Matching Items (80)

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Understanding the Influence of Fly Ash and Activator Chemistry on Geopolymer Kinetics and Property Development

Description

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C and Class F Fly Ash (CFA and FFA, respectively) derived from industrial coal combustion were selected as the replacement materials for this study. Sodium sulfate and calcium oxide were used as activators. In Part 1 of this study, focus was placed on high volume replacement of OPC using sodium sulfate as the activator. Despite improvements in heat generation for both CFA and FFA systems in the presence of sulfate, sodium sulfate was found to have adverse effects on the compressive strength of CFA mortars. In the CFA mixes, strength improved significantly with sulfate addition, but began to decrease in strength around 14 days due to expansive ettringite formation. Conversely, the addition of sulfate led to improved strength for FFA mixes such that the 28 day strength was comparable to that of the CFA mixes with no observable strength loss. Maximum compressive strengths achieved for the high volume replacement mixes was around 40 MPa, which is considerably lower than the baseline OPC mix used for comparison. In Part 2 of the study, temperature dependency and calcium oxide addition were studied for sodium sulfate activated systems composed of 100% Class F fly ash. In the presence of sulfate, added calcium increased reactivity and compressive strength at early ages, particularly at elevated temperatures. It is believed that sulfate and calcium react with alumina from fly ash to form ettringite, while heat overcomes the activation energy barrier of fly ash. The greatest strengths were obtained for mixes containing the maximum allowed quantity of calcium oxide (5%) and sodium sulfate (3%), and were around 12 MPa. This is a very low compressive strength relative to OPC and would therefore be an inadequate substitute for OPC needs.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Synthesis and Structural Properties of FAU-Type Zeolite Prepared from Fly Ash

Description

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash,

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Three faujasite varieties, labeled X, P and S, were prepared for each mix design. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to obtain porosity information on the samples. Mechanical strength testing was performed on solid blocks of the zeolite samples prepared in a mold. It was found that the S variety in mix design (iv) had the most desirable balance of porosity and strength for engineering applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

Novel Cement Replacement Materials For Sustainable Infrastructure

Description

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly.

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly. For decades, Portland cement-based products have been known as the most commonly used construction materials in the world, and as a result, cement production is a significant source of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and environmental impacts at all stages of the process. In recent years, the increasing cost of energy and resource supplies, and concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts have ignited more interests in utilizing waste and by-product materials as the primary ingredient to replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete systems. The environmental benefits of cement replacement are enormous, including the diversion of non-recycled waste from landfills for useful applications, the reduction in non-renewable energy consumption for cement production, and the corresponding emission of greenhouse gases. In the vast available body of literature, concretes consisting activated fly ash or slag as the binder have been shown to have high compressive strengths, and resistance to fire and chemical attack. This research focuses to utilize fly ash, by-product of coal fired power plant along with different alkaline solutions to form a final product with comparable properties to or superior than those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. Fly ash mortars using different concentration of sodium hydroxide and waterglass were dry and moist cured at different temperatures prior subjecting to uniaxial compressive loading condition. Since moist curing continuously supplies water for the hydration process of activated fly ash mortars while preventing thermal shrinkage and cracking, the samples were more durable and demonstrated a noticeably higher compressive strength. The influence of the concentration of the activating agent (4, or 8 M sodium hydroxide solution), and activator-to-binder ratio of 0.40 on the compressive strengths of concretes containing Class F fly ash as the sole binder is analyzed. Furthermore, liquid sodium silicate (waterglass) with silica modulus of 1.0 and 2.0 along with activator-to-binder ratio of 0.04 and 0.07 was also studied to understand its performance in contributing to the strength development of the activated fly ash concrete. Statistical analysis of the compressive strength results show that the available alkali concentration has a larger influence on the compressive strengths of activated concretes made using fly ash than the influence of curing parameters (elevated temperatures, condition, and duration).

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Development of an Automated Pultrusion System for Manufacturing of Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Description

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to continuously improve the performance of the material. Fiber reinforcement is a significant technique in strengthening precast concrete, but manufacturing limitations are common which has led to reliance on steel reinforcement. Two-dimensional textile reinforcement has emerged as a strong and efficient alternative to both fiber and steel reinforced concrete with pultrusion manufacturing shown as one of the most effective methods of precasting concrete. The intention of this thesis project is to detail the components, functions, and outcomes shown in the development of an automated pultrusion system for manufacturing textile reinforced concrete (TRC). Using a preexisting, manual pultrusion system and current-day manufacturing techniques as a basis, the automated pultrusion system was designed as a series of five stations that centered on textile impregnation, system driving, and final pressing. The system was then constructed in the Arizona State University Structures Lab over the course of the spring and summer of 2015. After fabricating each station, a computer VI was coded in LabVIEW software to automatically drive the system. Upon completing construction of the system, plate and angled structural sections were then manufactured to verify the adequacy of the technique. Pultruded TRC plates were tested in tension and flexure while full-scale structural sections were tested in tension and compression. Ultimately, the automated pultrusion system was successful in establishing an efficient and consistent manufacturing process for continuous TRC sections.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Sustainable Soil Improvement via Abiotic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

Description

Calcium hydroxide carbonation processes were studied to investigate the potential for abiotic soil improvement. Different mixtures of common soil constituents such as sand, clay, and granite were mixed with a

Calcium hydroxide carbonation processes were studied to investigate the potential for abiotic soil improvement. Different mixtures of common soil constituents such as sand, clay, and granite were mixed with a calcium hydroxide slurry and carbonated at approximately 860 psi. While the carbonation was successful and calcite formation was strong on sample exteriors, a 4 mm passivating boundary layer effect was observed, impeding the carbonation process at the center. XRD analysis was used to characterize the extent of carbonation, indicating extremely poor carbonation and therefore CO2 penetration inside the visible boundary. The depth of the passivating layer was found to be independent of both time and choice of aggregate. Less than adequate strength was developed in carbonated trials due to formation of small, weakly-connected crystals, shown with SEM analysis. Additional research, especially in situ analysis with thermogravimetric analysis would be useful to determine the causation of poor carbonation performance. This technology has great potential to substitute for certain Portland cement applications if these issues can be addressed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Improving the Implementation of Engineering Design Practices in Secondary Science Classrooms

Description

Various reports produced by the National Research Council suggest that K-12 curricula expand Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics to better help students develop their ability to reason and employ scientific

Various reports produced by the National Research Council suggest that K-12 curricula expand Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics to better help students develop their ability to reason and employ scientific habits rather than simply building scientific knowledge. Every spring, the Arizona Department of Education (ADE) in conjunction with Arizona State University holds a professional development workshop titled "Engineering Practices in the Secondary Science Classroom: Engineering Training for Grade 6-12 Math and Science School Teams". This workshop provides math and science teachers with the opportunity to either sustain existing engineering proficiency or be exposed to engineering design practices for the first time. To build teachers' proficiency with employing engineering design practices, they follow a two-day curriculum designed for application in both science and math classrooms as a conjoined effort. As of spring 2015, very little feedback has been received concerning the effectiveness of the ASU-ADE workshops. New feedback methods have been developed for future deployment as past and more informal immediate feedback from teachers and students was used to create preliminary changes in the workshop curriculum. In addition, basic laboratory testing has been performed to further link together engineering problem solving with experiments and computer modelling. In improving feedback and expanding available material, the curriculum was analyzed and improved to more effectively train teachers in engineering practices and implement these practices in their classrooms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Effects of Aggregate Packing Density on the Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

Description

Cement is a remarkable construction material that allows for the formation of complex geometric forms while still providing adequate strength properties to be used as a structural material. This research

Cement is a remarkable construction material that allows for the formation of complex geometric forms while still providing adequate strength properties to be used as a structural material. This research focuses on Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) which is a specialized class of cementitious material that exhibits exceptional strength and durability properties when compared to standard concrete. UHPC achieves these properties through a combination of high cement content, high particle packing density, low water-to-cement ratio, and the additional of special admixtures such as superplasticizer. These components all serve the purpose of increasing UHPC strength and mechanical properties by helping achieve much high material densities than other forms of concrete.
In this study, aggregate material evaluation and testing was conducted for use in the mix design of the UHPC mixes that were carried out and tested. Each mix employed the same general UHPC mixture design with the only difference being the aggregate proportions of #4, #8, and #10 nominal size aggregates. The purpose of using a UHPC mix design that was independent of aggregate proportioning was to evaluate the effects of varying aggregate particle packing densities. Increased particle packing density of UHPC provide improved mechanical performance by decreasing the distance between particle within cured UHPC, thereby producing significant increases in compressive strength, tensile strength, durability, and service life of UHPC when compared to standard concrete. For this study, particle packing densities of 0.509, 0.521, 0.540, and 0.552 were employed and evaluated on the basis of compressive strength and tensile strength to determine the optimum UHPC mix design.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Comparing Loading Provisions Between ASCE 7-10 and ASCE 7-16

Description

The loading provisions were compared between the ASCE 7-10 standard and ASCE 7-16 standard. Two different structural models were considered: an office building with a flat roof located in Tempe

The loading provisions were compared between the ASCE 7-10 standard and ASCE 7-16 standard. Two different structural models were considered: an office building with a flat roof located in Tempe and a community center with a gable roof located in Flagstaff. The following load types were considered: dead, live, wind, and snow loads. The only major changes between the standards were found in the wind load calculations. The winds loads were reduced by approximately 22% for the office building in Tempe and 37% for the community center in Flagstaff. A structural design was completed for the frame of the Flagstaff community building. There was a 19% reduction in cost from the design using ASCE 7-10 provisions compared to the design utilizing ASCE 7-16 provisions, leading to a saving of $7,599.17. The reduction in loading, and subsequently more cost-effective design, is attributed to the reduction in basic wind speed for the region and consideration of the ground elevation factor. The introduction of the new ASCE 7-16 standard was met with criticism, especially over the increase in specific coefficients in the wind load and seismic load chapters. Proponents of ASCE 7-16 boast that the new chapter on tsunami loads, new maps for various environmental loads, and a new electronic hazard are some of the merits of the newest standard. Others still question whether the complexity of the provisions is necessary and call for further improvements for the wind and seismic provisions. While tension exists in the desire for a simple standard, ASCE 7-16 prioritizes in having its provisions provide economical and reliable results. More consideration could be devoted to developing a more convenient standard for users. Regardless, engineering professionals should be able to adapt alongside newly developed practices and newly discovered data.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Backcalculation of Residual Tensile Strength of Regular and High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete From Flexural Tests

Description

The tensile stress–strain response of a fiber reinforced concrete dominates the performance under many loading conditions and applications. To represent this property as an average equivalent response, a back-calculation process

The tensile stress–strain response of a fiber reinforced concrete dominates the performance under many loading conditions and applications. To represent this property as an average equivalent response, a back-calculation process from flexural testing is employed. The procedure is performed by model fitting of the three-point and four-point bending load deflection data on two types of macro synthetic polymeric fibers, one type of steel fiber and one type of Alkali Resistant (AR) glass fiber. A strain softening tensile model is used to simulate the behavior of different FRC types and obtain the experimental flexural response. The stress–strain model for each age, fiber type and dosage rate is simulated by means of the inverse analysis procedure, using closed-form moment–curvature relationship and load–deflection response of the piecewise-linear material. The method of approach is further applied to one external data set for High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) with two different types of steel fibers and validated by tensile test results reported. Results of back-calculation of stress–strain responses by tri-linear tensile model for all mixtures are compared and correlated with the corresponding standard method parameters used for post crack behavior characterization and a regression analysis for comparative evaluation of test data is presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-15

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DCB and ENF Testing to Determine Interlaminar Fracture Properties of Honeywell Spectra Shield® 5231 Composite

Description

Laminated composites are increasingly being used in various industries including <br/>automotive and aerospace. Under a variety of extreme loading conditions such as low and <br/>high-velocity impacts and crash, laminated composites

Laminated composites are increasingly being used in various industries including <br/>automotive and aerospace. Under a variety of extreme loading conditions such as low and <br/>high-velocity impacts and crash, laminated composites delaminate. To understand how and<br/>when delamination occurs, two types of laboratory tests are conducted - End-notched <br/>Flexure (ENF) test and Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) test. The ENF test is designed to <br/>find the mode II interlaminar fracture toughness, and the DCB test, the mode I interlaminar <br/>fracture toughness. In this thesis, thermopressed Honeywell Spectra Shield® 5231 <br/>composite specimens made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), <br/>manufactured under two different pressures (3000 psi and 6000 psi), are tested in the <br/>laboratory to find its delamination properties. The test specimen preparation, experimental <br/>procedures, and data reduction to determine the mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture <br/>properties are discussed. The ENF test results show a 15.8% increase in strain energy <br/>release rate for the 6000 psi specimens when compared to the 3000 psi specimens. <br/>Conducting the DCB tests proved to be challenging due to the low compressive strength <br/>of the material and hence required modifications to the test specimens. An estimate of the <br/>mode I interlaminar fracture toughness was found for only two of the 6000 psi specimens.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05