Matching Items (17)

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The Influence of Living Arrangements on Couple's Conflict Topics: A Daily Diary Study of Young Adult Couples

Description

My thesis examined differences in areas of relationship conflict among various living arrangements of couples. I analyzed 249 phone call interviews from 54 couples that resided in the greater Phoenix

My thesis examined differences in areas of relationship conflict among various living arrangements of couples. I analyzed 249 phone call interviews from 54 couples that resided in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area, had been in a relationship for at least six months, and were at least 21 years of age. By using a qualitative analysis, I analyzed differences in frequently mentioned areas of conflict (i.e. power, social issues, personal flaws, distrust, intimacy, personal distance) between romantic couples in three common couple living arrangements (i.e. non-cohabiting, cohabiting, and married). Findings showed certain areas of conflict were prevalent among all living arrangements, namely power and personal flaws. There were some differences between each living arrangement group: The non-cohabiting group was the only one to report distrust as a top area of conflict, and the cohabiting group reported more frequent incidents of conflict involving personal flaws than the married group. The married group identified social issues as a more prevalent area of conflict than the other groups. Differences in prevalent areas of conflict were examined in relation to varying levels of personal, structural and moral commitment that occur throughout the identified living arrangements.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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A Dynamic Model of Marital Conflict and Socioemotional Development in Children

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Although it is typically a normal family process, marital conflict that is not managed in a healthy way can lead to disruptions in the family system. Because approximately 46% of

Although it is typically a normal family process, marital conflict that is not managed in a healthy way can lead to disruptions in the family system. Because approximately 46% of marriages end in divorce (U.S. Center for Disease Control, 2017), a literature review was conducted to better understand the complex relationship between marital conflict and socioemotional development in children. The current study focused on multiple phases in the family system: (1) the transition to parenthood, (2) early childhood, (3) middle childhood, and (4) adolescence. The review found that marital conflict and socioemotional development in children have bidirectional effects within developmental periods. By studying marital conflict and socioemotional development in children in these various stages of life, the thesis identified gaps in both the literature and our understanding of how these processes may have short- and long-term impacts on one another. I propose the Marital Conflict and Socio-Emotional Child Development (MCSECD) Dynamic to provide a more detailed explanation of the complex relationship between marital conflict and socioemotional development in children. To better improve the health and stability of the family system moving forward, I suggest that this complex dynamic be taken into account when implementing preventative and interventional marriage and family therapies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Personality and Belief: Examining the Associations between the Big Five and Philosophy Dichotomy Test

Description

Personality is a relevant and applicable research topic now more than ever; because of the Internet, self-report measures of personality are becoming increasingly accessible. Although now widely available for personal

Personality is a relevant and applicable research topic now more than ever; because of the Internet, self-report measures of personality are becoming increasingly accessible. Although now widely available for personal application, personality inventories are not often examined in the context of their associations with other factors. Specifically, there exists a gap in the research on personality and its associations with philosophical belief. Based on a sample of 88 individuals, correlations between the Big Five and Philosophy Dichotomy Test were examined in order to investigate the associations between personality traits and philosophical belief. Agreeableness was found to be negatively associated with the sensuality, values, metaphysical, and societal axes, corresponding to higher levels of hedonism, rationalism, materialism, and egoism. These findings suggest that personality as measured by the Big Five and philosophical belief are somewhat associated. Limitations and future directions are presented.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Exploring the Within- and Between-Person Effects of Alcohol Use and Discrepant Drinking on Mood and Relationship Functioning

Description

Alcohol use among romantic partners is known to be related to a variety of detrimental outcomes, such as decreased relationship satisfaction and increases in conflict. However, discrepant drinking among partners

Alcohol use among romantic partners is known to be related to a variety of detrimental outcomes, such as decreased relationship satisfaction and increases in conflict. However, discrepant drinking among partners may be a stronger predictor of relationship outcomes over and above the amount of alcohol use. Currently, little is known about potential differences in the within- and between-person effects and discrepancy’s effect on mood, particularly among community samples. The current study investigated the effects of both individual and partner alcohol use, as well as discrepant drinking, on mood and relationship functioning. Data were obtained from 280 heterosexual romantic couples using a measurement burst daily dairy design over the course of one year. Actor Partner Interdependence Model and Dyadic Score Model analyses were used to investigate the effect of alcohol use and discrepant drinking on mood and relationship functioning, both at the within- and between- person levels. Specifically, analyses investigated the effects of no drinking versus moderate drinking, no drinking versus binge drinking, and moderate drinking versus binge drinking. Results revealed that while binge drinking may be related to positive outcomes proximally, the cumulative effects at the between-person level are detrimental. Moreover, discrepant drinking appears most detrimental when women outdrink their partners. These findings have important implications for refining and improving upon couples-based interventions aimed at alcohol-use problems among non-clinical couples.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Mexican-Origin Adolescents in Latino Neighborhoods: A Prospective and Mixed Methods Approach

Description

Neighborhoods are important aspects of the adolescent and family ecology. Cultural developmental perspectives posit that neighborhood environments contain both promoting and inhibiting characteristics for ethnic-racial minoritized populations (García Coll et

Neighborhoods are important aspects of the adolescent and family ecology. Cultural developmental perspectives posit that neighborhood environments contain both promoting and inhibiting characteristics for ethnic-racial minoritized populations (García Coll et al., 1996). Historically, neighborhood researchers have approached Latino neighborhoods from a deficit perspective. Thus, there is limited research about how Latino neighborhoods support Latino youth development and family processes. In my dissertation, I examine both the promoting and inhibiting aspects of Latino identified neighborhoods for adolescent development.

In study 1, I prospectively examined a model in which Mexican-origin parents’ perceptions of social and cultural resources in neighborhoods may support parents to engage in higher levels of cultural socialization and, in turn, promote adolescents’ ethnic-racial identity (ERI). Findings suggest neighborhood social and cultural cohesion in late childhood promoted middle adolescents’ ERI affirmation via intermediate increases in maternal cultural socialization. Similar patterns were observed for ERI resolution, but only for adolescents whose mothers were born in the United States. Findings have critical implications for how neighborhoods support parents’ cultural socialization practices and adolescents’ ERI.

In study 2, I used a convergent mixed methods research design to compare and contrast researchers’ neighborhood assessments collected using systematic social observations (e.g., physical disorder, sociocultural symbols) with adolescents’ qualitative neighborhood assessments collected by semi-structured interviews with Mexican-origin adolescents. Using quantitative methods, I found that researchers observed varying degrees of physical disorder, physical decay, street safety, and sociocultural symbols across adolescents’ neighborhood environments. Using qualitative methods, I found that adolescents observed these same neighborhood features about half the time, but also that they often layered additional meaning on top of distinct neighborhood features. Using mixed methods I found that, in the context of high spatial concordance, there was a high degree of overlap between researchers and adolescents in terms of agreement on the presence of physical disorder, physical decay, street safety, and sociocultural symbols. Lastly, adolescents often expanded upon these neighborhood environmental features, especially with references to positive and negative affect and resources. Overall, findings from study 2 underscore the importance using mixed methods to address the shared and unique aspects of researchers’ objectivity and adolescents’ phenomenology.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Transactional processes of parent-child interactions from early to middle childhood

Description

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time.

Theoretical models support conceptualizing parent-child relationships as reciprocal and transactional with each person exerting influence on the other’s behaviors and the overall quality and valence of the relationship across time. The goals of this study were twofold: 1) determine whether there were reciprocal relations in maternal hostility and child negativity across early and middle childhood, and 2) investigate whether individual characteristics (i.e., child temperamental anger and frustration and maternal neuroticism) moderated relations found in goal one. Data were from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Empirical support was found for conceptualizing mother-child interactions as reciprocal. Maternal hostility was related to a decrease in the probability children would exhibit negative behaviors during mother-child interactions measured approximately two years later. Child negativity was also associated with a significant decrease in the probability mothers would display future hostility.

Child temperamental anger and frustration was found to moderate reciprocal relations across all three parent-to-child cross-lagged paths. Children scoring high on a dispositional proclivity to react with anger and frustration were more likely to avoid maternal hostility, via a significant decrease in negativity, across time. Moderation was also supported in two of three child-to-parent lagged paths. Finally, maternal neuroticism moderated the reciprocal effects during early childhood, such that more neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of hostility relative to mothers scoring lower on neuroticism. This affect was attenuated in middle childhood, with patterns becoming similar between mothers scoring high and low on neuroticism. Moreover, children of less neurotic mothers were more likely to demonstrate a decrease in the probability of exhibiting negativity from 36 to 54 months compared to children of more neurotic mothers. This effect also attenuated with patterns becoming negative at the grade 1 to grade 3 lag. Overall, the results from this study supported a transactional model of parent-child relationships, were consistent with the motivation literature, did not support a coercive process of interaction when the sample and measurement paradigm were low-risk, and generally suggested parents and children have an equal influence on the relational processes investigated from early to middle childhood.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Determining appropriate sample sizes and their effects on key parameters in longitudinal three-level models

Description

Through a two study simulation design with different design conditions (sample size at level 1 (L1) was set to 3, level 2 (L2) sample size ranged from 10 to 75,

Through a two study simulation design with different design conditions (sample size at level 1 (L1) was set to 3, level 2 (L2) sample size ranged from 10 to 75, level 3 (L3) sample size ranged from 30 to 150, intraclass correlation (ICC) ranging from 0.10 to 0.50, model complexity ranging from one predictor to three predictors), this study intends to provide general guidelines about adequate sample sizes at three levels under varying ICC conditions for a viable three level HLM analysis (e.g., reasonably unbiased and accurate parameter estimates). In this study, the data generating parameters for the were obtained using a large-scale longitudinal data set from North Carolina, provided by the National Center on Assessment and Accountability for Special Education (NCAASE). I discuss ranges of sample sizes that are inadequate or adequate for convergence, absolute bias, relative bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), and coverage of individual parameter estimates. The current study, with the help of a detailed two-part simulation design for various sample sizes, model complexity and ICCs, provides various options of adequate sample sizes under different conditions. This study emphasizes that adequate sample sizes at either L1, L2, and L3 can be adjusted according to different interests in parameter estimates, different ranges of acceptable absolute bias, relative bias, root mean squared error, and coverage. Under different model complexity and varying ICC conditions, this study aims to help researchers identify L1, L2, and L3 sample size or both as the source of variation in absolute bias, relative bias, RMSE, or coverage proportions for a certain parameter estimate. This assists researchers in making better decisions for selecting adequate sample sizes in a three-level HLM analysis. A limitation of the study was the use of only a single distribution for the dependent and explanatory variables, different types of distributions and their effects might result in different sample size recommendations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The role of Mexican American siblings in adolescence and young adulthood

Description

Siblings are a salient part of family life; however, few studies have explored the role of siblings on youths' cultural development and educational expectations. In the current dissertation, two studies

Siblings are a salient part of family life; however, few studies have explored the role of siblings on youths' cultural development and educational expectations. In the current dissertation, two studies address this gap in the literature by using longitudinal data from 246 Mexican-origin sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. The first study examined how older siblings' cultural orientations and values uniquely contribute to younger siblings' cultural orientations and values from late adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for mothers' and fathers' cultural orientations and values; further, it was explored the role of sibling modeling and sibling characteristics as moderators of these associations. Findings revealed that older siblings' cultural orientations and values contribute to younger siblings' cultural orientations and values from late adolescence into young adulthood. Specifically, under conditions of high sibling modeling, younger siblings reported higher levels of Anglo orientation and familism values. Whereas, fathers' orientations were positively associated with younger siblings' Anglo and Mexican orientations and mothers' values were predictive of younger siblings' familism values. Together, the findings suggest that siblings and parents play different roles in youths' cultural development.

The second study explored the reciprocal associations between older and younger siblings' educational expectations from early/middle adolescence to middle/late adolescence and from middle/late adolescence to young adulthood. In this study it was tested the moderating role of family immigrant context and sibling characteristics in the association between older and younger siblings' educational expectations. Findings revealed that older siblings' educational expectations at T1 predicted younger siblings' educational expectations at T2. Further, older siblings' educational expectations at T2 continued to influence younger siblings' educational expectations at T3, and younger siblings' educational expectations at T2 also predicted older siblings' educational expectations at T3. Family immigrant context moderated the association from older siblings' educational expectations at T2 to younger siblings' educational expectations at T3, such that the association was significant for immigrant-born families, but not for U.S.-born/Mixed-status families. Our study highlights the value of siblings' roles, particularly in immigrant families, as youth make important decisions about their educational pursuits.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Exploring the role of different forms of support linked to adolescent romantic relationships

Description

Receiving support from intimate others is important to individual well-being across the lifespan. However, the role of support in adolescent romantic relationships has not been investigated extensively. Using

Receiving support from intimate others is important to individual well-being across the lifespan. However, the role of support in adolescent romantic relationships has not been investigated extensively. Using two studies, this dissertation utilized data from N = 111 adolescent couples collected as part of the Adolescents, Schools, Peers, and Interpersonal Relationships (ASPIRE) to investigate the implications of support for adolescents’ relationship quality, and positive behavioral adjustment. The first study expanded on existing research by investigating whether support given in response to a partner’s experience of a stressful event, and gauged from the perspective of the support recipient, was associated with the quality of adolescents’ romantic relationships. The study, further investigated whether the association between support and relationship quality changed depending on stress levels experienced due to the stressful event. Results from the dyadic process multilevel model showed that support receipt was associated with increased relationship quality on the same day and that this association was moderated by stress. Results imply that support processes engaged in by adolescents may operate in a similar manner as they do for adults. Implications for the research literature are discussed.

The second study examined the role of parental support in adolescents’ romantic relationships. Although, research indicates parents continue to play an important role in the socialization of their children during the adolescent years, very little is known about the role of parenting practices in the domain of adolescent romantic relationships. Study two used longitudinal data to investigate the influence of parental support of adolescent romantic relationships and parental trust on adolescents’ disclosure of information about romantic relationships and adolescent problem behaviors. Results of the Actor Partner Interdependence Model indicated that parental support of romantic relationships but not parental trust was associated with increases in adolescent romantic relationship disclosure at time one, and decreases in problem behaviors at time two. Furthermore, important sex differences emerged. Sex differences and implications for parents of adolescents are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Adolescents' emotional well-being during developmental turning points: help and hindrance from interpersonal relationships

Description

In two complementary studies, I used an innovative ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine associations between adolescents’ daily interactions with parents and peers and their mood states during two

In two complementary studies, I used an innovative ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine associations between adolescents’ daily interactions with parents and peers and their mood states during two developmentally normative, yet demanding contexts: romantic relationships and the transition to college. The first study examined how adolescents’ daily romantic relationship experiences (e.g., romantic emotionality, conflict, affiliation) were related to negative affective states. Eighty-eight adolescent romantic couples (Mage = 16.74 , SD = 0.96; 44% Latina/o, 42% White) completed short electronic surveys twice-weekly for 12 weeks, which assessed their affective states and their relationship processes (24 total possible surveys). Results indicated that greater conflict and negative romantic emotionality predicted greater within-person fluctuations in same-day negative affect. Greater daily affiliation with a romantic partner predicted slightly lower levels of same-day negative affect; positive romantic emotionality did not significantly predict negative affect.

Study 2 examined first-year college students’ growth trajectories in positive and negative affect across the transition to college (i.e., spanning the entire first semester), predicted said trajectories and daily affective states. Participants were 146 first-year college students from a large southwestern university entering their first semester of college (Mage = 17.8, SD = 0.5). Electronic diary surveys were administered to students twice weekly between July and December of 2014, so as to span the transition to college and the entire first semester, and assessed daily affective states and interpersonal interactions. Results indicated that students decreased in their positive affect gradually across the first semester, but remained stable in their negative affect. Significant variability emerged around these average trends, and was predicted by indices of conflict and involvement with parents and friends. Generally, greater involvement with friends and parents was associated with greater positive and less negative affect, whereas greater conflict with these important social groups predicted greater negative affect. Together, these studies underscore the importance of positive attachments during developmentally-challenging contexts experienced in adolescence.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017