Matching Items (20)

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Grip Strength and How it Relates to the Functional Disabilities in Persons with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is

The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help with future interventions that are focused around improving related disadvantages in this particular population. Ten participants with DS performed the manual dexterity tests (i.e., Purdue Pegboard) and measured their grip strength with a hydraulic dynamometer. Overall, grip strength was lower than the average for the typical population and was reduced after aeorbic exercise. Improvements, however, were found in their manual dexterity from pre-test to post-test. This indicates that the assisted moderate intensity exercise intervention helped their dexterity performance. The improvements in dexterity are consistent with previous research conducted by Ringenbach et al. (2007). These results suggest that a moderate intensity treadmill walking exercise intervention can increase precision and efficiency in dexterity in persons with Down syndrome, however their grip force production may be stimulated by another means.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement: The Mind-Body Connection

Description

Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a

Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a healthier and more academically successful youth, the relationship between the two warrants investigation. Specifically, the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance (i.e. grades) in 4th grade students was assessed. A cross-sectional design was used to assess physical fitness of children (M=9.39 years) by means of the FITNESSGRAM assessment tool. Third-quarter grades were used to measure academic performance. Relationships between the variables were determined through bivariate plots, Pearson product moment correlation analysis, independent t-tests, and a three-step regression analysis. The results show a significant relationship between students' aerobic fitness and academic performance. Furthermore, the findings of this study suggest incremental validity between aerobic fitness and academic performance, thus implying predictive value associated with increased physical fitness and academic achievement.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Depression in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions. The interventions were: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate 2) Assisted Cycling (AC), in which the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented with a motor to ensure the maintenance of 80 rpms. In each intervention, the participant completed three cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. Depression scores did decrease or improved after both AC and VC, but not significantly. There was a greater mean improvement for participants in the AC group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these mental health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adolescents with DS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Voluntary cycling improves maladaptive behaviors in adolescents with Down syndrome

Description

This research study examined the effects of assisted cycling using a stationary recumbent bicycle that had an internal motor to help participants pedal at a desired cadence. The participants were

This research study examined the effects of assisted cycling using a stationary recumbent bicycle that had an internal motor to help participants pedal at a desired cadence. The participants were either placed in an Assisted Cycling (AC), Voluntary Cycling (VC), or No Cycling (NC) intervention group. Those placed in the AC of VC groups then came to a laboratory setting 3 days a week for 8 weeks to cycle for 30 minutes. This research specifically analyzes the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II to analyze the changes in daily living skills and maladaptive behaviors pre and post the exercise intervention. After analyzing the VABS II scores it was found that those in the VC intervention had statistically significant improvements in maladaptive behaviors. An interpretation of this finding is that the VC intervention had an increased heart rate over the span of the intervention and had a larger power output than those in the AC group. A limitation of this research is that it was a self-reported questionnaire that was given to the caregivers of the participant. The caregivers were not always controlled for, so in some cases two different caregivers were given the questionnaire for a single participant. A suggestion for future research would be to use the participant's mental age versus their chronological age when using the VABS-II and to use the Adaptive Behaviors Assessment System III (ABAS-III).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Anthropology, Dance, and Education: Integrated Curriculum in Social Studies

Description

Students not only deserve to be actively involved and engaged in learning content knowledge, but it can in fact help them learn better. Arguably too few classrooms actually utilize teaching

Students not only deserve to be actively involved and engaged in learning content knowledge, but it can in fact help them learn better. Arguably too few classrooms actually utilize teaching methods that support this kind of environment. There is perhaps fear that methods like integrated curriculum may detract from student knowledge. The purpose of this intervention study was to determine how the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework effects student learning of content knowledge in social studies, as well as student attitude toward the topic. Research questions that were addressed in this study are the following: (a) How does the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affect students' chapter test scores when compared to typical instruction?; (b) How does the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affect students' attitude toward social studies when compared to typical instruction?. Participants were two 6th grade classes at the same elementary school. As a supplement to a unit on Ancient Egypt, the experimental group received four intervention lessons, taught by the investigator, incorporating creative dance to encourage student exploration and increased understanding of content. An anthropological framework was also implemented to foster respectful investigation of culture. Results show that at posttest the intervention group had significantly higher content knowledge, as measured by a chapter test, compared to the control group. This suggests that this program did in fact help students to reach a better understanding of content. Though surveys showed no difference in attitude between groups or over the course of the study, qualitative student responses from the experimental group suggest extremely positive feelings towards concepts covered in the intervention lessons.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), a voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for three 30-minute sessions a week, for a total of eight weeks. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and manual dexterity at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that information processing and manual dexterity improved following 8 weeks of cycling for the ACT group. These results were not seen for individuals in the voluntary and non-exercise groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Analyzing Successful Participation in the First Lady's Let's Move! Initiative: A Collaboration Between Let's Move! Active Schools and the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program

Description

Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization since 1998. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of this epidemic has increased by two-fold in

Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization since 1998. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of this epidemic has increased by two-fold in adults and three-fold in children. Let's Move! Active Schools (LMAS) seeks to fight obesity and promote healthy environments in schools. In collaboration with the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) program at Arizona State University, three elementary schools in the greater Phoenix area were studied to determine factors associated with success or barriers to implementation of LMAS. Interviews were conducted with three physical educators to determine: the initial appeal and reason the school was attracted to LMAS, how leadership buy-in and participation have affected the success of LMAS in each school, how the resources and support provided by LMAS have best ensured the success of LMAS in each school, what LMAS can do to ensured the sustainability and continued success of the initiative, and how each school has implemented the five core principals of the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Results of the interviews demonstrated that programs previously in place in the elementary school resembling LMAS aided in successful implementation as well as leadership buy-in and participation's positive effect on implementation. The resource most used by physical educators at the three elementary and district advocates and more local workshops were two of the resources requested by the physical educators. The five principals of CSPAP were found to be incorporated at each of the elementary schools. The principal at the award winning school was interviewed and expressed the value she saw in LMAS. Suggestions for more successful implementation of LMAS included targeting the administration, pushing the online material, clarifying the availability of local workshops, and promoting movement lab activities.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Parent-child relationships and parental tactic use: the socialization of physical activity within the context of an expectancy-value model

Description

The purpose of this study was to expand on existing parental socialization models of youth achievement motivation for engaging in physical activity. This study examined the extent to which youth

The purpose of this study was to expand on existing parental socialization models of youth achievement motivation for engaging in physical activity. This study examined the extent to which youth affective reactions and expectancy-value beliefs mediated the relation between parental influence tactics and youth physical activity. More specifically, the direct and indirect effects of parents' positive, negative and sedentary-control tactics, the direct effect of parents' desire to change their child's physical activity, and the moderating role of the socio-emotional climate on the relation between parental influence tactics and child outcomes were investigated. Data were collected from 171 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th grade students and their parents. Pedometers were used to collect youth physical activity data and all participants completed questionnaires. Youth expectancy-value beliefs and negative affective reactions to parental influence tactics were both positively related to youth physical activity. Path analyses revealed that youth expectancy-value beliefs and negative affective reactions fully mediated the direct effects of positive and negative parental influence tactics on youth physical activity, respectively. Moreover, parents' desire to change their child's physical activity was negatively related to parent's use of positive influence tactics. Although several moderators were examined, none were statistically significant (lowest p >.05). The results suggest that additional explanatory power is gained by including a broader range of parental influence tactics and youth affective reactions in models of achievement motivation. The findings are in accord with prior recommendations made to parents with sedentary children.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Knowledge in action: effectively teaching healthy behavior knowledge in physical education classes

Description

An intervention study was conducted with elementary physical education teachers and their use of a newly developed series of fitness segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). This study was designed

An intervention study was conducted with elementary physical education teachers and their use of a newly developed series of fitness segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). This study was designed to enable teachers to teach healthy behavior knowledge (HBK) in their classes without sacrificing physical activity levels. This study has two phases. First, the intervention was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the KIA fitness segment intervention. Second, teachers' perceptions of both teaching HBK and the KIA fitness segments were investigated. Ten teacher participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Intervention teachers participated in professional development, provided with all teaching materials, and YouTube videos that modeled the teaching of the KIA fitness segments. Teacher fidelity was measured through observations. Student physical activity patterns were measured in randomly selected teachers' classes (both intervention and control) to determine potential physical activity pattern differences between groups. Teachers were interviewed from one to three times across the project in order to determine perceptions of teaching HBK and the KIA fitness segments. Researchers used constant comparison method to uncover possible common themes. Student knowledge was assessed pre/post using PE Metrics Standard 3 cognitive test to determine HBK changes. Data analysis included General liner models (GLM) at the student level (gender) and Hierarchical linear models (HLM) at the school level (treatment, school). There was a moderate mean teacher fidelity score (77.9%) found among the intervention teachers. HLM results showed students in the intervention group had a 3.4(20%) greater improvement in HBK scores when compared with their control counterparts (p<0.001). Student activity levels were found to be similar in both groups with 871.33 and 822.22 steps in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Although all of the teachers thought it was important to teach HBK they were not spending time on it during classes at pretest. Three common themes were discovered: (a) Effective Teacher Training of the Segments, (b), Teachers Learned a Novel Strategy, and (c) Teachers Recommended Modifications. In summary, the KIA fitness segments received favorable views and gave teachers a way to teach HBK without reducing physical activity time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Companionship preferences in incentive travel

Description

Incentive travel continues to grow as a form of motivation in the work place. However, there is little research that has examined future potential incentive travelers' wants and needs from

Incentive travel continues to grow as a form of motivation in the work place. However, there is little research that has examined future potential incentive travelers' wants and needs from an incentive travel trip. The purpose of this study was to understand how and in what way various potential incentive travelers' beliefs, including attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and motivation, influence their future inclusion of a significant other on an incentive travel trip using a modified theory of planned behavior. Moreover, the potential moderating effect of past inclusion of a significant other experience was examined as well. The study collected 129 usable responses from potential incentive travelers from companies based in Iowa and Arizona. The research for this project was conducted through online questionnaires that included quantitative and qualitative questions. The study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Pearson's correlation and multiple regression to test study hypotheses. The results of the multiple regression indicated three constructs, attitudes, subjective norm and motivation appeared to be statistically significant, while perceived behavioral control was not statistically significant in predicting potential incentive travelers' intended inclusion of a significant other. Perceived behavioral control was not significant because the control of including a significant other is dependent on the participant's employer. Pearson's correlation found a moderating effect of past inclusion of a significant other on subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. In conclusion, the results validated the theory of planned behavior in the context of incentive travelers' inclusion of a significant other.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012