Matching Items (51)

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The Effect of Exercise Therapy on Cognitive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between

This study examines the effect of exercise therapy on a stationary bike on cognitive function, specifically inhibition and set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome. 44 participants were randomly divided between the voluntary cycling therapy group (VCT) (i.e., self-selected cadence), assisted cycling therapy group (ACT) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), and a control group (NC) in which the participants did not undergo any exercise therapy. Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight-weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the eight-week session the participants completed tasks to evaluate their cognitive function. They completed three trials of the card sort test (i.e., set-switching) and three trials of the knock-tap test (i.e, inhibition) before and after eight-weeks of cycling therapy. The scores of these tests were analyzed using one-way ANOVA between groups and paired samples t-tests. The results showed that after eight-weeks of cycling therapy the participants in the VCT group performed worse in the knock-tap test, but improved in two trials of the card sort test. The results also showed that the participants in the ACT group performed worse after eight-weeks of exercise therapy in one trial of the card sort test. No significant changes were seen for the control group. Due to the fact that on average the participants in the VCT group cycled with a higher heart rate, our results suggest exercise that significantly elevates heart rate can improve cognitive function, specifically set-switching, in adolescents with Down syndrome.

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  • 2015-05

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Intervention Principles to Improve Postural Stability in Older Adults

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The purpose of this paper was to review existing literature on exercise interventions to improve postural stability in older adults in order to assist with the development of a novel

The purpose of this paper was to review existing literature on exercise interventions to improve postural stability in older adults in order to assist with the development of a novel intervention with the same function. A brief review of balance changes with aging is followed by a summary of the methods and findings of various interventions. Many types of interventions are discussed, including resistance training, balance training, t'ai chi, and whole body vibration. The studies show promising results, but none utilize the approach of the proposed intervention. This intervention being developed involves the use of a weighted vest to raise one's center of mass, creating a more unstable posture. Performing exercises or daily activities with the vest may improve balance by training muscles in unsteady conditions. The intervention principles to improve postural stability in older adults are beneficial to the foundation of future studies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Circle Drawing as an Objective Indicator of Handedness

Description

Past research has indicated that the dominant arm produces more efficient interactive torque control during multi-joint movements. In addition, a bimanual arm movement study found that the dominant arm produced

Past research has indicated that the dominant arm produces more efficient interactive torque control during multi-joint movements. In addition, a bimanual arm movement study found that the dominant arm produced more circular trajectories during circular drawing movements, particularly during fast speed conditions. The current study serves to determine whether statistical trajectory analysis of circular drawing patterns can be used as an objective indicator of handedness. The experiment involved subjects performing unimanual circle drawing movements in both arms at two different speeds. The subjects were given handedness questionnaires to separate them into Right-Handed, Left-Handed, and Mixed-Handed categories for data analysis. The movements were tracked by optoelectronic cameras, and a paired T-test comparing the trajectories in each arm established statistical differences in performance. Right-Handed subjects had significant differences in the trajectories of each arm in which the right arm movements produced more circular trajectories. This was more pronounced in fast movements. Left-Handed subjects had no significant differences among arms in movements of either speed, likely due to a low sample size, although the trend in the fast conditions was that the left arm movements were more circular. Mixed-Handed subjects tended to produce more circular trajectories in right arm movements, which reached statistical significance in both conditions. These results indicate that this test could potentially be used as an objective measure of handedness, but more research with stronger statistical significance according to the hypotheses would need to be conducted to confirm the trends observed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Asymmetries of Ground Reaction Forces among Dancers and Non-Dancers

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The purpose of this study was to determine if there were asymmetries in ground reaction forces (GRF) between dancers and non-dancers, and to see the effect of GRF on external

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were asymmetries in ground reaction forces (GRF) between dancers and non-dancers, and to see the effect of GRF on external (ER) and internal rotator (IR) strength. Subjects performed double- and single-legged jumps on a force plate with a motion capture marker system attached at anatomical landmarks, and then had strength and range of motion (ROM) of their internal and external rotators tested along at degrees of hip flexion. There were no significant differences in GRF between legs for all subjects involved. However, stronger hip ER was negatively correlated with vertical GRF (z-axis), positively correlated with anteroposterior (y-axis) GRF, and higher mediolateral (x-axis) GRF from double-leg trials was positively correlated with knee abduction. Thus, future studies should further investigate GRF broken into axial components as well as the time to peak GRF to determine any relation of these factors to knee valgus and ACL injury risk.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Is daily activity and exercise related to physical fitness, obesity, and mental health in adolescents with Down syndrome?

Description

The aim of this study is to understand the relationship among physical fitness, leisure-time activity levels, measures of body composition, and assessments of emotion toward physical activity in individuals with

The aim of this study is to understand the relationship among physical fitness, leisure-time activity levels, measures of body composition, and assessments of emotion toward physical activity in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help individuals understand the importance of physical activity in this population. The BMI, waist circumference, height, weight, body fat percentage, and non-exercise estimation of aerobic capacity along with the temporary state of emotion toward physical activity of thirty participants with DS were measured. The results of our study show that individuals with DS who are more physically fit have less body fat and a lower BMI. They also took part in more leisure-time activity and expressed more effort during physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Is the six minute walk test effective and reliable for determining the fitness of young adults with Down syndrome?

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The aim of this study is to evaluate whether or not fitness can be determined using a well-researched six minute walk test (6MWT) in a young adult population with Down

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether or not fitness can be determined using a well-researched six minute walk test (6MWT) in a young adult population with Down syndrome (DS). This holds importance in today's health industry because this particular target group is at high risk for several cardiovascular, cognitive and clinical factors that contribute to their well-being and longevity. As well, the findings of this research could potentially contribute to the low volume of research that currently exists regarding fitness and the DS population and provide pertinent knowledge towards intervention programs. Fourteen participants with DS performed one 6MWT at a self-selected rate during an exercise intervention study to assess physical fitness. The results showed that walk distance increased with decreased BMI and walk distance increased with increased walking speed and increased leisure activity. These findings are clear indicators of physical fitness relating to healthy physical behavior. All results were consistent with past research in specific at-risk health related populations. This data suggests that this physical test is an adequate indicator of fitness levels in populations with DS, which may additionally provide explicit avenues for intervention and treatment to improve health.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Case study: Weight Loss Intervention in a Young Adult with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this case study was to help MH, a young adult male with Down syndrome, lose weight and improve his health. Initially he was morbidly obese, suffering from

The aim of this case study was to help MH, a young adult male with Down syndrome, lose weight and improve his health. Initially he was morbidly obese, suffering from physical, mental, emotional, and health-related side effects. MH and his mother requested help from Dr. Shannon Ringenbach, and resided in Arizona for four months during the process of developing and implementing a program of diet and exercise for him. We created a plan to maximize weight loss in this short period of time. Overall, MH reduced his weight from 276 lbs. to 217 lbs. in four months, his lowest weight being 201 lbs. after he and his mother returned home to Oregon. This is a 75 lb. weight loss and body mass index (BMI) reduction of 13.7 kg/m2. Although to reach a healthy body weight MH would still need to continue his weight loss, this is a significant amount of weight, which is especially difficult for people with Down syndrome to lose. In this case study it was crucial to take into consideration the other aspects that affect weight gain and loss, such as motivation, family life, diet, and lifestyle.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Grip Strength and How it Relates to the Functional Disabilities in Persons with Down Syndrome

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The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is

The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help with future interventions that are focused around improving related disadvantages in this particular population. Ten participants with DS performed the manual dexterity tests (i.e., Purdue Pegboard) and measured their grip strength with a hydraulic dynamometer. Overall, grip strength was lower than the average for the typical population and was reduced after aeorbic exercise. Improvements, however, were found in their manual dexterity from pre-test to post-test. This indicates that the assisted moderate intensity exercise intervention helped their dexterity performance. The improvements in dexterity are consistent with previous research conducted by Ringenbach et al. (2007). These results suggest that a moderate intensity treadmill walking exercise intervention can increase precision and efficiency in dexterity in persons with Down syndrome, however their grip force production may be stimulated by another means.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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How does rate influence brain activity during drumming in persons with Down Syndrome?

Description

Persons with Down Syndrome (DS) have been repeatedly shown to have timing deficits, to move slowly, and to not follow metronomes. This timing deficit in persons with DS requires further

Persons with Down Syndrome (DS) have been repeatedly shown to have timing deficits, to move slowly, and to not follow metronomes. This timing deficit in persons with DS requires further study because timing is fundamental to movement control. Furthermore, brain imaging studies have proposed a rate effect in which increased cortical activation in the primary motor cortex was observed during increased finger movement frequency. The aim of the current study was to determine if the rate effect was present in persons with DS by comparing brain activation in self-selected and as fast as possible rates. Eight participants with DS performed unimanual drumming at their self-selected and maximal rates. Movement rate was measured at EEG was collected in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and Beta (13-30 Hz) frequencies from C3 and C4. The results showed that overall, their self-selected rates were slower than their maximal rates, indicating that they are capable of modifying their movement rate with general instructions. Furthermore, there were significant differences in Beta in which there was more activation during as fast as possible than self-selected tapping in both sides of the primary motor cortex in persons with DS. This suggests that their brains are activated in a similar manner as the typical population with respect to movement rate. Overall, our results suggest that while interventions that involve timing to specific rates are difficult, people with DS can perform at self-selected and maximal rates. The results of our study show that they can alter movement rate when provided with general instruction or additional motivation.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Examination of One Month Retention of Executive Function in Assisted Cycling Therapy on Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence) and assisted (AC) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor) cycling groups, with one participant used as a control (NC). Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (posttest) of the 8-week session, three executive functions including: set-switching, inhibition, and cognitive planning, were tested. Approximately one month after the posttest, all participants underwent the cognitive testing again. The results showed that for the AC group cognitive planning improved after eight weeks of assisted cycling and these improvements were maintained after one month of no cycling. However, no significant differences were found between the cycling groups for our measure of inhibition. Set-switching appeared to be improved by both types of exercise, rather than only assisted, but the improvements were not maintained during the one month retention period for either group. Thus, our results suggest that Assisted Cycling causes potentially permanent changes in the brain in regards to cognitive planning.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05