Butyrate is a common fatty acid produced in important fermentative systems, such as the human/animal gut and other H[subscript 2] production systems. Despite its importance, there is little information on the partnerships between butyrate producers and other bacteria. The objective of this work was to uncover butyrate-producing microbial communities and possible metabolic routes in a controlled fermentation system aimed at butyrate production. The butyrogenic reactor was operated at 37°C and pH 5.5 with a hydraulic retention time of 31 h and a low hydrogen partial pressure (PH[subscript 2]). High-throughput sequencing and metagenome functional prediction from 16S rRNA data showed that butyrate production pathways and microbial communities were different during batch (closed) and continuous-mode operation. Lactobacillaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterococcaceae were the most abundant phylotypes in the closed system without PH[subscript 2] control, whereas Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Actinomycetaceae were the most abundant phylotypes under continuous operation at low PH[subscript 2]. Putative butyrate producers identified in our system were from Prevotellaceae, Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae. Metagenome prediction analysis suggests that nonbutyrogenic microorganisms influenced butyrate production by generating butyrate precursors such as acetate, lactate, and succinate. 16S rRNA gene analysis suggested that, in the reactor, a partnership between identified butyrogenic microorganisms and succinate (i.e., Actinomycetaceae), acetate (i.e., Ruminococcaceae and Actinomycetaceae), and lactate producers (i.e., Ruminococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae) took place under continuous-flow operation at low PH[subscript 2].