Matching Items (23)

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Circumcision Training Development and Implementation

Description

Currently, many patients suffer from post-circumcision complications caused by poor patient selection and/or poor technique of the practicing physician. In addition, the majority of medical practitioners are incapable of/unwilling to

Currently, many patients suffer from post-circumcision complications caused by poor patient selection and/or poor technique of the practicing physician. In addition, the majority of medical practitioners are incapable of/unwilling to conduct specific circumcision procedures on their patients. In the end, this either results in unsatisfied patient families, who unwillingly have their children circumcised using methods contrary to their belief, or results in individuals who are not certified practitioners of medicine conducting the procedures, greatly increasing the risk of the patients experiencing preventable complications. In order to locally address the aforementioned problems, this thesis committee, consisting of Dr. Frank Infurna, Dr. Justin Ryan, and Dr. Zachary Zuniga, and I, developed a training module that standardized the instruction that interns, residents, attendings, fellows, hospitalists, and other interested physicians will receive regarding neonatal circumcision at Phoenix Children's Hospital. To begin, the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative procedures related to the Gomco clamp neonatal circumcision procedure were heavily researched using literature sourced from library databases and consultation of specialists, such as Dr. Zuniga. Given that the training was developed to instruct individuals within the medical field, the material was then truncated to promote succinctness and specificity towards the targeted population. In order to convey the specific techniques that are clinically preferred to be used in the procedure, one of Dr. Zuniga's Gomco clamp neonatal circumcision procedures was recorded and converted into GIFs, with each GIF depicting a specific technique of the procedure. The aforementioned materials were then arranged into a slide deck in order to mitigate the need for future training facilitators to tamper with the material in the process of creating visuals to be used during the training. Given the sensitivity of the material included in the slide deck, it will only be available for use on Phoenix Children's Hospital premises. To incorporate instruction regarding both the traditional (Gomco clamp) and religiously-preferred circumcision techniques into the training module, appointments, consisting of discussions regarding the procedural, cultural, and social facets that must be taken into consideration when conducting a circumcision procedure on a patient from a Muslim family, were set-up with pediatric physicians, currently practicing in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, who have specialized knowledge of conducting circumcisions in the Middle East. Since Brit Milah, the Jewish circumcision ceremony, is, unlike in Islam, required to be conducted by a Mohel in either a synagogue or house, it was not covered as holistically as "Khtan", Islamic circumcision, which is less heavily regulated. Thus far, the training module has been piloted twice, once with a group of medical students and physicians and once with medical education program directors and instructors. The critique from both sessions has been used to prepare the material for use in neonatal circumcision training sessions that will be introduced in clerkship and residency curriculum. In the future, the results of this implementation can be used to prepare the module for submission to the American Academy of Pediatrics to be made a prerequisite for physicians to undergo before conducting neonatal circumcisions.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Differences among High-Achieving Adolescents in Day Schools and Boarding Schools

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In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and

In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, past research has also indicated that these maladjustment behaviors are related to parent relationships. A group of high-achieving adolescents that research has not yet focused on are those attending boarding schools, who may have higher-quality relationships with parents due to less daily strife. This study aimed to examine high-achieving adolescents across five samples from five high schools, two of which were boarding schools. This study hypothesized that the high-achieving adolescents attending both boarding schools would report lower rates of substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and lower rates of perceived parent criticism and expectations in comparison to those attending the day schools. Substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and parent relationships were measured using self-report measures that were completed by students attending these schools. Results showed that both boarding schools reported elevated rates of substance use in comparison to the three day schools and these rates measured above national norms. At the same time, both boarding schools reported lower rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms when compared to rates reported by the day school students. This study also found that there were differences among parent relationship measures, such as criticism and expectations, among all school samples. Results of this study also showed that aspects of parent relationship, such as parent knowledge, were associated with rates of substance use among all school samples. In summary, boarding school students showed elevated substance use, similar parental relationship quality, and lower mental health symptoms compared to day school students. For all students, some aspects of the parental relationship were related to levels of substance use.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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A Personal and Neuropsychological Evaluation of Synesthetic Experience

Description

Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon in which the stimulation of one sensory modality brings about a response from at least one other modality. There has now been about two centuries

Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon in which the stimulation of one sensory modality brings about a response from at least one other modality. There has now been about two centuries of official synesthesia research, yet the current era of study, about the 2000s on, has proven invaluable to our further understanding of how synesthesia works in our perceptive world. I myself have two forms of synesthesia: color-grapheme and lexical-gustatory. In this paper, I look back on my personal experience with synesthesia and review its history and its operational definitions and theories. I then aim to perform a small case study on my synesthesia, using current research to evaluate my observations. I believe synesthesia has the ability to tell us much about perception, subjectivity, language, and consciousness, and I investigate the potential implications that studying synesthesia could have for some of these fields.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Effect of Work-Life Balance on Subjective Well-Being and Social Support in Midlife

Description

Understanding work-life balance is crucial for improving the work environment, managing work and personal demands, and maintaining well-being. However, scientific literature regarding work-life balance has not adequately investigated its long-term

Understanding work-life balance is crucial for improving the work environment, managing work and personal demands, and maintaining well-being. However, scientific literature regarding work-life balance has not adequately investigated its long-term relationships with subjective well-being and social support factors. Up to this point, empirical research uses cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data and is focused on broad outcomes related to work-life balance. The current study adds to the literature by breaking down work-life balance into work interference, how work experiences negatively contribute to personal life, and work enhancement, how work experiences positively contribute to personal life. Work-life balance factors will be explored with relationships between three components of subjective well-being: positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. Additional examined relationships are between work-life balance factors and quality of social support through positive and negative relationships with spouse, family, and friends. Finally, the relationships with work-life balance are examined with potential covariates. The research questions will be tested with multilevel models using data collected from 2006 \u2014 2014 from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal panel survey of participants in midlife and old age. In short, work enhancement is predictive of the level and change in life satisfaction and positive factors; work interference is predictive of the level and change in negative factors. The discussion focuses on understanding the directionality of the relationships and how future research can build upon the understanding of subjective well-being and social support.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Does Social Intelligence Improve with Training? A Focus on the Moderating Role of Neuroticism

Description

This study examined the effectiveness of a Social Intelligence Intervention (SII) in improving components of social intelligence, and whether neuroticism moderates such associations in 130 participants aged 45-70. We hypothesized

This study examined the effectiveness of a Social Intelligence Intervention (SII) in improving components of social intelligence, and whether neuroticism moderates such associations in 130 participants aged 45-70. We hypothesized that the SII will improve participants' social intelligence across several factors: social awareness, social skills, social information processing, and perspective taking. Furthermore, we examined if neuroticism moderated participants' responsiveness to the intervention. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals with high levels of neuroticism will have greater improvements in social intelligence. Individuals were randomly assigned to participate in the SII (n=71) or an attention control condition (n=59) that focused on healthy living tips. Individuals provided self-report data prior to participation in the study, and following completion of the intervention or attention control condition. The results were not statistically significant, however there was a trend for social information processing to improve with the SII. Neuroticism and time significantly moderated social awareness. This research suggests that the SII may not be effective in improving social intelligence scores for participants in midlife. Thus, the SII should be enhanced to surpass improvements that could potentially be from common factors in the intervention.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Adolescent Prosocial Behavior at SES Extremes

Description

The literature has consistently established levels of adolescent maladjustment well above national norms for both socioeconomic (SES) extremes (Lyman & Luthar 2014). Yet literature on positive adolescent adjustment, and its

The literature has consistently established levels of adolescent maladjustment well above national norms for both socioeconomic (SES) extremes (Lyman & Luthar 2014). Yet literature on positive adolescent adjustment, and its protective or even corrective factors is lacking (Eisenberg, Zhou, & Coller, 2001). This study examined the effects of gender and SES on parent attachment in relation to reports of prosocial behavior. Eleventh grade adolescents (N = 397) were recruited from two public high schools for academically-gifted students who were either high or low-level SES (i.e. the extremes). The students provided passive consent and answered questions on their demographics, perceived relationship with their parents, and tendency to behave in a prosocial manner. Multivariate analyses of variance and follow up analyses of variance were run by gender and SES to determine main effects for gender and SES on parent attachment and prosocial behavior. Regressions following preliminary correlations analyzed whether parental attachment predicted higher levels of adolescent prosocial behavior. Results demonstrated that females communicated with their mothers significantly more and reported higher levels of prosocial behavior than their male counterparts. Findings with regard to SES revealed that high SES adolescents reported increased parent attachment, whereas low SES adolescents reported higher levels of community\u2014based prosocial behaviors. Finally, certain dimensions of parent attachment predicted increases and decreases only in specific prosocial behaviors. Because prosocial behaviors change throughout adolescence, future ventures should consider a longitudinal analysis to obtain a more comprehensive picture of adolescent positive adjustment.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Benefits of high intelligence: Potential moderating effects of emotion regulation and friendship quality

Description

Depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts or actions are on the rise in adolescents (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015; Bridge, Asti, & Horowitz, 2015). Parents, school administrators, and therapists are

Depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts or actions are on the rise in adolescents (National Institute of Mental Health, 2015; Bridge, Asti, & Horowitz, 2015). Parents, school administrators, and therapists are searching for resiliency factors with in at-risk groups to aid students in need. In previous work, Luthar and Zigler (1992) reported that intelligent youth are more resilient than less intelligent youth under low stress conditions but they lose their advantage under high stress conditions. This study examined whether intelligence (reflected in grade point average; GPA) and maladaptive (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) behaviors are negatively related in adolescents, and tested whether level of stress, reflected in emotion regulation and friendship quality, moderated that association. It also probed whether the relationships differ by gender. Sixth-graders (N=506) were recruited with active parental consent from three middle schools. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires Regarding demo graphics, maladaptive behaviors, emotion regulation, and friendship quality, and GPA data were collected from the school. Regression analyses found that GPA was negatively related to externalizing symptoms. Girls with poor friendship communication report significantly higher maladaptive behaviors. This relation was more pronounced for girls with high GPAs, as predicted. Results support the theory that intelligent female adolescents are more reactive under adverse circumstances. Future efforts should follow students through middle school into high school to evaluate whether friendships remain important to adjustment, hold for boys as well as girls, and have implications for relationship interventions.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Multidimensional Nature of Social Support in Contributing to Adjustment Following Spousal Loss

Description

Spousal loss is a common, significant life event that can negatively affect multiple facets of individual health and psychological adjustment. Social support is one factor that is shown to improve

Spousal loss is a common, significant life event that can negatively affect multiple facets of individual health and psychological adjustment. Social support is one factor that is shown to improve adjustment following spousal loss, but much less is known regarding which facet of social support is most predictive of positive adjustment outcomes following spousal loss. This study examined the course of changes in mental health and well-being following spousal loss and which facets of social support are associated with better outcomes following spousal loss. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to data from 265 widowed individuals, ages 65 and older, across four assessments (baseline, and 6-, 18-, and 48- months following spousal loss). I examined the following research questions: (1) adjustment following spousal loss will follow a trajectory of an increase in depressive symptoms and anxiety and decrease in well-being with a leveling-off over time, with between-person differences, and (2) emotional support and instrumental support given will lead to more positive adjustment outcomes over time. Depressive symptoms followed the hypothesized trajectory but anxiety and well-being showed relative stability before and after spousal loss. Instrumental support was the most beneficial facet of social support, such that receiving more instrumental support was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety 6-months following spousal loss. Giving more instrumental support led to an increase in well-being following spousal loss. Instrumental support given and received led to increases in well-being as a function of spousal loss. The discussion focuses on whether and how these findings can help to identify ways through which support and help can be given to individuals to improve adjustment to spousal loss and fully recover.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

Creating, Establishing and Running a Student-run Organization: Global Devils

Description

Global Devils is an organization of students that are interested or have previously studied, lived, travelled or interned abroad. The members advocate for cultural and global experiences that academically, professionally

Global Devils is an organization of students that are interested or have previously studied, lived, travelled or interned abroad. The members advocate for cultural and global experiences that academically, professionally and personally enhance collegiate experiences. This creative project details the conceptualization and establishment of this international education student run-organization. The activity reports outline the process of working closely with the Arizona State University Study Abroad Office, creating a constitution, forming pillars and organization purpose, establishing meeting structure and how to apply and receive funding. This documentation additionally includes the club constitution, the club pillars and the establishment of the executive board positions: President, Secretary, Events Coordinator, Marketing Specialist, Cultural Engagement Chair and Finance Officer. To ensure the longevity of this organization, online documentation, via Google Drive, is available to all executive board members. This creative project additionally outlines how to recruit members, the best practices for outreach, such as email communication, and the events that Global Devils tabled at to outreach to a targeted audience. Via SunDevilSync, all members have access to the club's purpose, receive updates regarding Global Devils meetings, access to documents and executive board contact information. Lastly, throughout the process, ideas for improvement were documented.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An In-Depth Exploration of Overcoming Adversity in Midlife: A Mixed-Methods Approach

Description

Midlife is a unique period of development during which individuals are simultaneously engaging in multiple roles. Despite this, there is a surprisingly small amount of research on this period of

Midlife is a unique period of development during which individuals are simultaneously engaging in multiple roles. Despite this, there is a surprisingly small amount of research on this period of the life course. In order to examine sources of adversity during this period, we analyzed interviews with individuals in midlife about their greatest challenge. The most common themes for types of adversity included relationships, health, and work, reflecting the unique combination of roles in midlife.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05