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The influence of dome size, parent vessel angle, and coil packing density on coil embolization treatment in cerebral aneurysms

Description

A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging of a blood vessel in the brain. Aneurysmal rupture affects 25,000 people each year and is associated with a 45% mortality rate. Therefore, it is critically important to treat cerebral aneurysms effectively before they

A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging of a blood vessel in the brain. Aneurysmal rupture affects 25,000 people each year and is associated with a 45% mortality rate. Therefore, it is critically important to treat cerebral aneurysms effectively before they rupture. Endovascular coiling is the most effective treatment for cerebral aneurysms. During coiling process, series of metallic coils are deployed into the aneurysmal sack with the intent of reaching a sufficient packing density (PD). Coils packing can facilitate thrombus formation and help seal off the aneurysm from circulation over time. While coiling is effective, high rates of treatment failure have been associated with basilar tip aneurysms (BTAs). Treatment failure may be related to geometrical features of the aneurysm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dome size, parent vessel (PV) angle, and PD on post-treatment aneurysmal hemodynamics using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flows in four idealized BTA models with a combination of dome sizes and two different PV angles were simulated using CFD and then validated against PIV data. Percent reductions in post-treatment aneurysmal velocity and cross-neck (CN) flow as well as percent coverage of low wall shear stress (WSS) area were analyzed. In all models, aneurysmal velocity and CN flow decreased after coiling, while low WSS area increased. However, with increasing PD, further reductions were observed in aneurysmal velocity and CN flow, but minimal changes were observed in low WSS area. Overall, coil PD had the greatest impact while dome size has greater impact than PV angle on aneurysmal hemodynamics. These findings lead to a conclusion that combinations of treatment goals and geometric factor may play key roles in coil embolization treatment outcomes, and support that different treatment timing may be a critical factor in treatment optimization.

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Date Created
2013

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Validation of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TES) Finite Element Modeling Against MREIT Current Density Imaging in Human Subjects

Description

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a non-invasive brain stimulation therapy that has shown potential in improving motor, physiological and cognitive functions in healthy and diseased population. Typical tES procedures involve application of weak current (< 2 mA) to the brain

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is a non-invasive brain stimulation therapy that has shown potential in improving motor, physiological and cognitive functions in healthy and diseased population. Typical tES procedures involve application of weak current (< 2 mA) to the brain via a pair of large electrodes placed on the scalp. While the therapeutic benefits of tES are promising, the efficacy of tES treatments is limited by the knowledge of how current travels in the brain. It has been assumed that the current density and electric fields are the largest, and thus have the most effect, in brain structures nearby the electrodes. Recent studies using finite element modeling (FEM) have suggested that current patterns in the brain are diffuse and not concentrated in any particular brain structure. Although current flow modeling is useful means of informing tES target optimization, few studies have validated tES FEM models against experimental measurements. MREIT-CDI can be used to recover magnetic flux density caused by current flow in a conducting object. This dissertation reports the first comparisons between experimental data from in-vivo human MREIT-CDI during tES and results from tES FEM using head models derived from the same subjects. First, tES FEM pipelines were verified by confirming FEM predictions agreed with analytic results at the mesh sizes used and that a sufficiently large head extent was modeled to approximate results on human subjects. Second, models were used to predict magnetic flux density, and predicted and MREIT-CDI results were compared to validate and refine modeling outcomes. Finally, models were used to investigate inter-subject variability and biological side effects reported by tES subjects. The study demonstrated good agreements in patterns between magnetic flux distributions from experimental and simulation data. However, the discrepancy in scales between simulation and experimental data suggested that tissue conductivities typically used in tES FEM might be incorrect, and thus performing in-vivo conductivity measurements in humans is desirable. Overall, in-vivo MREIT-CDI in human heads has been established as a validation tool for tES predictions and to study the underlying mechanisms of tES therapies.

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Date Created
2017