Matching Items (30)

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On Memory and Physiological Signals of Experts and Novices-Case Study: Chess

Description

Abstract Chess has been a common research topic for expert-novice studies and thus for learning science as a whole because of its limited framework and longevity as a game. One factor is that chess studies are good at measuring how

Abstract Chess has been a common research topic for expert-novice studies and thus for learning science as a whole because of its limited framework and longevity as a game. One factor is that chess studies are good at measuring how expert chess players use their memory and skills to approach a new chessboard con�guration. Studies have shown that chess skill is based on memory, speci�cally, "chunks" of chess piece positions that have been previously encountered by players. However, debate exists concerning how these chunks are constructed in players' memory. These chunks could be constructed by proximity of pieces on the chessboard as well as their precise location or constructed through attack-defense relations. The primary objective of this study is to support which one is more in line with chess players' actual chess abilities based off their memory, proximity or attack/defense. This study replicates and extends an experiment conducted by McGregor and Howe (2002), which explored the argument that pieces are primed more by attack and defense relations than by proximity. Like their study, the present study examined novice and expert chess players' response times for correct and error responses by showing slides of game configurations. In addition to these metrics, the present study also incorporated an eye-tracker to measure visual attention and EEG to measure affective and cognitive states. They were added to allow the comparison of subtle and unconscious behaviors of both novices and expert chess players. Overall, most McGregor and Howe's (2002) results were replicated supporting their theory on chess expertise. This included statistically significance for skill in the error rates with the mean error rates on the piece recognition tests were 70.1% for novices and 87.9% for experts, as well as significance for the two-way interaction for relatedness and proximity with error rates of 22.4% for unrelated/far, 18.8% for related/far, 15.8% for unrelated
ear, and 29.3% for related
ear. Unfortunately, there were no statistically significance for any of the response time effects, which McGregor and Howe found for the interaction between skill and proximity. Despite eye-tracking and EEG data not either support nor confirm McGregor and Howe's theory on how chess players memorize chessboard configurations, these metrics did help build a secondary theory on how novices typically rely on proximity to approach chess and new visual problems in general. This was exemplified by the statistically significant results for short-term excitement for the two-way interaction of skill and proximity, where the largest short-term excitement score was between novices on near proximity slides. This may indicate that novices, because they may lean toward using proximity to try to recall these pieces, experience a short burst of excitement when the pieces are close to each other because they are more likely to recall these configurations.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Modeling Fantasy Baseball Player Popularity Using Twitter Activity

Description

Social media is used by people every day to discuss the nuances of their lives. Major League Baseball (MLB) is a popular sport in the United States, and as such has generated a great deal of activity on Twitter. As

Social media is used by people every day to discuss the nuances of their lives. Major League Baseball (MLB) is a popular sport in the United States, and as such has generated a great deal of activity on Twitter. As fantasy baseball continues to grow in popularity, so does the research into better algorithms for picking players. Most of the research done in this area focuses on improving the prediction of a player's individual performance. However, the crowd-sourcing power afforded by social media may enable more informed predictions about players' performances. Players are chosen by popularity and personal preferences by most amateur gamblers. While some of these trends (particularly the long-term ones) are captured by ranking systems, this research was focused on predicting the daily spikes in popularity (and therefore price or draft order) by comparing the number of mentions that the player received on Twitter compared to their previous mentions. In doing so, it was demonstrated that improved fantasy baseball predictions can be made through leveraging social media data.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Balance of System Cost Analysis to Investigate Future Economic Competitiveness of Tandem Solar Cells

Description

As single junction silicon based solar cells approach their Shockley\u2014Queasier (SQ) conversion efficiency limits, tandem solar cells (TSC) provide an attractive prospect for higher efficiency cells. Although TSCs have been shown to be more efficient, their higher fabrication costs are

As single junction silicon based solar cells approach their Shockley\u2014Queasier (SQ) conversion efficiency limits, tandem solar cells (TSC) provide an attractive prospect for higher efficiency cells. Although TSCs have been shown to be more efficient, their higher fabrication costs are a limiting factor for their economic competitiveness and large-scale integration in PV power systems. Current literature suggests that even with reduced costs of fabrication in the future, TSCs still offer no competitive benefit for integration in utility-scale systems and may yield minimal benefits only in places where area-related costs are high. This work investigates Balance of Systems (BoS) circumstances under which TSCs can attain economic viability in scenarios where the necessary technological advances are made to increase the efficiency of solar cells beyond the SQ limit.

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Date Created
2017-05

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A Simulation Model of the Effect of Workplace Structure on Productivity

Description

Workplace productivity is a result of many factors, and among them is the setup of the office and its resultant noise level. The conversations and interruptions that come along with converting an office to an open plan can foster innovation

Workplace productivity is a result of many factors, and among them is the setup of the office and its resultant noise level. The conversations and interruptions that come along with converting an office to an open plan can foster innovation and creativity, or they can be distracting and harm the performance of employees. Through simulation, the impact of different types of office noise was studied along with other changing conditions such as number of people in the office. When productivity per person, defined in terms of mood and focus, was measured, it was found that the effect of noise was positive in some scenarios and negative in others. In simulations where employees were performing very similar tasks, noise (and its correlates, such as number of employees), was beneficial. On the other hand, when employees were engaged in a variety of different types of tasks, noise had a negative overall effect. This indicates that workplaces that group their employees by common job functions may be more productive than workplaces where the problems and products that employees are working on are varied throughout the workspace.

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Date Created
2017-05

Effectiveness of Augmented Reality as a Learning Tool to Advance Personalized Learning

Description

In this study, the implementation of educational technology and its effect on learning and user experience is measured. A demographic survey, pretest/posttest, and educational experience survey was used to collect data on the control and experimental groups. The experimental grou

In this study, the implementation of educational technology and its effect on learning and user experience is measured. A demographic survey, pretest/posttest, and educational experience survey was used to collect data on the control and experimental groups. The experimental group was subjected to different learning material than the control group with the use of the Elements 4D mobile application by Daqri to learn basic chemical elements and compounds. The control group learning material provided all the exact information as the application, but in the 2D form of a printed packet. It was expected the experimental group would outperform the control group and have a more enjoyable experience and higher performance. After data analysis, it was concluded that the control group outperformed the experimental group on performance and both groups has similar experiences in contradiction to the hypothesis. Once the factors that contribute to the limitations of different study duration, learning the application beforehand, and only-memorization questions are addressed, the study can be conducted again. Application improvements may also alter the future results of the study and hopefully lead to full implementation into a curriculum.

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2017-05

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The Business Venture Approach to Alleviating Poverty: What is the Bottom of the Pyramid Solution and Can It Work?

Description

Billions of people around the world deal with the struggles of poverty every day. Consequently, a number of others have committed themselves to help alleviate poverty. Many various methods are used, and a current consensus on the best method to

Billions of people around the world deal with the struggles of poverty every day. Consequently, a number of others have committed themselves to help alleviate poverty. Many various methods are used, and a current consensus on the best method to alleviate poverty is lacking. Generally the methods used or researched exist somewhere on the spectrum between top-down and bottom-up approaches to fighting poverty. This paper analyzes a specific method proposed by C.K. Prahalad known as the Bottom of the Pyramid solution. The premise of the method is that large multinational corporations should utilize the large conglomerate of money that exists amongst poor people \u2014 created due to the sheer number of poor people \u2014 for business ventures. Concurrently, the poor people can benefit from the company's entrance. This method has received acclaim theoretically, but still needs empirical evidence to prove its practicality. This paper compares this approach with other approaches, considers international development data trends, and analyzes case studies of actual attempts that provide insight into the approach's potential for success. The market of poor people at the bottom of the pyramid is extremely segmented which makes it very difficult for large companies to financially prosper. It is even harder to establish mutual benefit between the large corporation and the poor. It has been found that although aspects of the bottom of the pyramid method hold merit, higher potential for alleviating poverty exists when small companies venture into this space rather than large multinational corporations. Small companies can conform to a single community and niche economy to prosper \u2014 a flexibility that large companies lack. Moving forward, analyzing the actual attempts provides the best and only empirical insights; hence, it will be important to consider more approaches into developing economies as they materialize.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Life Application of Information Measurement Theory and the Kashiwagi Solution Model

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The deductive logic and leadership techniques presented in Dr. Dean Kashiwagi's Information Measurement Theory (IMT) and the Kashiwagi Solution Model (KSM) provide the tools to implement positive change within one's life and environment. By altering the way that I perceive

The deductive logic and leadership techniques presented in Dr. Dean Kashiwagi's Information Measurement Theory (IMT) and the Kashiwagi Solution Model (KSM) provide the tools to implement positive change within one's life and environment. By altering the way that I perceive the world, I have made progress in self-improvement through action. This project utilizes self-evaluation as a method to learn from dominant information and experience. In establishing that natural laws govern the world, there is no randomness; events and decisions are all cause-and-effect. When seen through this lens, life becomes simpler and manageable. Through my own implementation of IMT and KSM, I live a more productive lifestyle and feel that I have a meaningful plan for my future.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Cost Driven Agent Based Simulation of the Department of Defense Acquisition System

Description

The Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition system is a complex system riddled with cost and schedule overruns. These cost and schedule overruns are very serious issues as the acquisition system is responsible for aiding U.S. warfighters. Hence, if the acquisition

The Department of Defense (DoD) acquisition system is a complex system riddled with cost and schedule overruns. These cost and schedule overruns are very serious issues as the acquisition system is responsible for aiding U.S. warfighters. Hence, if the acquisition process is failing that could be a potential threat to our nation's security. Furthermore, the DoD acquisition system is responsible for proper allocation of billions of taxpayer's dollars and employs many civilians and military personnel. Much research has been done in the past on the acquisition system with little impact or success. One reason for this lack of success in improving the system is the lack of accurate models to test theories. This research is a continuation of the effort on the Enterprise Requirements and Acquisition Model (ERAM), a discrete event simulation modeling research on DoD acquisition system. We propose to extend ERAM using agent-based simulation principles due to the many interactions among the subsystems of the acquisition system. We initially identify ten sub models needed to simulate the acquisition system. This research focuses on three sub models related to the budget of acquisition programs. In this thesis, we present the data collection, data analysis, initial implementation, and initial validation needed to facilitate these sub models and lay the groundwork for a full agent-based simulation of the DoD acquisition system.

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2016-05

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JOB ORDER CONTRACTING COST AND BENEFITS ANALYSIS RESEARCH

Description

The Performance Based Studies Research Studies Group (PBSRG) at Arizona State University (ASU) has been studying the cause of increased cost and time in construction and other projects for the last 20 years. Through two longitudinal studies with a grou

The Performance Based Studies Research Studies Group (PBSRG) at Arizona State University (ASU) has been studying the cause of increased cost and time in construction and other projects for the last 20 years. Through two longitudinal studies with a group of owners in the state of Minnesota (400 tests over six years) and the US Army Medical Command (400 tests over four years), the client/buyer has been identified as the largest risk and source of project cost and time deviations. This has been confirmed by over 1,500 tests conducted over the past 20 years. The focus of this research effort is to analyze the economic and performance impact of a delivery process of construction called the Job Order Contracting (JOC) process, to evaluate the value (in terms of time, cost, and customer satisfaction) achieved when utilizing JOC over other traditional methods to complete projects. JOC's strength is that it minimizes the need for the owner to manage, direct and control (MDC) through a lengthy traditional process of design, bid, and award of a construction contract. The study identifies the potential economic savings of utilizing JOC. This paper looks at the results of an ongoing study surveying eight different public universities. The results of the research show that in comparison to more traditional models, JOC has large cost savings, and is preferable among most owners who have used multiple delivery systems.

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Date Created
2015-12

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The Relationship Between the Success and Composition of Modern Popular Electronic Dance Music and the Seasons and Climate

Description

This research covers the relationship between popular electronic dance music (EDM) and the seasons and climate. The precedence and relevance of the research is outlined through prior research initiatives by Karen Aplin and Paul Williams on the effect of weather

This research covers the relationship between popular electronic dance music (EDM) and the seasons and climate. The precedence and relevance of the research is outlined through prior research initiatives by Karen Aplin and Paul Williams on the effect of weather on classical music. The hypothesis is that the climate will affect how music by artists residing within the climate and the seasons will affect the popularity of certain genres. Warmer climates will produce songs that are more upbeat and energetic while colder climates will result in songs that are more complex and heavy. The analysis of this hypothesis will be performed in two parts. The first will be a data driven analysis from Beatport.com's Top 100 EDM charts to observe the season's impact on genre popularity. The second will be a case study analysis of a number of artists from around the world to observe climate impact on EDM. From the analysis, we are able to draw the connection that climate does in fact have an impact on the types of music produced. Likewise, we are able to conclude that there is a distinct variation in deep house, techno/tech house, and house as a result of the seasons shifting. Techno/tech house is more popular in the warmer spring and summer months and house and deep house have a higher standing in the colder fall and winter months.

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2015-05