Matching Items (72)

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Understanding the Influence of Fly Ash and Activator Chemistry on Geopolymer Kinetics and Property Development

Description

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C and Class F Fly Ash (CFA and FFA, respectively) derived from industrial coal combustion were selected as the replacement materials for this study. Sodium sulfate and calcium oxide were used as activators. In Part 1 of this study, focus was placed on high volume replacement of OPC using sodium sulfate as the activator. Despite improvements in heat generation for both CFA and FFA systems in the presence of sulfate, sodium sulfate was found to have adverse effects on the compressive strength of CFA mortars. In the CFA mixes, strength improved significantly with sulfate addition, but began to decrease in strength around 14 days due to expansive ettringite formation. Conversely, the addition of sulfate led to improved strength for FFA mixes such that the 28 day strength was comparable to that of the CFA mixes with no observable strength loss. Maximum compressive strengths achieved for the high volume replacement mixes was around 40 MPa, which is considerably lower than the baseline OPC mix used for comparison. In Part 2 of the study, temperature dependency and calcium oxide addition were studied for sodium sulfate activated systems composed of 100% Class F fly ash. In the presence of sulfate, added calcium increased reactivity and compressive strength at early ages, particularly at elevated temperatures. It is believed that sulfate and calcium react with alumina from fly ash to form ettringite, while heat overcomes the activation energy barrier of fly ash. The greatest strengths were obtained for mixes containing the maximum allowed quantity of calcium oxide (5%) and sodium sulfate (3%), and were around 12 MPa. This is a very low compressive strength relative to OPC and would therefore be an inadequate substitute for OPC needs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Improving Undergraduate Structural Engineering Education and Assessing the Use of Technology in Structural Analysis and Design Courses

Description

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics,

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics, structural analysis, and structural design. The core structural analysis and design course at Arizona State University (CEE 321) is a transition course to connect realistic structural design and analysis concepts to an engineering foundation created by the first and second year mathematics and mechanics courses. CEE 321 is styled after a flipped classroom model and students are assessed through quizzes, midterms, design projects, and a final exam. Student performance was evaluated for the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters through an error analysis technique designed to categorize student mistakes based on type of error and related topic. This analysis revealed that student's basic engineering mechanics skills improved throughout the course as well as identified the areas that students struggle in. The slope-deflection and direct stiffness methods of analysis and calculating cross-sectional properties are the primary areas of concern. Using appropriate technology in the engineering classroom has the potential to enhance the learning environment and address the areas of inadequacy identified by the performance analysis. A survey of CEE 321 students demonstrated that technology is a highly integrated and useful portion of student's lives. Therefore, the engineering classroom should reflect this. Through the use of analysis and design software, students are able to begin to develop design intuition and understanding while completing realistic engineering projects in their third year of undergraduate studies. Additionally, incorporating internet resources into and outside of the classroom allows students to be connected to course content from any web-enabled device of their choice. Lecture videos posted online covering the course content were requested by many CEE 321 students and are an emerging resource that supplements the flipped classroom model. The availability of such a tool allows students to revisit concepts that they do not understand or pause, rewind, and replay the lectures when necessary. An expansion of the structural analysis and design online lecture videos for CEE 321 are expected to address and improve the areas that students struggle in as identified by the error analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

Development and Use of Instructional Multimedia to Enhance Student Comprehension of Fundamental Structural Analysis and Design Techniques

Description

In the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters, a survey was taken of students enrolled in the principal undergraduate civil engineering structures course, CEE 321: Structural Analysis and Design, to

In the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters, a survey was taken of students enrolled in the principal undergraduate civil engineering structures course, CEE 321: Structural Analysis and Design, to assess both the prevalence of technology in the lives of the students and the potential ways this information could be use to improve the educational experience. The results of this survey indicated that there was a considerable demand for additional online resources outside of the formal classroom. The students of CEE 321 requested online lecture videos in particular, and so a project was launched at the start of the Spring 2014 semester to deliver a large body of academic instructional videos. In total, a collection of 30 instructional videos which covered all key topics covered over a semester of CEE 321 was published. The driving interest behind this creative project is to increase the level of understanding, comfort, and performance in students enrolled in the class. Although the quantity of initial student feedback is relatively small, the reactions are distinctly positive and reflect an improvement in understanding amongst the responding students. Over the course of upcoming semesters, qualitative and quantitative assessments of the impact of the videos are expected to provide a better indication of their quality and effectiveness in supporting student comprehension and performance in CEE 321. Above all, the success of these videos is directly tied to their ability to function as living, adaptable resources which are continuously molded and improved by student feedback.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Synthesis and Structural Properties of FAU-Type Zeolite Prepared from Fly Ash

Description

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash,

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Three faujasite varieties, labeled X, P and S, were prepared for each mix design. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to obtain porosity information on the samples. Mechanical strength testing was performed on solid blocks of the zeolite samples prepared in a mold. It was found that the S variety in mix design (iv) had the most desirable balance of porosity and strength for engineering applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

Novel Cement Replacement Materials For Sustainable Infrastructure

Description

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly.

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly. For decades, Portland cement-based products have been known as the most commonly used construction materials in the world, and as a result, cement production is a significant source of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and environmental impacts at all stages of the process. In recent years, the increasing cost of energy and resource supplies, and concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts have ignited more interests in utilizing waste and by-product materials as the primary ingredient to replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete systems. The environmental benefits of cement replacement are enormous, including the diversion of non-recycled waste from landfills for useful applications, the reduction in non-renewable energy consumption for cement production, and the corresponding emission of greenhouse gases. In the vast available body of literature, concretes consisting activated fly ash or slag as the binder have been shown to have high compressive strengths, and resistance to fire and chemical attack. This research focuses to utilize fly ash, by-product of coal fired power plant along with different alkaline solutions to form a final product with comparable properties to or superior than those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. Fly ash mortars using different concentration of sodium hydroxide and waterglass were dry and moist cured at different temperatures prior subjecting to uniaxial compressive loading condition. Since moist curing continuously supplies water for the hydration process of activated fly ash mortars while preventing thermal shrinkage and cracking, the samples were more durable and demonstrated a noticeably higher compressive strength. The influence of the concentration of the activating agent (4, or 8 M sodium hydroxide solution), and activator-to-binder ratio of 0.40 on the compressive strengths of concretes containing Class F fly ash as the sole binder is analyzed. Furthermore, liquid sodium silicate (waterglass) with silica modulus of 1.0 and 2.0 along with activator-to-binder ratio of 0.04 and 0.07 was also studied to understand its performance in contributing to the strength development of the activated fly ash concrete. Statistical analysis of the compressive strength results show that the available alkali concentration has a larger influence on the compressive strengths of activated concretes made using fly ash than the influence of curing parameters (elevated temperatures, condition, and duration).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Development of an Automated Pultrusion System for Manufacturing of Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Description

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to continuously improve the performance of the material. Fiber reinforcement is a significant technique in strengthening precast concrete, but manufacturing limitations are common which has led to reliance on steel reinforcement. Two-dimensional textile reinforcement has emerged as a strong and efficient alternative to both fiber and steel reinforced concrete with pultrusion manufacturing shown as one of the most effective methods of precasting concrete. The intention of this thesis project is to detail the components, functions, and outcomes shown in the development of an automated pultrusion system for manufacturing textile reinforced concrete (TRC). Using a preexisting, manual pultrusion system and current-day manufacturing techniques as a basis, the automated pultrusion system was designed as a series of five stations that centered on textile impregnation, system driving, and final pressing. The system was then constructed in the Arizona State University Structures Lab over the course of the spring and summer of 2015. After fabricating each station, a computer VI was coded in LabVIEW software to automatically drive the system. Upon completing construction of the system, plate and angled structural sections were then manufactured to verify the adequacy of the technique. Pultruded TRC plates were tested in tension and flexure while full-scale structural sections were tested in tension and compression. Ultimately, the automated pultrusion system was successful in establishing an efficient and consistent manufacturing process for continuous TRC sections.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Probabilistic Modeling and Regression Analysis of Experimental Data for Structural Systems

Description

The Experimental Data Processing (EDP) software is a C++ GUI-based application to streamline the process of creating a model for structural systems based on experimental data. EDP is designed to

The Experimental Data Processing (EDP) software is a C++ GUI-based application to streamline the process of creating a model for structural systems based on experimental data. EDP is designed to process raw data, filter the data for noise and outliers, create a fitted model to describe that data, complete a probabilistic analysis to describe the variation between replicates of the experimental process, and analyze reliability of a structural system based on that model. In order to help design the EDP software to perform the full analysis, the probabilistic and regression modeling aspects of this analysis have been explored. The focus has been on creating and analyzing probabilistic models for the data, adding multivariate and nonparametric fits to raw data, and developing computational techniques that allow for these methods to be properly implemented within EDP. For creating a probabilistic model of replicate data, the normal, lognormal, gamma, Weibull, and generalized exponential distributions have been explored. Goodness-of-fit tests, including the chi-squared, Anderson-Darling, and Kolmogorov-Smirnoff tests, have been used in order to analyze the effectiveness of any of these probabilistic models in describing the variation of parameters between replicates of an experimental test. An example using Young's modulus data for a Kevlar-49 Swath stress-strain test was used in order to demonstrate how this analysis is performed within EDP. In order to implement the distributions, numerical solutions for the gamma, beta, and hypergeometric functions were implemented, along with an arbitrary precision library to store numbers that exceed the maximum size of double-precision floating point digits. To create a multivariate fit, the multilinear solution was created as the simplest solution to the multivariate regression problem. This solution was then extended to solve nonlinear problems that can be linearized into multiple separable terms. These problems were solved analytically with the closed-form solution for the multilinear regression, and then by using a QR decomposition to solve numerically while avoiding numerical instabilities associated with matrix inversion. For nonparametric regression, or smoothing, the loess method was developed as a robust technique for filtering noise while maintaining the general structure of the data points. The loess solution was created by addressing concerns associated with simpler smoothing methods, including the running mean, running line, and kernel smoothing techniques, and combining the ability of each of these methods to resolve those issues. The loess smoothing method involves weighting each point in a partition of the data set, and then adding either a line or a polynomial fit within that partition. Both linear and quadratic methods were applied to a carbon fiber compression test, showing that the quadratic model was more accurate but the linear model had a shape that was more effective for analyzing the experimental data. Finally, the EDP program itself was explored to consider its current functionalities for processing data, as described by shear tests on carbon fiber data, and the future functionalities to be developed. The probabilistic and raw data processing capabilities were demonstrated within EDP, and the multivariate and loess analysis was demonstrated using R. As the functionality and relevant considerations for these methods have been developed, the immediate goal is to finish implementing and integrating these additional features into a version of EDP that performs a full streamlined structural analysis on experimental data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Improving the Implementation of Engineering Design Practices in Secondary Science Classrooms

Description

Various reports produced by the National Research Council suggest that K-12 curricula expand Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics to better help students develop their ability to reason and employ scientific

Various reports produced by the National Research Council suggest that K-12 curricula expand Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics to better help students develop their ability to reason and employ scientific habits rather than simply building scientific knowledge. Every spring, the Arizona Department of Education (ADE) in conjunction with Arizona State University holds a professional development workshop titled "Engineering Practices in the Secondary Science Classroom: Engineering Training for Grade 6-12 Math and Science School Teams". This workshop provides math and science teachers with the opportunity to either sustain existing engineering proficiency or be exposed to engineering design practices for the first time. To build teachers' proficiency with employing engineering design practices, they follow a two-day curriculum designed for application in both science and math classrooms as a conjoined effort. As of spring 2015, very little feedback has been received concerning the effectiveness of the ASU-ADE workshops. New feedback methods have been developed for future deployment as past and more informal immediate feedback from teachers and students was used to create preliminary changes in the workshop curriculum. In addition, basic laboratory testing has been performed to further link together engineering problem solving with experiments and computer modelling. In improving feedback and expanding available material, the curriculum was analyzed and improved to more effectively train teachers in engineering practices and implement these practices in their classrooms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Verification and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Orthotropic Plasticity Constitutive Model Using a Unidirectional Composite

Description

A three-dimensional constitutive model has been developed for modeling orthotropic composites subject to impact loads. It has three distinct components—a deformation model involving elastic and plastic deformations; a damage model;

A three-dimensional constitutive model has been developed for modeling orthotropic composites subject to impact loads. It has three distinct components—a deformation model involving elastic and plastic deformations; a damage model; and a failure model. The model is driven by tabular data that is generated either using laboratory tests or via virtual testing. A unidirectional composite—T800/F3900, commonly used in the aerospace industry, is used in the verification and validation tests. While the failure model is under development, these tests indicate that the implementation of the deformation and damage models in a commercial finite element program, LS-DYNA, is efficient, robust and accurate.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-04

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Effects of Aggregate Packing Density on the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Description

Cement is a remarkable construction material that allows for the formation of complex geometric forms while still providing adequate strength properties to be used as a structural material. This research

Cement is a remarkable construction material that allows for the formation of complex geometric forms while still providing adequate strength properties to be used as a structural material. This research focuses on Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) which is a specialized class of cementitious material that exhibits exceptional strength and durability properties when compared to standard concrete. UHPC achieves these properties through a combination of high cement content, high particle packing density, low water-to-cement ratio, and the additional of special admixtures such as superplasticizer. These components all serve the purpose of increasing UHPC strength and mechanical properties by helping achieve much high material densities than other forms of concrete.
In this study, aggregate material evaluation and testing was conducted for use in the mix design of the UHPC mixes that were carried out and tested. Each mix employed the same general UHPC mixture design with the only difference being the aggregate proportions of #4, #8, and #10 nominal size aggregates. The purpose of using a UHPC mix design that was independent of aggregate proportioning was to evaluate the effects of varying aggregate particle packing densities. Increased particle packing density of UHPC provide improved mechanical performance by decreasing the distance between particle within cured UHPC, thereby producing significant increases in compressive strength, tensile strength, durability, and service life of UHPC when compared to standard concrete. For this study, particle packing densities of 0.509, 0.521, 0.540, and 0.552 were employed and evaluated on the basis of compressive strength and tensile strength to determine the optimum UHPC mix design.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05