Matching Items (15)

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Misconceptions of emergent semiconductor phenomena

Description

The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV

The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were observed across the phenomena. Overall, the presence and prevalence of both general and emergent misconceptions indicates that learners have limited understandings of the physical and emergent mechanisms for the phenomena. Even though additional work is required, the identification of specific misconceptions can be utilized to enhance semiconductor and PV course content. Specifically, changes can be made to curriculum in order to limit the formation of misconceptions as well as promote conceptual change.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Perceived control of the attribution process: measurement and theory

Description

The primary objective of this study was to develop the Perceived Control of the Attribution Process Scale (PCAPS), a measure of metacognitive beliefs of causality, or a perceived control of

The primary objective of this study was to develop the Perceived Control of the Attribution Process Scale (PCAPS), a measure of metacognitive beliefs of causality, or a perceived control of the attribution process. The PCAPS included two subscales: perceived control of attributions (PCA), and awareness of the motivational consequences of attributions (AMC). Study 1 (a pilot study) generated scale items, explored suitable measurement formats, and provided initial evidence for the validity of an event-specific version of the scale. Study 2 achieved several outcomes; Study 2a provided strong evidence for the validity and reliability of the PCA and AMC subscales, and showed that they represent separate constructs. Study 2b demonstrated the predictive validity of the scale and provided support for the perceived control of the attribution process model. This study revealed that those who adopt these beliefs are significantly more likely to experience autonomy and well-being. Study 2c revealed that these constructs are influenced by context, yet they lead to adaptive outcomes regardless of this contextual-specificity. These findings suggest that there are individual differences in metacognitive beliefs of causality and that these differences have measurable motivational implications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Screening in school-wide positive behavior supports: methodogical comparisons

Description

Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior

Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior techniques with a system wide problem solving model. Aspects of this model are still being developed in the research community, including assessment techniques which aid the decision making process. Tools for screening entire student populations are examples of such assessment interests. Although screening tools which have been described as "empirically validated" and "cost effective" have been around since at least 1991, they have yet to become standard practice (Lane, Gresham, & O'Shaughnessy 2002). The lack of widespread implementation to date raises questions regarding their ecological validity and actual cost-effectiveness, leaving the development of useful tools for screening an ongoing project for many researchers. It may be beneficial for educators to expand the range of measurement to include tools which measure the symptoms at the root of the problematic behaviors. Lane, Grasham, and O'Shaughnessy (2002) note the possibility that factors from within a student, including those that are cognitive in nature, may influence not only his or her academic performance, but also aspects of behavior. A line of logic follows wherein measurement of those factors may aid the early identification of students at risk for developing disorders with related symptoms. The validity and practicality of various tools available for screening in SWPBS were investigated, including brief behavior rating scales completed by parents and teachers, as well as performance tasks borrowed from the field of neuropsychology. All instruments showed an ability to predict children's behavior, although not to equal extents. A discussion of practicality and predictive utility of each instrument follows.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Sub-par attributions: why women give up golf

Description

In the United States, recreational female golfers give up golf at twice the rate of recreational male golfers. This study explored the causal attributions of 240 recreational golfers after a

In the United States, recreational female golfers give up golf at twice the rate of recreational male golfers. This study explored the causal attributions of 240 recreational golfers after a practice session at a public golf facility. Attributions can be adaptive or maladaptive after a performance and can influence subsequent motivation to engage in a similar task again. It was hypothesized that male and female golfers would make significantly different attributions for their performance and that female golfers' attributions would be maladaptive. As the attrition rate for female golfers is highest in the first five years, it is also hypothesized that women's attributions will become more adaptive over time and that attributions will be moderated by the number of years playing golf and perceived level of success. A survey was used to measure golfers' attributions and general questions provided data for the number of years playing golf and gender. The subscales in the attribution survey were internal control, external control and stability. Attributions are adaptive or maladaptive depending on the level of perceived success, so success of the practice performance was collected. The hypothesis that recreational female golfers make significantly different attributions than recreational male golfers was supported only by the external control sub-scale. Female golfers perceived their performance as significantly less successful than male golfers. Considering this perception of success, women golfers' attributions were maladaptive. The hypothesis that women golfers' attributions become more adaptive over time was supported. Time playing golf predicted a significant amount of variance for internal attributions of female golfers. However, the hypothesis that attributions will be moderated by the number of years playing golf and perceived success was not supported.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Connecting to the future: a revised measure of exogenous perceptions of instrumentality

Description

The primary objective of this study was to revise a measure of exogenous instrumentality, part of a larger scale known as the Perceptions of Instrumentality Scale (Husman, Derryberry, Crowson, &

The primary objective of this study was to revise a measure of exogenous instrumentality, part of a larger scale known as the Perceptions of Instrumentality Scale (Husman, Derryberry, Crowson, & Lomax, 2004) used to measure future oriented student value for course content. Study 1 piloted the revised items, explored the factor structure, and provided initial evidence for the reliability and validity of the revised scale. Study 2 provided additional reliability evidence but a factor analysis with the original and revised scale items revealed that the revised scale was measuring a distinct and separate construct that was not exogenous instrumentality. Here this new construct is called extrinsic instrumentality for grade. This study revealed that those that endorse a high utility value for grade report lower levels of connectedness (Husman & Shell, 2008) and significantly less use of knowledge building strategies (Shell, et al., 2005). These findings suggest that there are additional types of future oriented extrinsic motivation that should be considered when constructing interventions for students, specifically non-major students. This study also provided additional evidence that there are types of extrinsic motivation that are adaptive and have positive relationships with knowledge building strategies and connectedness to the future. Implications for the measurement of future time perspective (FTP) and its relationship to these three proximal, future oriented, course specific measures of value are also discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Future time perspective, socio-emotional regulation, and diurnal cortisol patterns in post-secondary engineering students

Description

Built upon Control Value Theory, this dissertation consists of two studies that examine university students’ future-oriented motivation, socio-emotional regulation, and diurnal cortisol patterns in understanding students’ well-being in the academic-context.

Built upon Control Value Theory, this dissertation consists of two studies that examine university students’ future-oriented motivation, socio-emotional regulation, and diurnal cortisol patterns in understanding students’ well-being in the academic-context. Study 1 examined the roles that Learning-related Hopelessness and Future Time Perspective Connectedness play in predicting students’ diurnal cortisol patterns, diurnal cortisol slope (DS) and cortisol awakening response (CAR). Self-reported surveys were collected (N = 60), and diurnal cortisol samples were provided over two waves, the week before a mid-term examination (n = 46), and the week during students’ mid-term (n = 40). Using multi-nomial logistic regression, results showed that Learning-related Hopelessness was not predictive of diurnal cortisol pattern change after adjusting for key covariates; and that Future Time Perspective Connectedness predicted higher likelihood for students to have low CAR across both waves of data collection. Study 2 examined students’ future-oriented motivation (Future Time Perspective Value) and socio-emotional regulation (Effortful Control and Social Support) in predicting diurnal cortisol patterns over the course of a semester. Self-reported surveys were collected (N = 67), and diurnal cortisol samples were provided over three waves of data collection, at the beginning of the semester (n = 63), during a stressful academic period (n = 47), and during a relaxation phase near the end of the semester (n = 43). Results from RM ANCOVA showed that Non-academic Social Support was negatively associated with CAR at the beginning of the semester. Multi-nomial logistics regression results indicated that Future Time Perspective Value and Academic Social Support jointly predicted CAR pattern change. Specifically, the interaction term marginally predicted a higher likelihood of students switching from having high CAR at the beginning or stressful times in the semester to having low CAR at the end the semester, compared to those who had low CAR over all three waves. The two studies have major limits in sample size, which restricted the full inclusion of all hypothesized covariates in statistical models, and compromised interpretability of the data. However, the methodology and theoretical implications are unique, providing contributions to educational research, specifically with regard to post-secondary students’ academic experience and well-being.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Endogenous and exogenous instrumentality on student motivation and achievement

Description

Instrumentality is an important motivational construct that empathizes the connection between a present task and a future goal. Instrumentality is conceptualized as a task-specific variable. Reflecting context-dependent characteristics, two different

Instrumentality is an important motivational construct that empathizes the connection between a present task and a future goal. Instrumentality is conceptualized as a task-specific variable. Reflecting context-dependent characteristics, two different types of instrumentality are distinguished: endogenous and exogenous instrumentality. Endogenous instrumentality is the perception that learning in a present task is useful to achieving valued future goals and exogenous instrumentality is the perception that outcome in a present task is instrumental to achieving valued future goals. This study investigated the differential relationships among each instrumentality type, academic achievements, and motivational variables. Three studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between each type of instrumentality and students’ achievement and motivational variables such as achievement goals, situational interests, and pressure and the moderating role of self-efficacy on the relationship. Study 1 investigated how endogenous and exogenous instrumentality was related to students’ achievement respectively. In addition, it was examined whether self-efficacy moderated in the relationship between each instrumentality and achievement. Study 2 was conducted to find that how each instrumentality was related to three different types of achievement goals, which were mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Interaction between each type of instrumentality and self-efficacy was examined to find a moderating effect by self-efficacy on accounting for the relationship between instrumentality and achievement goals. Study 3 examined the role of each instrumentality on situational interest, pressure and achievement. The results showed that endogenous instrumentality predicted grade positively regardless students’ self-efficacy level, whereas exogenous instrumentality positively predicted grade of students with high self-efficacy and negatively predicted grade of students with low-self-efficacy. In addition, endogenous instrumentality predicted mastery goals positively and performance-avoidance goals negatively, whereas exogenous instrumentality predicted both performance-approach and performance avoidance goals positively. Moreover, students with high self-efficacy were less likely to adopt performance-avoidance goals when they perceived more endogenous instrumentality. It was also found that endogenous instrumentality was a positive predictor of situational interest and a negative predictor of pressure, whereas exogenous instrumentality was a negative predictor of situational interest and as a positive predictor of pressure. There was a mediating effect of pressure on the relationship between each instrumentality and grade.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Future time perspective and strategy development of incarcerated young adults

Description

Possible selves research has focused primarily on academic achievement and student learning, for at-risk, adolescent or college aged students. The research has not examined an occupation possible self, nor the

Possible selves research has focused primarily on academic achievement and student learning, for at-risk, adolescent or college aged students. The research has not examined an occupation possible self, nor the implications of how time is considered by incarcerated populations. This study was designed to expand the Possible Selves Questionaire (PSQ) designed by Oyserman for an occupational achievement code and explore any unique codes present for incarcerated young adult males, aged 18-22. Additionally, this study was designed to compare two distinct time horizons for incarcerated young adults, a more proximal one-year event which would represent continued incarceration and a post-release distal time horizon.

A pilot study was conducted to establish the occupation and population codes, coding system, member checks and review processes that were then applied to interview 126 incarcerated young adult males between the ages of 18 and 22 in Arizona correctional facilities. The study produced not only an occupational achievement code, but also refined codes for interpersonal relationships requiring the addition of a spiritual/social code to account for church activities, religion, and spiritual groups, while narrowing the existing interpersonal relationships code to focus on family, children, a spouse or partner. Analysis demonstrated that incarcerated young adults create fewer identified strategies and have fewer aligned strategies to achieve post-release goals. Time served and expected sentences were determined to be significantly associated with the identification of goals, strategies, and development of aligned strategies. The impact of the different time horizon events of during and post incarceration were significant as well, participants identified five times as many goals one year from now in comparison to post-release, and on average 1.5 more strategies to achieve identified goals.

The study demonstrated that the participants expected sentence was a significantly associated covariate to the number of Future Possible Selves’(FPS) defined, number of strategies defined to achieve those FPS goals, and number of aligned strategies to FPS goals across time horizons of 1 year and post release. However, time served was only found to be a statistically significant covariate for both goal identification and strategy identification, not strategy alignment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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From conflict to common ground: establishing Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education (ReCCEE)

Description

Evolution is the foundation of biology, yet it remains controversial even among college biology students. Acceptance of evolution is important for students if we want them to incorporate evolution into

Evolution is the foundation of biology, yet it remains controversial even among college biology students. Acceptance of evolution is important for students if we want them to incorporate evolution into their scientific thinking. However, students’ religious beliefs are a consistent barrier to their acceptance of evolution due to a perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Using pre-post instructional surveys of students in introductory college biology, Study 1 establishes instructional strategies that can be effective for reducing students' perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Through interviews and qualitative analyses, Study 2 documents how instructors teaching evolution at public universities may be resistant towards implementing strategies that can reduce students' perceived conflict, perhaps because of their own lack of religious beliefs and lack of training and awareness about students' conflict with evolution. Interviews with religious students in Study 3 reveals that religious college biology students can perceive their instructors as unfriendly towards religion which can negatively impact these students' perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Study 4 explores how instructors at Christian universities, who share the same Christian backgrounds as their students, do not struggle with implementing strategies that reduce students' perceived conflict between religion and evolution. Cumulatively, these studies reveal a need for a new instructional framework for evolution education that takes into account the religious cultural difference between instructors who are teaching evolution and students who are learning evolution. As such, a new instructional framework is then described, Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education (ReCCEE), that can help instructors teach evolution in a way that can reduce students' perceived conflict between religion and evolution, increase student acceptance of evolution, and create more inclusive college biology classrooms for religious students.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Banning corporal punishment in Taiwan: a narrative exploration of teacher change and critical examination of the legal ban

Description

Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement

Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use of corporal punishment. From the narratives of the teachers who believed in corporal punishment, we see how the school system itself contributed to passing, mostly without educators' consciousness of doing so, from one generation to another, a punitive mind that deems punishment a necessity and humans to be incapable of self-regulation without extrinsic force. It is this punitive way of thinking, deeply rooted in Taiwanese culture that was challenged by the legal ban. The transformation of the punitive mind requires a psychological subject-object perspective move that allows the mind to break the identification with a previously built teacher identity submitting to coercive authority. Alternative values, beliefs, and ideas--particularly the caring, trusting, respectful and persuasive approaches to interpersonal relationship--must be brought into personal experiences in order to transform the punitive mind. However, the availability of alternatives does not guarantee transformation, nor does a pure logical reasoning of the alternatives make true transformation to happen. Transformation was discovered to happen in those moments, either in narrative critical reflection or in action, when the mind sees those stories of others or themselves that were once familiar but can be realized, interpreted, retold, or recreated if using a new set of assumptions and perspectives. The effects of the legal ban were mixed. It contributed to the decline of the most well-recognized form of corporal punishment--hitting students by sticks--and offered teachers who disbelieve corporal punishment, previously questioned and crowed out by their colleagues who hit, a strong backup to justify their opposition to sticks. And the ban created opportunities for teacher to learn alternatives. Nevertheless, because the wrongdoing-punishment disciplinary framework still dominates school campuses, the ban also led to the increase or creation of new forms of coercive and humiliating measures that could not be constrained by this legal ban.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013