Matching Items (20)

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Latrine use, boiled water, and bed nets: associations between biomarkers of immune status and public health in a subsistence population

Description

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with

This study examines associations between clean water, sanitation, mosquito net usage, and immune biomarkers among the Tsimane, a remote subsistence population of forager-horticulturalists with a high pathogen load. Interviews with heads of household (n=710, aged 18-92, median age 40 years) were conducted to ascertain household water sources, ownership and usage of mosquito nets, and latrine use. In this sample, 21% of households used latrines, 20% always boiled their water, and 85% used mosquito nets. Regression models estimate their associations biomarkers of pathogen exposure, including white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), eosinophils, and sedimentation rate (ESR). Controlling for age, sex, and distance from the closest market town, latrine use (Std. β = -0.11, p= 0.017) and boiling water (Std. β = -0.08, p= 0.059) are associated with lower WBCs. Latrine use is marginally associated with higher hemoglobin (Std. β = 0.09, p= 0.048), but not boiling water (p= 0.447). ESR trends toward lower levels for households that always boil water (Std. β= -0.09, p= 0.131), but is not associated with latrine use (p=0.803). Latrine use was significantly associated with lower eosinophil counts (Std. β= -0.14, p=0.013), but not boiling water (p=0.240). Mosquito nets are not associated with any of these biomarkers. Both boiling water and latrine use are associated with better health outcomes in this sample. These results suggest that scarce public health resources in rural subsistence populations without malarial risk may wish to prioritize boiling water and latrine use to improve health outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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How do perceptions of nutrition influence student nutritional health behavior and nutritional health seeking behavior?

Description

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease in fruits and vegetables and an increase in unhealthy items such as desserts, alcohol, and late night snacking after dinner. A survey of college students was constructed to gauge students' perceptions of nutrition how these perceptions influenced dietary practices and behaviors. Survey results indicated that awareness of nutrition and health does not translate to dietary practices, aligning with results from previous studies. Several sex differences were noted in regards to dietary choices and perceptions, knowledge seeking behavior, and sources of information. While there were some similarities, it is clear from the results obtained that men and women have different approaches and thoughts with regard to nutrition. The results showed that college students who actively seek our nutritional information are more likely to do so in the form of social media or Internet sources. This study could be useful for those planning on conducting college-based nutritional programs in that the results indicate patterns and trends that should be taken into consideration in order for a successful nutrition intervention

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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What Students Say Can Pave the Way: Creating Open Dialogue for Study Abroad Experiences

Description

The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem

The number of undergraduate students participating in short-term experiences in global health (STEGHs) abroad has increased dramatically in recent years (Eyler 2002, Drain et al. 2007). These experiences, in tandem with classroom learning, are designed to help students master skills related to global health competencies, including cultural humility and sensitivity, collaborating with community partners, and sociocultural and political awareness. Although STEGHs offer potential benefits to both students and to sending institutions, these experiences can sometimes be problematic and raise ethical challenges. As the number of students engaged in STEGHs continues to increase, it is important to better understand the impact of these programs on student learning. Current ethical and best practice guidelines for STEGHs state that programs should establish evaluation methods to solicit feedback from students both during and on completion of the program (Crump et al. 2010). However, there is currently no established method for gathering this feedback because of the many different global health competency frameworks, types and duration of programs, and different models of student engagement in such programs. Assessing the quality of a STEGH is a profoundly important and difficult question that cannot be answered as succinctly and quantitatively as classroom performance, which has more standard and established assessment metrics. The goal of this project is to identify the most appropriate and useful assessment metric(s) for determining educational quality and impact for STEGHs at ASU by comparing a typical quantitative evaluation tool (pre-post survey with brief open-ended questions) to a more in-depth qualitative method (key informant interviews). In performing my analysis I seek to examine if the latter can produce a richer narrative of student experiences to inform ongoing program evaluations. My research questions are: 1. What are the current qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods available to assess student learning during short-term experiences in global health? 2. How can current methodology for assessing student experiences with short-term experiences in global health be adapted to collect the most information from students? 3. How do student knowledge and attitudes change before and after their short-term experience in global health? Why is understanding those changes important for adapting programs? My end goal would be to use these new, optimal assessment methods for gathering student perspectives and experiences to adapt pre-departure trainings and post-experience debriefings for study abroad programs, both of which I believe will lead to more sustainable partnerships and a healthier understanding of global health work for students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Student Knowledge Regarding Infectious Disease and Its Impact on Prevention Behavior

Description

Advancements in both the medical field and public health have substantially minimized the detrimental impact of infectious diseases. Health education and disease prevention remains a vital tool to maintain and

Advancements in both the medical field and public health have substantially minimized the detrimental impact of infectious diseases. Health education and disease prevention remains a vital tool to maintain and propagate this success. In order to determine the relationship between knowledge of disease and reported preventative behavior 180 participants amongst the ASU student population were surveyed about their knowledge and prevention behavior for 10 infectious diseases. Of the 180 participants only 138 were completed surveys and used for analysis. No correlation was found between knowledge or perceived risk and preventative measures within the total sample of 138 respondents, however there was a correlation found within Lyme disease and Giardia exposure to information and prevention. Additionally, a cultural consensus analysis was used to compare the data of 17 US-born and 17 foreign-born participants to analyze patterns of variation and agreement on disease education based on national origins. Cultural consensus analysis showed a strong model of agreement among all participants as well as within the US-born and foreign-born student groups. There was a model of agreement within the questions pertaining to transmission and symptoms. There was not however a model of agreement within treatment questions. The findings suggest that accurate knowledge on infectious diseases may be less impactful on preventative behavior than social expectations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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An Assessment of Vaccine Hesitancy in the context of the Flu in Maricopa County, Arizona

Description

Objective: To provide insight into the World Health Organization SAGE Working Group Vaccine Hesitancy Survey by applying the tool to populations across Maricopa County, Arizona. Design: An online survey was

Objective: To provide insight into the World Health Organization SAGE Working Group Vaccine Hesitancy Survey by applying the tool to populations across Maricopa County, Arizona. Design: An online survey was conducted using the Qualtrics Survey Software, of individuals residing in Maricopa County, Arizona during the month of October 2019. Results: Of 209 respondents, the followed demonstrated to be the top 3 reasons for either having not received the flu shot yet or having not planned to receive the flu shot: “I’m healthy, I don’t need it”(20.1%); “Worried I might get the flu from it”(17.7%); “I don’t think it works”(17.7%) Statistical analysis demonstrated that vaccine hesitant and non-hesitant respondents are likely to respond differently to topics covering: safety of vaccines; self-perceived health status; importance of the flu shot among one’s peers; flu vaccine related knowledge Conclusions: The WHO VHS applied to the population of Maricopa County, Arizona reported little hesitancy towards the seasonal flu vaccine. Statistical analysis of Vaccine Hesitant respondents vs. Non-Hesitant respondents demonstrates that specified public health education focused on the immunological implications of vaccines may be needed for the hesitant population to gain confidence in vaccine efficacy. A more diverse respondent group that consists of residents beyond the county lines of Maricopa is needed to understand the full scope of vaccine hesitancy that exists in Arizona.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

Panic and Potential Pandemia

Description

The United States has been facing a resurgence of vaccine preventable infectious diseases. Non-medical vaccination exemptions (NMEs) which include religious exemptions and philosophical vaccine exemptions are contributing factors in state

The United States has been facing a resurgence of vaccine preventable infectious diseases. Non-medical vaccination exemptions (NMEs) which include religious exemptions and philosophical vaccine exemptions are contributing factors in state vaccination rates dropping. The policies surrounding such exemptions vary from state to state. Some states with higher rates of nonmedical vaccine exemptions are dealing with repercussions for this including vaccination rates falling below desired herd immunity and thus putting vulnerable populations such as those who are immunocompromised, too young for vaccination and the elderly at a higher risk.

This thesis aims to examine vaccine preventable re-emerging infectious diseases in the United States with the objective of reaching vaccine hesitant populations and providing them with the tools to make informed decisions to seek out immunizations. This will be done by exploring five different diseases and infections, discussing why some individuals feel hesitant to get immunizations, examining how nonmedical vaccine exemptions are correlated to increased cases of disease outbreaks, looking into state laws specifically focused on countering nonmedical vaccine exemptions and the steps that can be taken moving forward.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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An Assessment of Arizona College Students’ Knowledge, Preventive Strategies, Preparedness, and Risk Perception during Covid-19

Description

The SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) virus has had severe impacts on college students' ways of life. To examine how students were coping and perceiving the Covid-19 pandemic, a secondary analysis of an

The SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) virus has had severe impacts on college students' ways of life. To examine how students were coping and perceiving the Covid-19 pandemic, a secondary analysis of an online survey across the three Arizona public universities investigated students’ knowledge about Covid-19, engagement with preventive strategies, pandemic preparedness and gauged their risk-perception. Results from our analysis indicate that the students were knowledgeable about Covid-19 and were changing their habits and engaging with preventive measures. Results further suggest that students were prepared for the pandemic in terms of resources and were exhibiting high-risk perceptions. The data also revealed that students who were being cautious and engaging with preventive behaviors had a higher risk-perception than individuals who were not. As for individuals who were prepared for the pandemic in terms of supplies, their risk perception was similar to those who did not have supplies. Individuals who were prepared and capable of providing a single caretaker to tend to their sick household members and isolate them in a separate room had a higher risk perception than those who could not. These results can help describe how college students will react to a future significant event, what resources students may be in need of, and how universities can take additional steps to keep their students safe and healthy. The results from this study and recommendations will provide for a stronger and more understanding campus community during times of distress and can improve upon already established university protocols for health crises and even natural disasters.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Evaluating Structural Barriers to Quality Care in the SHOW Free Clinic

Description

Homelessness is a pervasive in American society. The causes of homelessness are complex, but health and homelessness are inextricably linked. Student-run free clinics care for underserved populations, including people experiencing

Homelessness is a pervasive in American society. The causes of homelessness are complex, but health and homelessness are inextricably linked. Student-run free clinics care for underserved populations, including people experiencing homelessness, but they have multiple agendas—to provide care but also to give students hands-on experience. It is plausible that these two agendas may compete and give patients sub-par quality of care.
This study examines patient care in the SHOW free clinic in Phoenix, Arizona, which serves adults experiencing homelessness. This study asks two questions: First, do clinicians in Phoenix’s SHOW free clinic discuss with patients how to pay for and where to access follow-up services and medications? Second, how do the backgrounds of patients, measured by scales based on the Gelberg-Anderson behavioral model for vulnerable populations, correlate with patient outcomes, including number of unmet needs in clinic, patient satisfaction with care, and patient perceived health status? To answer these questions, structured surveys were administered to SHOW clinic patients at the end of their visits. Results were analyzed using Pearson’s correlations and odds ratios. 21 patients completed the survey over four weeks in February-March 2017. We did not identify any statistically significant correlations between predisposing factors such as severity/duration of homelessness, mental health history, ethnicity, or LGBTQ status and quality of care outcomes. Twenty nine percent of surveyed patients reported having one or more unmet needs following their SHOW clinic visit suggesting an important area for future research. The results from this study indicate that measuring unmet needs is a feasible alternative to patient satisfaction surveys for assessing quality of care in student-run free clinics for homeless populations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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An Assessment of Arizona College Students’ Knowledge, Preventative Strategies, Preparedness, and Risk Perception during Covid-19

Description

The SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) virus has had severe impacts on college students' ways of life. To examine how students were coping and perceiving the Covid-19 pandemic, a secondary analysis of an

The SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) virus has had severe impacts on college students' ways of life. To examine how students were coping and perceiving the Covid-19 pandemic, a secondary analysis of an online survey across the three Arizona public universities investigated students’ knowledge about Covid-19, engagement with preventive strategies, pandemic preparedness and gauged their risk perception. Results from our analysis indicate that the students were knowledgeable about Covid-19 and were changing their habits and engaging with preventive measures. Results further suggest that students were prepared for the pandemic in terms of resources and were exhibiting high-risk perceptions. The data also revealed that students who were being cautious and engaging with preventive behaviors had a higher risk-perception than individuals who were not. As for individuals who were prepared for the pandemic in terms of supplies, their risk perception was similar to those who did not have supplies. Individuals who were prepared and capable of providing a single caretaker to tend to their sick household members and isolate them in a separate room had a higher risk perception than those who could not. These results can help describe how college students will react to a future significant event, what resources students may be in need of, and how universities can take additional steps to keep their students safe and healthy. The results from this study and recommendations will provide for a stronger and more understanding campus community during times of distress and can improve upon already established university protocols for health crises and even natural disasters.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Comparing International and Haitian Messages Following the 2010 Cholera Epidemic

Description

This project will demonstrate that international aid organizations' relief efforts after the cholera epidemic in Haiti are misguided, and the publications the organizations release are somewhat deceptive to the public.

This project will demonstrate that international aid organizations' relief efforts after the cholera epidemic in Haiti are misguided, and the publications the organizations release are somewhat deceptive to the public. The Haitian ministry of health underreported cholera incidence, international organizations use the January earthquake as a scapegoat, and Haitian contempt for UN involvement is disregarded. By looking at various narratives from Haitians present during the epidemic, one can contrast the perceptions of the epidemic from the local perspective and the outsider perspective. A content analysis will identify the popular themes of the juxtaposing view points and illustrate how priorities are misaligned. Dedoose 4.5.91 is the computer software tool used to analyze qualitative data.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05