences on body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, and weight-related eating pathology, and total eating disorder symptoms scores. The sociocultural model was not predictive of eating disorder symptoms among non-heterosexual groups. Longitudinal analyses revealed that the sociocultural model of eating disorders prospectively predicts eating disorder symptoms among heterosexual women, but not non-heterosexual women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that non-heterosexual women may be protected from societal pressure to subscribe to the thin ideal and its subsequent internalization. However, the comparison group of heterosexual women in our study may not have been completely representative of undergraduate women in terms of total eating disorder symptoms or eating pathology. Additionally, regardless of sexual orientation, our sample reported more total eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than previous studies. These findings have both clinical and research implications. Future research is needed to determine what risk factors and treatment target variables are relevant for non-heterosexual women.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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DACA Health Gap: Challenges Mexican Students Face in Arizona

Description

Literature on the undocumented population in the United States is rich, and is growing in the area of the 1.5 generation (which refers to undocumented individuals, typically under age 30,

Literature on the undocumented population in the United States is rich, and is growing in the area of the 1.5 generation (which refers to undocumented individuals, typically under age 30, who have grown up in the U.S.), but is scant regarding the health of this population, how they alleviate illnesses and what resources they have to do so. While Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) provides temporary benefits to undocumented youth, a DACA health gap persists. Even for those who are awarded DACA, when compared to their citizen counterparts, resources are still unequal. The 1.5 generation faces unique health challenges and even with policy progress, circumstances tied to their documentation status leave them reverting back to limited resources. In this study, ten members of this generation were interviewed. Findings show that they suffer from minor physical health challenges, but significant mental and emotional health challenges without the means to access adequate healthcare comparable to their citizen counterparts.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Development and Validation of Make-up and Sexualized Clothing Questionnaires

Description

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that women often report feeling pressure to dress in a sexualized manner, cover up their so-called flaws with make-up, and continually strive to be thin. Currently, no measure exists to assess the daily behaviors of women to wear make-up or dress in certain ways due to body image concerns. Thus, the goal of the current studies was to develop a brief self-report questionnaire on make-up and sexualized clothing for college women. In Study 1, items were developed from qualitative data collected by the Body Project Prevention Program to assess pressure to wear make-up, discomfort when not wearing make-up, pressure to wear sexualized clothing, and body image concerns with regards to sexualized clothing. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a Confidence and a Comfort subscale for the Make-up Questionnaire (MUQ) and a Body Dissatisfaction and Pressure subscale for the Sexualized Clothing Questionnaire (SCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 confirmed the factor structure for the MUQ and SCQ. Study 3 compared scores on the MUQ and SCQ among intervention and control groups across time points. A gain score analysis revealed that women in the intervention did not become significantly healthier over time in comparison to the control group on the MUQ and SCQ subscales. However, the treatment condition did become significantly healthier over time in regard to other measures of eating pathology. These studies provide insight into the pressures women feel to wear make-up and sexualized clothing.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Determining the Effects of Serving as a Peer Educator in an Eating Disorders Prevention Program

Description

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate women who voluntarily chose to become peer-educators in the eating prevention program called the Body Project. Self-report questionnaires evaluating both the preoccupation with personal body image and general leadership skills were distributed and collected electronically. The results were analyzed to determine that being a peer leader in the Body project did not increase eating disorder symptoms but actually decreased the symptoms. It was also determined that being a peer educator had no effect on leadership skills. Therefore, being a peer leader is beneficial for reducing eating disorder symptoms, but not for advancing leadership skills.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Retinal Vessel Diameter and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Young Adults

Description

Previous studies suggest an association between depression and anxiety in childhood and adolescence and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of the present study was to

Previous studies suggest an association between depression and anxiety in childhood and adolescence and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of the present study was to test whether depression and anxiety symptoms in young adulthood were associated with retinal vessel diameter, a subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease. We further tested whether associations for depression were similar to associations for anxiety. Participants completed questionnaires about their depression and anxiety symptoms and underwent retinal imaging. Retinal vessel diameter was assessed using computer software. Results showed no association between depression or anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel diameter, suggesting that retinal vessel diameter may not signal subclinical cardiovascular risk in young adults with symptoms of depression and anxiety.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Discrimination and Depression, Anxiety, and Academic Achievement in Latinx College Students

Description

Higher education institutions have increasingly sought to diversify the ethnic makeup of freshmen classes (Covarrubias, Herrmann, & Fryberg, 2016) and rates of Latinx college attendance have been rising (Hall, Nishina,

Higher education institutions have increasingly sought to diversify the ethnic makeup of freshmen classes (Covarrubias, Herrmann, & Fryberg, 2016) and rates of Latinx college attendance have been rising (Hall, Nishina, & Lewis, 2017). However, despite comparable levels of earned-credits, Latinx students have lower rates of college completion (Contreras & Contreras, 2015). One potential explanation may be disproportionate increases in stress, and in particular, discrimination experiences reported by Latinx students during the transition from high school to college (Hunyh & Fuligni, 2012). As such, the aim of the current study was to examine whether everyday discrimination in high school and college were associated with changes in adolescent well-being and academic adjustment over the college transition in a sample of Latinx adolescents. Study participants were 209 Latinx adolescents (85.1% Mexican descent, 62.1% 2nd generation; 35.6% male; Mage= 17.59) who completed questionnaire assessments during the spring or summer before entering college (T1) and again during the first semester of college (T2; 88.5% retention). In both high school and college, participants completed a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (T1 α=.88, T2 α=.89; Williams et al., 1997). Dependent variables included internalizing symptoms in college (depressive symptoms {α = .95}, anxiety symptoms {α = .88}, stress symptoms {α = .94}; DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), and institutional records of college GPA. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 23 to examine associations between discrimination experiences (high school and college) and college internalizing symptoms and GPA, controlling for high school levels. Other covariates included immigrant generation status, sex, parent education (as a proxy for socioeconomic status), and whether the participant attended the focal higher education institution. Zero order correlations (Table 1) revealed that greater reports of discrimination in high school and college were associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher anxiety symptoms, higher stress, but not GPA in college (Table 1; all ps <.05). In multivariate analyses and after adjusting for covariates similar patterns emerged (Table 2). Greater reports of discrimination in college were associated with higher depressive symptoms (β = .18, p < .05), anxiety symptoms (β = .19, p <.05) and stress (β = .18, p <.05), but not GPA (β = -.04, ns). Everyday experiences of discrimination in high school were not significantly associated with college outcomes. In summary, our findings suggest that discrimination experiences among Latinx students in college, but not high school, are associated with increases in internalizing symptoms, including depression, anxiety and stress. Interestingly, discrimination experiences in high school and college were not associated with academic achievement in the first semester of college. Such findings suggest that higher education institutions should focus on global indicators of well-being during the Latinx college transition and seek to implement programs to: a) reduce stress associated with engaging in diverse college environments and b) reduce discrimination experiences on college campuses. Future research is needed for replication of these results and should also seek to further explore the trajectories of internalizing symptoms beyond the first semester of college.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Lemming Effect as a Mechanism of Individual Change in Group Treatments

Description

College-aged women are at an increased risk for the development of subclinical levels of eating disordered symptoms, which have been correlated to lasting deleterious cognitive, physical, and academic effects. The

College-aged women are at an increased risk for the development of subclinical levels of eating disordered symptoms, which have been correlated to lasting deleterious cognitive, physical, and academic effects. The Body Project (TBP) is a universal group-based eating disorder prevention program that targets undergraduate women and challenges thin ideal messages through cognitive dissonance. Burlingame, Strauss, and Joyce (2013) in a meta-analysis of group treatments proposed five factors that independently and congruently work to promote individual change in group treatments: formal change theory, patient characteristics, leader characteristics, structural factors, and small group processes. A host of literature within TBP exists surrounding four of these factors, however, little research has been conducted on the small group processes that moderate individual change within this eating disorder prevention program.
The current study was designed to replicate and extend previous findings on the prevalence of the lemming effect within TBP, as well as examine how the lemming effect is related to outcome of treatment at a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-two participants aged 18-24 were examined. Groups ranged from 3 to 21 participants, including peer leaders. Twenty-nine audio recordings of session one of TBP were coded for lemming effects by the main research, and ten were coded by blind raters for inter-rater reliability measures. Three scales, the Ideal Body Stereotype Scale-Revised (IBSS-R), the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BPSS-R), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), were used to measure levels of thin-ideal internalization, body satisfaction, and frequencies of eating disordered (ED) behaviors, respectively.
Partial correlations revealed nonsignificant relationships between the number of lemming effects and the change in thin-ideal internalization and body satisfaction from baseline to follow-up. Additionally, a reliable change index revealed that the majority of change from baseline to follow-up was reliable for the IBSS-R, and the majority of change for the BPSS-R was unreliable. Lastly, chi-square tests of independence revealed nonsignificant relations between the number of lemming effects and change in ED behaviors.
Due to the small sample and lack of findings, future research would benefit from including a larger sample. This would enable larger power to detect effects and allow for more thorough statistical analyses to be performed to compare the relation of lemming effects to changes in outcome. However, this was the first study to look at the lemming effect variable as a small group process within TBP and added to the growing literature on how small group processes result in efficacious outcomes of treatment within group treatments.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Culturally Motivated Clinician Drift in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: How Clinicians Adopt, Adapt, or Abandon CBT for Latino Clients

Description

Prior research has identified that clinicians in the treatment of eating disorders often do not adhere closely to empirically-supported treatments (EST), and are particularly likely to modify Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT).

Prior research has identified that clinicians in the treatment of eating disorders often do not adhere closely to empirically-supported treatments (EST), and are particularly likely to modify Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT). Several reasons for this phenomenon, dubbed "clinician drift", have been identified, including level of clinician training, education, and type of patient care. In addition to the phenomenon of clinician drift, there has been a growing controversy within the field of clinical psychology about the compatibility of ESTs and multiculturalism. Some argue that the standardization inherent to EST resists the concept of cultural adaptability; while others have countered that cultural adaptability is essential in order for empirically supported treatments to remain relevant, ethical, and effective. In order to shed more light on this issue, this study examined how clinicians tend to drift from CBT in the treatment of Latinos suffering from eating disorders, in order to accommodate Latino culture and elements of eating behavior specific to Latino populations. We both attempted to replicate prior findings regarding predictors of clinician drift, as well as build upon the little existing research into the "culturally-motivated clinician drift." It was discovered that no therapist characteristics or client characteristics were predictive of drift. However, the majority of the sample still adapted or abandoned at least part of the CBT treatment. Their responses regarding the weaknesses of CBT for their Spanish-speaking clients can provide insight into how the treatment can be modified for more diverse clients.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Food Addiction and Binge Eating Disorder

Description

The purpose of this literature review is to examine the distinction between Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). There is confusion and debate regarding the two: some argue

The purpose of this literature review is to examine the distinction between Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). There is confusion and debate regarding the two: some argue they are distinct and others argue they are too similar for FA to deserve its own diagnosis. It is important to examine differences and similarities because obesity is a growing public health problem, and determining the root cause of obesity may help with efforts to reverse the problem. In addition, developing effective treatment and prevention programs will be easier once specific risk factors and characteristics of FA and BED are established. This literature review includes empirical studies and other literature reviews looking at the overlap, unique personality correlates, and general psychopathology associated with both BED and FA. A consistent finding among studies that looked at impulsivity and FA was that negative urgency and lack of perseverance accurately predicted FA, relative to BED. Other consistent correlates of FA were negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and (negative) self-esteem. Treatment options for FA currently include a combination of addiction-based treatment and psychotherapy that is commonly used for BED (i.e. CBT, DBT). Based on my research review, it seems reasonable to conclude that FA does in fact differ from BED and that efforts to identify unique treatment targets for FA are needed.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Arizona Psychiatric System: Structure, Defect, & Reform

Description

The Arizona healthcare system is changing and although its effects can be seen in almost every realm of the medical field, psychiatry is a specialty that is still experiencing hardship.

The Arizona healthcare system is changing and although its effects can be seen in almost every realm of the medical field, psychiatry is a specialty that is still experiencing hardship. There are scarce resources available for the ever-growing and struggling patient pool, especially in rural areas and minority populations. A comorbid cycle of untreated psychiatric illness contributes to the burden on emergency department and primary care medicine, as well as homelessness, crime, and suicide within the state. Arizona currently has a dismal spot in the rankings for American states with appropriate access to psychiatric resources, leaving many who need treatment without it. Compared to states with similar populations who are at the top of these rankings, Arizona spends more government money for behavioral health services, indicating a disparity in productivity and questioning monetary waste. Demographic statistics and other relevant scientific literature reveals that Arizona's psychiatric system lacks appropriate structure, and is failing the mental health care system both in monetary and societal constructs. These issues highlight the need for remedies and identify areas for future reform. Recommendations on such reform include permanent change in legislation and department models to improve crisis ward work, communication and networking during transition of care, integration of and access to continuum of care, and community education. They also include creating incentive and certification programs within the state in order to increase the number of available providers, especially in rural areas. These recommendations are directed to specifically reduce the burden of mental illness on emergency medical services, increase productivity, and decrease chronic untreated mental disease and monetary waste.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05