Matching Items (11)

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A Biobehavioral Model of Weight Loss Associated With Meditative Movement Practice Among Breast Cancer Survivors

Description

Women with breast cancer often experience weight gain during and after treatment, significantly increasing risk for recurrence as well as all-cause mortality. Based on a growing body of evidence, meditative

Women with breast cancer often experience weight gain during and after treatment, significantly increasing risk for recurrence as well as all-cause mortality. Based on a growing body of evidence, meditative movement practices may be effective for weight management. First, we describe the effects of stress on factors associated with weight gain for breast cancer survivors. Then, a model is proposed that utilizes existing evidence to suggest how meditative movement supports behavioral, psychological, and neurohormonal changes that may explain weight loss. Application of the model suggests how a novel “mindful-body-wisdom” approach may work to help reduce weight for this at-risk group.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12-24

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Incorporating religion and spirituality into the design of community-based physical activity programs for African American women: a qualitative inquiry

Description

Objective
Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was

Objective
Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how spirituality and religion can be leveraged in the design of community-based physical activity programs for African American women delivered outside of faith-based or faith-placed settings.
Results
Three focus groups were conducted were conducted with 23 African American women (M age = 37.8 years, M BMI = 39.6 kg m[superscript 2]). Results showed that incorporating aspects of spirituality (i.e., words encouraging connectedness to a higher power, meditation, mind–body activities) into a physical activity program was universally accepted among participants, regardless of religious affiliation. In contrast, including concepts of religion (i.e., bible verses and/or quotes from religious leaders) was controversial and not recommended among women who did not identify with a religious faith. Findings indicate that when developing community-based physical activity interventions that will not be delivered through faith-based or faith-placed settings, researchers should avoid references to specific religious beliefs. Instead, interventions should focus on spirituality and emphasize the mind–body relationship between physical activity and an African American women’s inner-being and her connectedness with a higher power.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-10-23

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Preventing diabetes in obese Latino youth with prediabetes: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Description

Background
Obese Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and represents a critical

Background
Obese Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and represents a critical opportunity for intervention. However, to date, no diabetes prevention studies have been conducted in obese Latino youth with prediabetes, a highly vulnerable and underserved group. Therefore, we propose a randomized-controlled trial to test the short-term (6-month) and long-term (12-month) efficacy of a culturally-grounded, lifestyle intervention, as compared to usual care, for improving glucose tolerance and reducing diabetes risk in 120 obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes.
Methods
Participants will be randomized to a lifestyle intervention or usual care group. Participants in the intervention group will attend weekly nutrition and wellness sessions and physical activity sessions twice a week for six months, followed by three months of booster sessions. The overall approach of the intervention is framed within a multilevel Ecodevelopmental model that leverages community, family, peer, and individual factors during the critical transition period of adolescence. The intervention is also guided by Social Cognitive Theory and employs key behavioral modification strategies to enhance self-efficacy and foster social support for making and sustaining healthy behavior changes. We will test intervention effects on quality of life, explore the potential mediating effects of changes in body composition, total, regional, and organ fat on improving glucose tolerance and increasing insulin sensitivity, and estimate the initial incremental cost effectiveness of the intervention as compared with usual care for improving glucose tolerance.
Discussion
The proposed trial builds upon extant collaborations of a transdisciplinary team of investigators working in concert with local community agencies to address critical gaps in how diabetes prevention interventions for obese Latino youth are developed, implemented and evaluated. This innovative approach is an essential step in the development of scalable, cost-effective, solution oriented programs to prevent type 2 diabetes in this and other populations of high-risk youth.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-16

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Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

Description

Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary

Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m[superscript 2]) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-10-02

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Print versus a culturally-relevant Facebook and text message delivered intervention to promote physical activity in African American women: a randomized pilot trial

Description

Background
African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population.

Background
African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population. Social media platforms (i.e. Facebook) and text messaging represent potential mediums to promote physical activity. This paper reports the results of a randomized pilot trial evaluating a theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory) multi-component intervention using Facebook and text-messages to promote physical activity among African American women.
Methods
Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to receive one of two multi-component physical activity interventions over 8 weeks: a culturally-relevant, Social Cognitive Theory-based, intervention delivered by Facebook and text message (FI) (n = 14), or a non-culturally tailored print-based intervention (PI) (n = 15) consisting of promotion brochures mailed to their home. The primary outcome of physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, physical activity-related psychosocial variables, and participant satisfaction.
Results
All randomized participants (N = 29) completed the study. Accelerometer measured physical activity showed that FI participants decreased sedentary time (FI = −74 minutes/week vs. PI = +118 minute/week) and increased light intensity (FI = +95 minutes/week vs. PI = +59 minutes/week) and moderate-lifestyle intensity physical activity (FI = + 27 minutes/week vs. PI = −34 minutes/week) in comparison to PI participants (all P’s < .05). No between group differences for accelerometer measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity were observed (P > .05). Results of secondary outcomes showed that in comparison to the PI, FI participants self-reported greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (FI = +62 minutes/week vs. PI = +6 minutes/week; P = .015) and had greater enhancements in self-regulation for physical activity (P < .001) and social support from family for physical activity (P = .044). Satisfaction with the FI was also high: 100% reported physical activity-related knowledge gains and 100% would recommend the program to a friend.
Conclusions
A culturally-relevant Facebook and text message delivered physical activity program was associated with several positive outcomes, including decreased sedentary behavior, increased light- and moderate-lifestyle intensity physical activity, enhanced psychosocial outcomes, and high participant satisfaction. Future studies with larger samples are warranted to further explore the efficacy of technology-based approaches to promote physical activity among African American women.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-27

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A comparison of a social support physical activity intervention in weight management among post-partum Latinas

Description

Background
Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in postpartum Latinas.
Methods
Madres para la Salud [Mothers

Background
Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in postpartum Latinas.
Methods
Madres para la Salud [Mothers for Health] was a 12-month, randomized controlled trial exploring a social support intervention with moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) seeking to effect changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. This report describes the efficacy of the Madres intervention.
Results
The results show that while social support increased during the active intervention delivery, it declined to pre-intervention levels by the end of the intervention. There were significant achievements in aerobic and total steps across the 12 months of the intervention, and declines in body adiposity assessed with bioelectric impedance.
Conclusions
Social support from family and friends mediated increases in aerobic PA resulting in decrease in percent body fat.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-19

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Risk abatement practices of recipient participants in private arrangement milk sharing in the United States

Description

Exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding and the provision of human milk in the United States is suboptimal. In the absence of adequate banked donor human milk for distribution to all

Exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding and the provision of human milk in the United States is suboptimal. In the absence of adequate banked donor human milk for distribution to all infants in need, many families choose to engage in the practice of Private Arrangement Milk Sharing (PAMS), partially facilitated through social media, to procure human milk for their infants. Evidence regarding the participant and infant characteristics and risk abatement practices is incomplete. This dissertation describes and explores the characteristics of recipient participants and infants, family constellation, donor screening practices, and related risk abatement strategies. Data was collected via on-line survey as a sub-group of a larger data set including donor participants and international participants. Binary logistic regression modeling of factors that contribute to consistent screening and risk abatement practices and important antecedents to engaging in PAMS was conducted. Results are contextualized within a tailored socioecological framework of factors affecting infant feeding practices. Tailoring was accomplished via qualitative descriptive analysis of participant responses applied to an existing breastfeeding framework. Participants in this sample were predominantly white, married, with a mean age of 32.9 years, with at least some college education and above median income. Risk abatement and screening practices were influenced by support of a healthcare provider during decision-making, college education, infant age and health status, having lactation support, birth type and birth attendant, and the duration and sources sought for learning about milk sharing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Associations of depression, sleep, and acculturation on glycemic control in Korean Americans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Description

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets of A1C levels below seven percent. Poor glycemic control disproportionately affects minority populations such as Korean Americans (KAs). Successful diabetes self-management requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account depression, sleep, and acculturation to achieve good glycemic control. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the levels of glycemic control, depressive symptoms, sleep quality and duration, and acculturation; 2) examine an association of depressive symptoms with glycemic control; 3) identify mediational roles of sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; and 4) explore a moderation role of acculturation between depressive symptoms and glycemic control in KAs with T2DM. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. A total of 119 first generation KAs with T2DM were recruited from Korean communities in Arizona. A1C levels, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Berlin Questionnaire were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression analyses, path analyses, and the Sobel tests were conducted for data analyses of this study. Poor glycemic control (A1C ≥ 7 %), high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5), and short sleep duration (< 6 hours) were prevalent among KAs with T2DM. The mean score of acculturation (2.18) indicated low acculturation to Western culture. Depressive symptoms were revealed as a significant independent predictor of glycemic control. Physical activity was negatively associated with glycemic control, while cultural identity was positively related to glycemic control. Sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours did not mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Acculturation did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Diabetes self-management interventions of a comprehensive approach that considers depressive symptoms, sleep problems, and cultural differences in minority populations with T2DM are needed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The efficacy of nopales (Opuntia spp) on lipoprotein profile and oxidative stress among moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

Description

Background: Evidence about the purported hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of nopales (prickly pear cactus pads) is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of nopales for improving cardiometabolic risk factors and

Background: Evidence about the purported hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of nopales (prickly pear cactus pads) is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of nopales for improving cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress, compared to control, in adults with hypercholesterolemia. Design: In a randomized crossover trial, participants were assigned to a 2-wk intervention with 2 cups/day of nopales or cucumbers (control), with a 2 to 3-wk washout period. The study included 16 adults (5 male; 46±14 y; BMI = 31.4±5.7 kg/m2) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c] = 137±21 mg/dL), but otherwise healthy. Main outcomes measured included: dietary intake (energy, macronutrients and micronutrients), cardiometabolic risk markers (total cholesterol, LDL-c, high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], triglycerides, cholesterol distribution in LDL and HDL subfractions, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment, and C-reactive protein), and oxidative stress markers (vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, oxidized LDL, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation). Effects of treatment, time, or interactions were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There was no significant treatment-by-time effect for any dietary composition data, lipid profile, cardiometabolic outcomes, or oxidative stress markers. A significant time effect was observed for energy, which was decreased in both treatments (cucumber, -8.3%; nopales, -10.1%; pTime=0.026) mostly due to lower mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake (pTime=0.023 and pTime=0.003, respectively). Both treatments significantly increased triglyceride concentrations (cucumber, 14.8%; nopales, 15.2%; pTime=0.020). Despite the lack of significant treatment-by-time effects, great individual response variability was observed for all outcomes. After the cucumber and nopales phases, a decrease in LDL-c was observed in 44% and 63% of the participants respectively. On average LDL-c was decreased by 2.0 mg/dL (-1.4%) after the cucumber phase and 3.9 mg/dL (-2.9%) after the nopales phase (pTime=0.176). Pro-atherogenic changes in HDL subfractions were observed in both interventions over time, by decreasing the proportion of HDL-c in large HDL (cucumber, -5.1%; nopales, -5.9%; pTime=0.021) and increasing the proportion in small HDL (cucumber, 4.1%; nopales, 7.9%; pTime=0.002). Conclusions: These data do not support the purported benefits of nopales at doses of 2 cups/day for 2-wk on markers of lipoprotein profile, cardiometabolic risk, and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic adults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Physical activity counseling knowledge, attitudes, and practices among nurse practitioners and physician assistants

Description

Health care providers (HCPs) are an important source of physical activity (PA) information. Two studies were conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively examine nurse practitioners'(NPs) and physician assistants' current PA counseling

Health care providers (HCPs) are an important source of physical activity (PA) information. Two studies were conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively examine nurse practitioners'(NPs) and physician assistants' current PA counseling practices, knowledge and confidence to provide PA counseling and providers' perceptions about their current PA counseling practices. The specific aims for these two studies included quantitatively and qualitatively identifying the prevalence of PA counseling, perceived counseling knowledge and confidence, and educational training related to counseling. In study 1, survey respondents were currently practicing NPs and physician assistants. Participants completed a modified version of the Promotion of Physical Activity by Nurse Practitioners Questionnaire either online or in person during a population specific conference. The majority of both NP and physician assistant respondents reported routinely counseling patients about PA. There were no differences in perceived knowledge or confidence to provide PA counseling between the two populations. Approximately half of all respondents reported receiving training to provide PA counseling as part of their educational preparation for becoming a health practitioner. Nearly three-quarters of respondents reported interest in receiving additional PA counseling training. In study 2, five focus groups (FGs), stratified by practice type, were conducted with NPs and physician assistants. Both NPs and physician assistants reported discussing PA with their patients, particularly those with chronic illness. Participants reported that discussing lifestyle modifications with patients was the most common type of PA counseling provided. Increased confidence to counsel was associated with having PA knowledge and providing simple counseling, such as lifestyle modifications. Barriers to counseling included having more important things to discuss, lack of time during appointments, the current healthcare system, lack of reimbursement and perceived patient financial barriers. PA recommendation knowledge was highly variable, with few participants reporting specific guidelines. FG participants, while not familiar with the American College of Sports Medicines' "Exercise is Medicine" initiative indicated interest in its use and learning more about it. The findings of these two studies indicate that while NPs and physician assistants are knowledgeable, confident and currently providing some amount of PA counseling to patients, additional training in PA counseling is needed and desired.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011