Matching Items (10)

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Coarticulation: Testing the Universality of Glide Epenthesis, Stop Epenthesis, and Intervocalic Voicing of Stops

Description

The objective of this study was to examine the universality of three coarticulatory processes: glide epenthesis, stop epenthesis, and intervocalic voicing of stops. Five contrastive languages were selected to test

The objective of this study was to examine the universality of three coarticulatory processes: glide epenthesis, stop epenthesis, and intervocalic voicing of stops. Five contrastive languages were selected to test these processes. These languages included English, Spanish, Mandarin, Arabic, and Navajo. All languages varied in phonemic inventory, stress patterns, phonological processes, and syllabic constructs. 16 participants were selected with relatively limited English exposure based on questionnaire responses regarding their language history. The participants went through a series of trainings and tasks to elicit these coarticulatory processes in several phonemic contexts. Part 1 of the study attempted to elicit the processes solely through imitation, while Part 2 attempted to do so through a spontaneous elicitation task. Although the results indicated that a universal use of these processes was not supported, the data suggested that glide epenthesis played a frequent role within English, Spanish, and Arabic. This was expected since glides are often used in the presence of diphthongs in these languages. Additionally, intervocalic voicing of stops was observed in English and Spanish, suggesting a language specific tendency. However, it was only noted when the voiceless stop occurred in the coda of the syllable and not in the onset of the syllable. Lastly, the use of stop epenthesis was not observed in any of the languages tested.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Interaction of Word Complexity and Consonant Correctness in Spanish-Speaking Children

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This thesis investigated the impact of word complexity as measured through the Proportion of Whole Word Proximity (PWP; Ingram 2002) on consonant correctness as measured by the Percentage of Correct

This thesis investigated the impact of word complexity as measured through the Proportion of Whole Word Proximity (PWP; Ingram 2002) on consonant correctness as measured by the Percentage of Correct Consonants (PCC; Shriberg & Kwiatkowski 1980) on the spoken words of monolingual Spanish-speaking children. The effect of word complexity on consonant correctness has previously been studied on English-speaking children (Knodel 2012); the present study extends this line of research to determine if it can be appropriately applied to Spanish. Language samples from a previous study were used (Hase, 2010) in which Spanish-speaking children were given two articulation assessments: Evaluación fonológica del habla infantil (FON; Bosch Galceran, 2004), and the Spanish Test of Articulation for Children Under Three Years of Age (STAR; Bunta, 2002). It was hypothesized that word complexity would affect a Spanish-speaking child’s productions of correct consonants as was seen for the English- speaking children studied. This hypothesis was supported for 10 out of the 14 children. The pattern of word complexity found for Spanish was as follows: CVCV > CVCVC, Tri-syllables no clusters > Disyllable words with clusters.

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  • 2013-12

A COMPARISON OF TWO MEASURES OF PHONOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN

Description

This thesis compared two measures of phonological assessment of children, Shriberg and Kwiatkowski's 1980 Percentage of Correct Consonants (PCC) and Ingram's 2002 Proportion of Whole Word Proximity (PWP). Two typically

This thesis compared two measures of phonological assessment of children, Shriberg and Kwiatkowski's 1980 Percentage of Correct Consonants (PCC) and Ingram's 2002 Proportion of Whole Word Proximity (PWP). Two typically developing two-year-old children were initially studied, and then nine children with speech sound disorders. The children's words were divided into four categories ranging from least complex to most complex. It was hypothesized that the measures would correlate with word simplicity. The hypothesis was supported for the two typically developing children, and for five of the children with speech sound disorders. The other four children with speech disorders, however, did not show the correlation. It was concluded that PCC and PWP did not measure the same thing, that PCC alone was sufficient to assess the typically developing children, and that the two measures together better captured the ability of the children with speech sound disorders than either singularly. Further, the differences between the two groups of children with speech sound disorders were interpreted as showing a difference between phonological delay and phonological disorder.

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  • 2013-05

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Examining the Role of Word Complexity in Consonant Correctness as Measured by Common Articulation Tests

Description

Children's speech and language development is measured by performance on standardized articulation tests. Test items on these assessments, however, vary in length and complexity. Word complexity was compared across five

Children's speech and language development is measured by performance on standardized articulation tests. Test items on these assessments, however, vary in length and complexity. Word complexity was compared across five articulation tests: the Assessment of Phonological Patterns-Revised (APP-R), the Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology (BBTOP), the Clinical Assessment of Articulation and Phonology (CAAP), the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA), and the Assessment of Children's Articulation and Phonology (ACAP). Four groups of word complexity were used, using the dimensions of monosyllabic vs. multisyllabic words, and words with consonant clusters vs. words without consonant clusters. The measure of phonological mean length of utterance (Ingram, 2001), was used to assess overall word complexity. It was found that the tests varied in number of test items and word complexity, with the BBTOP and the CAAP showing the most similarity to word complexity in spontaneous speech of young children. On the other hand, the APP-R used the most complex words and showed the least similarity. Additionally, case studies were analyzed for three of the tests to examine the effect of word complexity on consonant correctness, usedin the measures of Percentage of Correct Consonants (PCC) and the Proportion of Whole Word Proximity (PWP). Word complexity was found to affect consonant correctness, therefore affecting test performance.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Spanish grammatical gender knowledge in young heritage speakers

Description

Purpose: The present study examined grammatical gender use in child Spanish heritage speakers (HSs) in order to determine whether the differences observed in their grammar, when compared to Spanish monolinguals,

Purpose: The present study examined grammatical gender use in child Spanish heritage speakers (HSs) in order to determine whether the differences observed in their grammar, when compared to Spanish monolinguals, stem from an incompletely acquired grammar, in which development stops, or from a restructuring process, in which features from the dominant and the weaker language converge to form a new grammatical system. In addition, this study evaluated whether the differences usually found in comprehension are also present in production. Finally, this study evaluates if HSs differences are the result of the input available to them.

Method: One-hundred and four typically developing children, 48 HSs and 58 monolingual, were selected based on two age groups (Preschool vs. 3rd Grade). Two comprehension and three production experimental tasks were designed for the three different grammatical structures where Spanish expresses gender (determiners, adjectives, and clitic pronouns). Linear mixed-models were used to examine main effects between groups and grammatical structures.

Results: Results from this study showed that HSs scored significantly lower than monolingual speakers in all tasks and structures; however, 3rd-Grade HSs had higher accuracy than PK-HSs. Error patterns were similar between monolinguals and HSs. Moreover, the commonly reported overgeneralization of the masculine form seems to decrease as HSs get older.

Conclusion: These results suggest that HSs’ do not face a case of Incomplete Acquisition or Restructured Grammatical gender system, but instead follow a protracted language development in which grammatical skills continue to develop after preschool years and follow the same developmental patterns as monolingual children

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Errors and buffers: essays in the economics of syntactic rearrangement

Description

This dissertation draws upon modern Chomskyan theory to address issues surrounding the development of a unified, minimalist account of language as a mental and biological object, both in terms of

This dissertation draws upon modern Chomskyan theory to address issues surrounding the development of a unified, minimalist account of language as a mental and biological object, both in terms of its generation and historic change. Towards that end, I investigate, apply, and advance the labeling approach to generative syntax. Labeling is a hypothetical process, operating within the confines of phase theory, which is thought to prepare constructed syntactic objects for interpretation at relevant mental interfaces. I argue a number of points applicable to both synchronic and diachronic linguistics: 1) Labeling failures happen as a matter of course during a derivation, forcing re-evaluation of labeled syntactic structures which ultimately leads to a successful derivation. 2) Labeling and its errors do not happen in real-time, but are bounded by phases. This has consequences for how researchers ought to look at notions and limitations of phasal memory. 3) Labeling not only drives an individual’s mature syntax, but has an effect on how children acquire their syntax, causing them in some cases to alter structures and create new categories. This is responsible for many cases of language change, and I support this argument by investigating data from the history of Chinese and Macedonian that are sensitive to labeling-based phenomena. 4) Research into labeling can help us speculate about the evolution of language generally. Although recursion is sometimes thought to be a defining feature of Universal Grammar, labeling in fact is a much more likely candidate in this regard.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Phonological awareness and executive function in children with speech sound impairment

Description

A substantial amount of research demonstrates that preschoolers' phonological awareness skills are a robust predictor of children's later decoding ability. Several investigators examined performance of children with speech sound impairment

A substantial amount of research demonstrates that preschoolers' phonological awareness skills are a robust predictor of children's later decoding ability. Several investigators examined performance of children with speech sound impairment (SSI), defined as inaccurate production of speech sounds in the absence of any etiology or communication impairment, on phonological awareness tasks. Investigators found that children with SSI scored below their typically developing peers (TD) on phonological awareness tasks. In contrast, others found no differences between groups. It seems likely that differences in findings regarding phonological awareness skills among children with SSI is the fact that there is considerable heterogeneity among children with SSI (i.e., speech errors can either be a phonological or articulation). Phonology is one component of a child's language system and a phonological impairment (SSI-PI) is evident when patterns of deviations of speech sounds are exhibited in a language system. Children with an articulation impairment (SSI-AI) produce speech sound errors that are affected by the movements of the articulators, not sound patterns. The purpose of the study was to examine whether or not children with SSI-PI are at greater risk for acquiring phonological awareness skills than children with SSI-AI. Furthermore, the phonological awareness skills of children with SSI-PI and SSI-AI were compared to those of their typical peers. In addition, the role of executive function as well as the influence of phonological working memory on phonological awareness task performance was examined.

Findings indicate that the SSI-PI group performed more poorly on an assessment of phonological awareness skills than the SSI-AI and TD groups. The SSI-PI group performed significantly more poorly on tasks of executive function and phonological working memory than the TD group. The results of this study support the hypothesis that children with SSI-PI may be more vulnerable to difficulties in reading than children with SSI-AI and children with TD.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Free classification of dysarthric speech

Description

Often termed the "gold standard" in the differential diagnosis of dysarthria, the etiology-based Mayo Clinic classification approach has been used nearly exclusively by clinicians since the early 1970s. However, the

Often termed the "gold standard" in the differential diagnosis of dysarthria, the etiology-based Mayo Clinic classification approach has been used nearly exclusively by clinicians since the early 1970s. However, the current descriptive method results in a distinct overlap of perceptual features across various etiologies, thus limiting the clinical utility of such a system for differential diagnosis. Acoustic analysis may provide a more objective measure for improvement in overall reliability (Guerra & Lovely, 2003) of classification. The following paper investigates the potential use of a taxonomical approach to dysarthria. The purpose of this study was to identify a set of acoustic correlates of perceptual dimensions used to group similarly sounding speakers with dysarthria, irrespective of disease etiology. The present study utilized a free classification auditory perceptual task in order to identify a set of salient speech characteristics displayed by speakers with varying dysarthria types and perceived by listeners, which was then analyzed using multidimensional scaling (MDS), correlation analysis, and cluster analysis. In addition, discriminant function analysis (DFA) was conducted to establish the feasibility of using the dimensions underlying perceptual similarity in dysarthria to classify speakers into both listener-derived clusters and etiology-based categories. The following hypothesis was identified: Because of the presumed predictive link between the acoustic correlates and listener-derived clusters, the DFA classification results should resemble the perceptual clusters more closely than the etiology-based (Mayo System) classifications. Results of the present investigation's MDS revealed three dimensions, which were significantly correlated with 1) metrics capturing rate and rhythm, 2) intelligibility, and 3) all of the long-term average spectrum metrics in the 8000 Hz band, which has been linked to degree of phonemic distinctiveness (Utianski et al., February 2012). A qualitative examination of listener notes supported the MDS and correlation results, with listeners overwhelmingly making reference to speaking rate/rhythm, intelligibility, and articulatory precision while participating in the free classification task. Additionally, acoustic correlates revealed by the MDS and subjected to DFA indeed predicted listener group classification. These results beget acoustic measurement as representative of listener perception, and represent the first phase in supporting the use of a perceptually relevant taxonomy of dysarthria.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Spanish accusative clitics: Latino dual language learners in an English environment

Description

Spanish-speaking (SS) dual language learners (DLLs) have shown differential developmental profiles of the native language (L1). The current study examined whether or not the Spanish acquisition profile, specifically accusative clitics,

Spanish-speaking (SS) dual language learners (DLLs) have shown differential developmental profiles of the native language (L1). The current study examined whether or not the Spanish acquisition profile, specifically accusative clitics, in predominantly SS, Latino children continues to develop in an English-language contact situation. This study examined (1) accuracy rates of clitic production, total substitutions, and total omissions across 5-, 6-, and 7-year-olds; (2) accuracy rates of clitic production, total substitutions, and total omissions across low and high English proficiency groups; and (3) whether or not there was a trend to use the default clitic lo in inappropriate contexts. Seventy-four SS children aged 5;1 to 7;11 participated in a clitic elicitation task. Results indicated non-significant effects of age and proficiency level on the accuracy of clitic production. These results suggest dual language learners are in an environment that does not foster the maintenance of the L1, at least in the accuracy of accusative clitic pronouns.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Spanish and English development in three-year-old dual language learners

Description

Minimal information exists concerning dual language acquisition of three-year-old dual language learners (DLLs) during their first school experience and first systematic exposure to English. This study examined the Spanish and

Minimal information exists concerning dual language acquisition of three-year-old dual language learners (DLLs) during their first school experience and first systematic exposure to English. This study examined the Spanish and early English language development of young DLLs in the context of standardized measures and a story retell task. Participants included eight Spanish-English DLLs (7 females, 1 male, M age = 3 years, 8 months) attending Head Start, and their classroom teachers. Outcome measures for the children included composite and scaled scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Preschool-2 Spanish (CELF Preschool-2 Spanish; Wiig, Secord & Semel, 2009) and the parallel English measure (CELF Preschool-2; Wiig, Secord & Semel, 2005), and measures of lexical (NVT, NNVT, TNV, NW, NDW, TNW and TTR) and grammatical (MLUw) development. Proportion of classroom teachers' and paraprofessionals' Spanish, English and mixed language use was measured to contextualize the children's learning environment with regard to language exposure. Children's mean standardized Spanish scores at school entry were not significantly different from their mean scores in May; however, an increase in total number of verb types was observed. Children's English receptive, content, and structure mean standardized scores in May were significantly higher than their scores at school entry. Children were exposed to a high proportion of mixed language use and disproportionate amounts of English and Spanish exclusively. Children's performance was highly variable across measures and languages. The findings of the current study provide a reference point for future research regarding language development of three-year-old Spanish-English dual language learners.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011