Matching Items (4)

128132-Thumbnail Image.png

Insights into Butyrate Production in a Controlled Fermentation System via Gene Predictions

Description

Butyrate is a common fatty acid produced in important fermentative systems, such as the human/animal gut and other H[subscript 2] production systems. Despite its importance, there is little information on

Butyrate is a common fatty acid produced in important fermentative systems, such as the human/animal gut and other H[subscript 2] production systems. Despite its importance, there is little information on the partnerships between butyrate producers and other bacteria. The objective of this work was to uncover butyrate-producing microbial communities and possible metabolic routes in a controlled fermentation system aimed at butyrate production. The butyrogenic reactor was operated at 37°C and pH 5.5 with a hydraulic retention time of 31 h and a low hydrogen partial pressure (PH[subscript 2]). High-throughput sequencing and metagenome functional prediction from 16S rRNA data showed that butyrate production pathways and microbial communities were different during batch (closed) and continuous-mode operation. Lactobacillaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterococcaceae were the most abundant phylotypes in the closed system without PH[subscript 2] control, whereas Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Actinomycetaceae were the most abundant phylotypes under continuous operation at low PH[subscript 2]. Putative butyrate producers identified in our system were from Prevotellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae. Metagenome prediction analysis suggests that nonbutyrogenic microorganisms influenced butyrate production by generating butyrate precursors such as acetate, lactate, and succinate. 16S rRNA gene analysis suggested that, in the reactor, a partnership between identified butyrogenic microorganisms and succinate (i.e., Actinomycetaceae), acetate (i.e., Ruminococcaceae and Actinomycetaceae), and lactate producers (i.e., Ruminococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae) took place under continuous-flow operation at low PH[subscript 2].

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-18

141505-Thumbnail Image.png

Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children

Description

High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that

High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-06-03

135273-Thumbnail Image.png

Factors that modulate production of tryptophan by Gut Bacteria

Description

Microorganisms can produce metabolites in the gut including short chain fatty acids, vitamins, and amino acids. Certain metabolites produced in the gut can affect the brain through changes in

Microorganisms can produce metabolites in the gut including short chain fatty acids, vitamins, and amino acids. Certain metabolites produced in the gut can affect the brain through changes in neurotransmitter concentrations. Serotonin, a neurotransmitter, is associated with mood, appetite, and sleep. Up to 90% of serotonin synthesis is located in the gut, by human enterochromaffin cells. Bacteria known to biosynthesize tryptophan, precursor to serotonin, include Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Streptococcus. Tryptophan is synthesized by bacteria with the enzyme tryptophan synthase and requires Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal). We hypothesize that gut isolates from surgical weight loss patients can enhance tryptophan production, which relies on vitamin B6 availability. Our goal was to isolate bacteria in order to test for tryptophan production and to determine how Vitamin B6 concentrations could affect tryptophan production. We isolated gut bacteria was from successful surgical weight loss patient with selective pressures for Enterobacter isolates and Enterococcus isolates. We tested the isolates were tested to determine if they could biosynthesize tryptophan in-vitro. Bacterial cultures were enriched with yeast and enriched with serine and indole, substrates necessary for tryptophan biosynthesis. We analyzed the supernatant samples for tryptophan production using GC-FID. Bacterial isolates most closely related to E. coli and Klebsiella based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, produced tryptophan in vitro. While under serine & indole media conditions, R1, the isolate most similar to Klebsiella produced more tryptophan than R14, the isolate most similar to E. coli. We tested the R1 isolate with a gradient of vitamin B6 concentrations from 0.02 µg/mL to 0.2 µg/mL to determine its effect on tryptophan production. When less than 0.05 µg/mL of Vitamin B6 was added, tryptophan production at 6 hours was higher than tryptophan production with Vitamin B6 concentrations at 0.05 µg/mL and above. The production and consumption of tryptophan by Klebsiella under 0 µg/mL and 0.02 µg/mL concentrations of Vitamin B6 occurred at a faster rate when compared to concentrations 0.05 µg/mL or higher of Vitamin B6.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

130291-Thumbnail Image.png

pH-Mediated Microbial and Metabolic Interactions in Fecal Enrichment Cultures

Description

pH and fermentable substrates impose selective pressures on gut microbial communities and their metabolisms. We evaluated the relative contributions of pH, alkalinity, and substrate on microbial community structure, metabolism, and

pH and fermentable substrates impose selective pressures on gut microbial communities and their metabolisms. We evaluated the relative contributions of pH, alkalinity, and substrate on microbial community structure, metabolism, and functional interactions using triplicate batch cultures started from fecal slurry and incubated with an initial pH of 6.0, 6.5, or 6.9 and 10 mM glucose, fructose, or cellobiose as the carbon substrate. We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences and fermentation products. Microbial diversity was driven by both pH and substrate type. Due to insufficient alkalinity, a drop in pH from 6.0 to ~4.5 clustered pH 6.0 cultures together and distant from pH 6.5 and 6.9 cultures, which experienced only small pH drops. Cellobiose yielded more acidity than alkalinity due to the amount of fermentable carbon, which moved cellobiose pH 6.5 cultures away from other pH 6.5 cultures. The impact of pH on microbial community structure was reflected by fermentative metabolism. Lactate accumulation occurred in pH 6.0 cultures, whereas propionate and acetate accumulations were observed in pH 6.5 and 6.9 cultures and independently from the type of substrate provided. Finally, pH had an impact on the interactions between lactate-producing and -consuming communities. Lactate-producing Streptococcus dominated pH 6.0 cultures, and acetate- and propionate-producing Veillonella, Bacteroides, and Escherichia dominated the cultures started at pH 6.5 and 6.9. Acid inhibition on lactate-consuming species led to lactate accumulation. Our results provide insights into pH-derived changes in fermenting microbiota and metabolisms in the human gut.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-03