Matching Items (10)

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Dynamic Hopf bifurcation in spatially extended excitable systems from neuroscience

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One explanation for membrane accommodation in response to a slowly rising current, and the phenomenon underlying the dynamics of elliptic bursting in nerves, is the mathematical problem of dynamic Hopf

One explanation for membrane accommodation in response to a slowly rising current, and the phenomenon underlying the dynamics of elliptic bursting in nerves, is the mathematical problem of dynamic Hopf bifurcation. This problem has been studied extensively for linear (deterministic and stochastic) current ramps, nonlinear ramps, and elliptic bursting. These studies primarily investigated dynamic Hopf bifurcation in space-clamped excitable cells. In this study we introduce a new phenomenon associated with dynamic Hopf bifurcation. We show that for excitable spiny cables injected at one end with a slow current ramp, the generation of oscillations may occur an order one distance away from the current injection site. The phenomenon is significant since in the model the geometric and electrical parameters, as well as the ion channels, are uniformly distributed. In addition to demonstrating the phenomenon computationally, we analyze the problem using a singular perturbation method that provides a way to predict when and where the onset will occur in response to the input stimulus. We do not see this phenomenon for excitable cables in which the ion channels are embedded in the cable membrane itself, suggesting that it is essential for the channels to be isolated in the spines.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Computational Methods for Kinetic Reaction Systems

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This work is concerned with the study and numerical solution of large reaction diffusion systems with applications to the simulation of degradation effects in solar cells. A discussion of the

This work is concerned with the study and numerical solution of large reaction diffusion systems with applications to the simulation of degradation effects in solar cells. A discussion of the basics of solar cells including the function of solar cells, the degradation of energy efficiency that happens over time, defects that affect solar cell efficiency and specific defects that can be modeled with a reaction diffusion system are included. Also included is a simple model equation of a solar cell. The basics of stoichiometry theory, how it applies to kinetic reaction systems, and some conservation properties are introduced. A model that considers the migration of defects in addition to the reaction processes is considered. A discussion of asymptotics and how it relates to the numerical simulation of the lifetime of solar cells is included. A reduced solution is considered and a presentation of a numerical comparison of the reduced solution with the full solution on a simple test problem is included. Operator splitting techniques are introduced and discussed. Asymptotically preserving schemes combine asymptotics and operator splitting to use reasonable time steps. A presentation of a realistic example of this study applied to solar cells follows.

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  • 2020

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A mathematical journey of cancer growth

Description

Cancer is a major health problem in the world today and is expected to become an even larger one in the future. Although cancer therapy has improved for many cancers

Cancer is a major health problem in the world today and is expected to become an even larger one in the future. Although cancer therapy has improved for many cancers in the last several decades, there is much room for further improvement. Mathematical modeling has the advantage of being able to test many theoretical therapies without having to perform clinical trials and experiments. Mathematical oncology will continue to be an important tool in the future regarding cancer therapies and management.

This dissertation is structured as a growing tumor. Chapters 2 and 3 consider spheroid models. These models are adept at describing 'early-time' tumors, before the tumor needs to co-opt blood vessels to continue sustained growth. I consider two partial differential equation (PDE) models for spheroid growth of glioblastoma. I compare these models to in vitro experimental data for glioblastoma tumor cell lines and other proposed models. Further, I investigate the conditions under which traveling wave solutions exist and confirm numerically.

As a tumor grows, it can no longer be approximated by a spheroid, and it becomes necessary to use in vivo data and more sophisticated modeling to model the growth and diffusion. In Chapter 4, I explore experimental data and computational models for describing growth and diffusion of glioblastoma in murine brains. I discuss not only how the data was obtained, but how the 3D brain geometry is created from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. A 3D finite-difference code is used to model tumor growth using a basic reaction-diffusion equation. I formulate and test hypotheses as to why there are large differences between the final tumor sizes between the mice.

Once a tumor has reached a detectable size, it is diagnosed, and treatment begins. Chapter 5 considers modeling the treatment of prostate cancer. I consider a joint model with hormonal therapy as well as immunotherapy. I consider a timing study to determine whether changing the vaccine timing has any effect on the outcome of the patient. In addition, I perform basic analysis on the six-dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE). I also consider the limiting case, and perform a full global analysis.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Applications of the Droop cell quota model to data based cancer growth and treatment models

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The phycologist, M. R. Droop, studied vitamin B12 limitation in the flagellate Monochrysis lutheri and concluded that its specific growth rate depended on the concentration of the vitamin within the

The phycologist, M. R. Droop, studied vitamin B12 limitation in the flagellate Monochrysis lutheri and concluded that its specific growth rate depended on the concentration of the vitamin within the cell; i.e. the cell quota of the vitamin B12. The Droop model provides a mathematical expression to link growth rate to the intracellular concentration of a limiting nutrient. Although the Droop model has been an important modeling tool in ecology, it has only recently been applied to study cancer biology. Cancer cells live in an ecological setting, interacting and competing with normal and other cancerous cells for nutrients and space, and evolving and adapting to their environment. Here, the Droop equation is used to model three cancers.

First, prostate cancer is modeled, where androgen is considered the limiting nutrient since most tumors depend on androgen for proliferation and survival. The model's accuracy for predicting the biomarker for patients on intermittent androgen deprivation therapy is tested by comparing the simulation results to clinical data as well as to an existing simpler model. The results suggest that a simpler model may be more beneficial for a predictive use, although further research is needed in this field prior to implementing mathematical models as a predictive method in a clinical setting.

Next, two chronic myeloid leukemia models are compared that consider Imatinib treatment, a drug that inhibits the constitutively active tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL. Both models describe the competition of leukemic and normal cells, however the first model also describes intracellular dynamics by considering BCR-ABL as the limiting nutrient. Using clinical data, the differences in estimated parameters between the models and the capacity for each model to predict drug resistance are analyzed.

Last, a simple model is presented that considers ovarian tumor growth and tumor induced angiogenesis, subject to on and off anti-angiogenesis treatment. In this environment, the cell quota represents the intracellular concentration of necessary nutrients provided through blood supply. Mathematical analysis of the model is presented and model simulation results are compared to pre-clinical data. This simple model is able to fit both on- and off-treatment data using the same biologically relevant parameters.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Spatial spread of rabies in wildlife

Description

Rabies disease remains enzootic among raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats in the United States. It is of primary concern for public-health agencies to control spatial spread of rabies in wildlife

Rabies disease remains enzootic among raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats in the United States. It is of primary concern for public-health agencies to control spatial spread of rabies in wildlife and its potential spillover infection of domestic animals and humans. Rabies is invariably fatal in wildlife if untreated, with a non-negligible incubation period. Understanding how this latency affects spatial spread of rabies in wildlife is the concern of chapter 2 and 3. Chapter 1 deals with the background of mathematical models for rabies and lists main objectives. In chapter 2, a reaction-diffusion susceptible-exposed-infected (SEI) model and a delayed diffusive susceptible-infected (SI) model are constructed to describe the same epidemic process -- rabies spread in foxes. For the delayed diffusive model a non-local infection term with delay is resulted from modeling the dispersal during incubation stage. Comparison is made regarding minimum traveling wave speeds of the two models, which are verified using numerical experiments. In chapter 3, starting with two Kermack and McKendrick's models where infectivity, death rate and diffusion rate of infected individuals can depend on the age of infection, the asymptotic speed of spread $c^\ast$ for the cumulated force of infection can be analyzed. For the special case of fixed incubation period, the asymptotic speed of spread is governed by the same integral equation for both models. Although explicit solutions for $c^\ast$ are difficult to obtain, assuming that diffusion coefficient of incubating animals is small, $c^\ast$ can be estimated in terms of model parameter values. Chapter 4 considers the implementation of realistic landscape in simulation of rabies spread in skunks and bats in northeast Texas. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is adopted because the irregular shapes of realistic landscape naturally lead to unstructured grids in the spatial domain. This implementation leads to a more accurate description of skunk rabies cases distributions.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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A sparsity enforcing framework with TVL1 regularization and its application in MR imaging and source localization

Description

The theme for this work is the development of fast numerical algorithms for sparse optimization as well as their applications in medical imaging and source localization using sensor array processing.

The theme for this work is the development of fast numerical algorithms for sparse optimization as well as their applications in medical imaging and source localization using sensor array processing. Due to the recently proposed theory of Compressive Sensing (CS), the $\ell_1$ minimization problem attracts more attention for its ability to exploit sparsity. Traditional interior point methods encounter difficulties in computation for solving the CS applications. In the first part of this work, a fast algorithm based on the augmented Lagrangian method for solving the large-scale TV-$\ell_1$ regularized inverse problem is proposed. Specifically, by taking advantage of the separable structure, the original problem can be approximated via the sum of a series of simple functions with closed form solutions. A preconditioner for solving the block Toeplitz with Toeplitz block (BTTB) linear system is proposed to accelerate the computation. An in-depth discussion on the rate of convergence and the optimal parameter selection criteria is given. Numerical experiments are used to test the performance and the robustness of the proposed algorithm to a wide range of parameter values. Applications of the algorithm in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and a comparison with other existing methods are included. The second part of this work is the application of the TV-$\ell_1$ model in source localization using sensor arrays. The array output is reformulated into a sparse waveform via an over-complete basis and study the $\ell_p$-norm properties in detecting the sparsity. An algorithm is proposed for minimizing a non-convex problem. According to the results of numerical experiments, the proposed algorithm with the aid of the $\ell_p$-norm can resolve closely distributed sources with higher accuracy than other existing methods.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Numerical issues arising in the simulations of transient water flow in layered unsaturated soils

Description

The geotechnical community typically relies on recommendations made from numerical simulations. Commercial software exhibits (local) numerical instabilities in layered soils across soil interfaces. This research work investigates unsaturated moisture flow

The geotechnical community typically relies on recommendations made from numerical simulations. Commercial software exhibits (local) numerical instabilities in layered soils across soil interfaces. This research work investigates unsaturated moisture flow in layered soils and identifies a possible source of numerical instabilities across soil interfaces and potential improvement in numerical schemes for solving the Richards' equation. The numerical issue at soil interfaces is addressed by a (nonlinear) interface problem. A full analysis of the simplest soil hydraulic model, the Gardner model, identifies the conditions of ill-posedness of the interface problem. Numerical experiments on various (more advanced and practical) soil hydraulic models show that the interface problem can also be ill-posed under certain circumstances. Spurious numerical ponding and/or oscillations around soil interfaces are observed consequently. This work also investigates the impact of different averaging schemes for cell-centered conductivities on the propensity of ill-posedness of the interface problem and concludes that smaller averaging conductivities are more likely to trigger numerical instabilities. In addition, an agent-based stochastic soil model, with hydraulic properties defined at the finite difference cell level, results in a large number of interface problems. This research compares sequences of stochastic realizations in heterogeneous unsaturated soils with the numerical solution using homogenized soil parameters. The mean of stochastic realizations is not identical to the solution obtained from homogenized soil parameters.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Optimum Experimental Design Issues in Functional Neuroimaging Studies

Description

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the popular tools to study human brain functions. High-quality experimental designs are crucial to the success of fMRI experiments as they allow

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the popular tools to study human brain functions. High-quality experimental designs are crucial to the success of fMRI experiments as they allow the collection of informative data for making precise and valid inference with minimum cost. The primary goal of this study is on identifying the best sequence of mental stimuli (i.e. fMRI design) with respect to some statistically meaningful optimality criteria. This work focuses on two related topics in this research field. The first topic is on finding optimal designs for fMRI when the design matrix is uncertain. This challenging design issue occurs in many modern fMRI experiments, in which the design matrix of the statistical model depends on both the selected design and the experimental subject's uncertain behavior during the experiment. As a result, the design matrix cannot be fully determined at the design stage that makes it difficult to select a good design. For the commonly used linear model with autoregressive errors, this study proposes a very efficient approach for obtaining high-quality fMRI designs for such experiments. The proposed approach is built upon an analytical result, and an efficient computer algorithm. It is shown through case studies that our proposed approach can outperform the existing method in terms of computing time, and the quality of the obtained designs. The second topic of the research is to find optimal designs for fMRI when a wavelet-based technique is considered in the fMRI data analysis. An efficient computer algorithm to search for optimal fMRI designs for such cases is developed. This algorithm is inspired by simulated annealing and a recently proposed algorithm by Saleh et al. (2017). As demonstrated in the case studies, the proposed approach makes it possible to efficiently obtain high-quality designs for fMRI studies, and is practically useful.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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A rabies model with distributed latent period and territorial and diffusing rabid foxes

Description

Rabies is an infectious viral disease. It is usually fatal if a victim reaches the rabid stage, which starts after the appearance of disease symptoms. The disease virus attacks the

Rabies is an infectious viral disease. It is usually fatal if a victim reaches the rabid stage, which starts after the appearance of disease symptoms. The disease virus attacks the central nervous system, and then it migrates from peripheral nerves to the spinal cord and brain. At the time when the rabies virus reaches the brain, the incubation period is over and the symptoms of clinical disease appear on the victim. From the brain, the virus travels via nerves to the salivary glands and saliva.

A mathematical model is developed for the spread of rabies in a spatially distributed fox population to model the spread of the rabies epizootic through middle Europe that occurred in the second half of the 20th century. The model considers both territorial and wandering rabid foxes and includes a latent period for the infection. Since the model assumes these two kinds of rabid foxes, it is a system of both partial differential and integral equations (with integration

over space and, occasionally, also over time). To study the spreading speeds of the rabies epidemic, the model is reduced to a scalar Volterra-Hammerstein integral equation, and space-time Laplace transform of the integral equation is used to derive implicit formulas for the spreading speed. The spreading speeds are discussed and implicit formulas are given for latent periods of fixed length, exponentially distributed length, Gamma distributed length, and log-normally distributed length. A number of analytic and numerical results are shown pertaining to the spreading speeds.

Further, a numerical algorithm is described for the simulation

of the spread of rabies in a spatially distributed fox population on a bounded domain with Dirichlet boundary conditions. I propose the following methods for the numerical approximation of solutions. The partial differential and integral equations are discretized in the space variable by central differences of second order and by

the composite trapezoidal rule. Next, the ordinary or delay differential equations that are obtained this way are discretized in time by explicit

continuous Runge-Kutta methods of fourth order for ordinary and delay differential systems. My particular interest

is in how the partition of rabid foxes into

territorial and diffusing rabid foxes influences

the spreading speed, a question that can be answered by purely analytic means only for small basic reproduction numbers. I will restrict the numerical analysis

to latent periods of fixed length and to exponentially

distributed latent periods.

The results of the numerical calculations

are compared for latent periods

of fixed and exponentially distributed length

and for various proportions of territorial

and wandering rabid foxes.

The speeds of spread observed in the

simulations are compared

to spreading speeds obtained by numerically solving the analytic formulas

and to observed speeds of epizootic frontlines

in the European rabies outbreak 1940 to 1980.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Efficient Inversion of Large-Scale Problems Exploiting Structure and Randomization

Description

Dimensionality reduction methods are examined for large-scale discrete problems, specifically for the solution of three-dimensional geophysics problems: the inversion of gravity and magnetic data. The matrices for the associated forward

Dimensionality reduction methods are examined for large-scale discrete problems, specifically for the solution of three-dimensional geophysics problems: the inversion of gravity and magnetic data. The matrices for the associated forward problems have beneficial structure for each depth layer of the volume domain, under mild assumptions, which facilitates the use of the two dimensional fast Fourier transform for evaluating forward and transpose matrix operations, providing considerable savings in both computational costs and storage requirements. Application of this approach for the magnetic problem is new in the geophysics literature. Further, the approach is extended for padded volume domains.

Stabilized inversion is obtained efficiently by applying novel randomization techniques within each update of the iteratively reweighted scheme. For a general rectangular linear system, a randomization technique combined with preconditioning is introduced and investigated. This is shown to provide well-conditioned inversion, stabilized through truncation. Applying this approach, while implementing matrix operations using the two dimensional fast Fourier transform, yields computationally effective inversion, in memory and cost. Validation is provided via synthetic data sets, and the approach is contrasted with the well-known LSRN algorithm when applied to these data sets. The results demonstrate a significant reduction in computational cost with the new algorithm. Further, this new algorithm produces results for inversion of real magnetic data consistent with those provided in literature.

Typically, the iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm depends on a standard Tikhonov formulation. Here, this is solved using both a randomized singular value de- composition and the iterative LSQR Krylov algorithm. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm is competitive with these approaches and offers the advantage that no regularization parameter needs to be found at each outer iteration.

Given its efficiency, investigating the new algorithm for the joint inversion of these data sets may be fruitful. Initial research on joint inversion using the two dimensional fast Fourier transform has recently been submitted and provides the basis for future work. Several alternative directions for dimensionality reduction are also discussed, including iteratively applying an approximate pseudo-inverse and obtaining an approximate Kronecker product decomposition via randomization for a general matrix. These are also topics for future consideration.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020