Matching Items (20)

136669-Thumbnail Image.png

FROM SUBSISTENCE TO SURPLUS: HELPING FARMERS IN RURAL PERU TO INCREASE CROP PRODUCTION BY IMPROVING SOILS

Description

"Seventy five percent of the world's poor live in rural areas of developing countries, where most people's livelihoods rely directly on agriculture." (USAid, 2014) Reduced levels of crop production and

"Seventy five percent of the world's poor live in rural areas of developing countries, where most people's livelihoods rely directly on agriculture." (USAid, 2014) Reduced levels of crop production and the accompanying problems of malnourishment exist all over the world. In rural Peru, for example, 11 percent of the population is malnourished. (Global Healthfacts.org, 2012) Since the success in agriculture relies importantly on the fertility of the soil, it is imperative that any efforts at reversing this trend be primarily directed at improving the existing soils. This, in turn, will increase crop yields, and if done properly, will also conserve natural resources and maximize profits for farmers. In order to improve the lives of those at the bottom of the pyramid through agriculture, certain tools and knowledge must be provided in order to empower such persons to help themselves. An ancient method of soil improvement, known as Terra Preta do Indio (Indian dark earth), was discovered by Anthropologists in the 1800's. These dark, carbon-rich, soils are notable for their high fertility, high amounts of plant available nutrients, and their high moisture retention rates. The key to their long-lasting fertility and durability is the presence of high levels of biochar, a highly stable organic carbon \u2014 produced when organic matter (crop residues, food waste, manure, etc.) is burned at low temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Research has shown that when charcoal (biochar) and fertilizers are combined, it can yield as much as 880 percent more than when fertilizers are used by themselves. (Steiner, University of Bayreuth, 2004)

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

136670-Thumbnail Image.png

Perceptual Training for Sensor Operators: Scenario Development

Description

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become a major threat to military personnel in recent years. In the United States Army, Mission Payload Operators (MPOs) operate cameras from unmanned aerial vehicles

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become a major threat to military personnel in recent years. In the United States Army, Mission Payload Operators (MPOs) operate cameras from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to detect the threat of IEDs using real-time images received. Previous researchers obtained the expert knowledge of twelve MPOs at Fort Huachuca and learned that they rely on "behavioral signatures," the behavioral and environmental cues associated with IED threat rather than the IED itself (Cooke, Hosch, Banas, Hunn, Staszewski & Fensterer, 2010). To the best of our knowledge, no formal MPO training exists and all training is acquired on-the-job. The end goal is to create training systems for future MPOs using cognitive engineering based on expert skill (CEBES) that focus on detection of behavioral cues associated with IED threats. The complexity and dynamicity of cues associated with IED emplacement is to be noted, as such cues are influenced by sociocultural knowledge and often develop over significant periods of time. A dynamic full motion video simulation environment has been created, and embedded with cues elicited from expert MPOs. A three-part simulation has been created. The next step is verifying critical cues MPOs identify and focus on using eye tracking equipment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

How to Survive College

Description

Attending college brings on new experiences and challenges. In order to survive college, a student must figure out what resources are available to them and what will help them succeed.

Attending college brings on new experiences and challenges. In order to survive college, a student must figure out what resources are available to them and what will help them succeed. The purpose of this study is to learn about what students struggle with the most. Students were also asked about what advice they have for future students and what they would change about their own experience. Participants of the study consisted of ASU students 18 or older. Information was collected through interviews, an online survey, and a paper survey. Many students feel that high school has not prepared them for college. Some students continue to struggle with time management. With students coming from many different backgrounds, it is up to the college to provide resources to help students to succeed. However, it is up to the student to make the effort to find, ask, and use these resources. The student ultimately decides to use the resources and tools provided to them in order to survive college.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

134350-Thumbnail Image.png

Perception of American Pit Bull Terriers

Description

Behavior traits were examined in an observed experiment with the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Wal Mart, Pet Smart) with searching

Behavior traits were examined in an observed experiment with the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Wal Mart, Pet Smart) with searching for behavior traits (positive, negative) with an American Pit Bull Terrier present. In contrast to the hypothesis, there was more positive behavior traits than negative behavior traits. Together, these findings suggest that the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier has a more positive outlook on the breed rather than negative. Similar studies should be conducted to change the legislation in regard of "Pit Bulls" that cause discrimination against the breed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

135134-Thumbnail Image.png

The Colored Computer: Effects of Color on Implicit Biases

Description

This thesis offers a look into color theory and how it applies to commonly-used electronics, with computers being the main focus. This is done by employing research in user interface

This thesis offers a look into color theory and how it applies to commonly-used electronics, with computers being the main focus. This is done by employing research in user interface design, color theory, Brief Implicit Association Task validity, and Mechanical Turk participant validity. This study utilizes a recent modification of the more widely known implicit association task and takes advantage of MTurk's pool of subjects for its' data. Via a BIAT, implicit associations between red or blue colored computer images and "analytic" or "creative" synonyms were examined. No significant associations were found, despite strong background research. These findings suggest that further research is needed in this area before broader conclusions can be made.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

135535-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of Texting Using a Head Mounted Display on Brake Reaction Time and Time Headway

Description

Previous research on the effect of smartphone use on user distraction has primarily focused on phone calls and various forms of texting. As technology progresses, drivers are now able to

Previous research on the effect of smartphone use on user distraction has primarily focused on phone calls and various forms of texting. As technology progresses, drivers are now able to use HMD (head-mounted displays) and other hands-free devices. HMDs allow users to have their eyes directed to the road, however open the user to inattentional blindness and give them a false sense of security. The present study compared the effects of two smartphone tasks and two Head Mounted Display (HMD) tasks on car following performance in a driving simulator. Simulation tasks were chosen across two factors: Devices used (Smartphone vs. HMD) and Condition of the Participant (Distracted vs. Not Distracted). Brake Reaction Times (BRT) were significantly slower in the condition in which the user had to text off of the HMD when compared to the Baseline condition (p=.004) and moderately significant when compared to the Texting condition (p=.059). Although there are many applications that might help users by lessening workloads, currently wearing HMDs cause drivers to become overconfident by following lead cars closer while increasing their reaction time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

134825-Thumbnail Image.png

The Relationship between Hearing Impairment, Workplace Stress, and Coping Mechanisms

Description

This study explores the connection between hearing impairment, workplace (social, performance, and employer) stressors, and self-efficacy beliefs. The aim was to compute the statistical significance, direction, and strength between specific

This study explores the connection between hearing impairment, workplace (social, performance, and employer) stressors, and self-efficacy beliefs. The aim was to compute the statistical significance, direction, and strength between specific stressors and self-efficacy beliefs to see how individuals manage workplace stress overall. In addition, the literature review and a qualitative analysis of open-ended responses from six participants were examined to determine effective coping mechanisms. Descriptive quantitative analysis, frequency charts, t-tests, correlational matrices, and ANOVAs were used to calculate relationships between demographics, stress, and self-efficacy ratings. The results show that self-efficacy and stress are negatively correlated and that self-efficacy and coping techniques are positively correlated. In addition, positive work experiences are correlated with lower stress and higher self-efficacy. Amongst workplace stressors, social stress outranks performance and employer stressors. The opposite trend shows in workplace self-efficacy where performance and employer self-efficacy beliefs are greater than social self-efficacy. Hearing loss level and communication style (e.g., speech, lip reading, sign language) were two important demographic factors in determining stress and self-efficacy levels. Effective coping mechanisms that participants reported included mindfulness, and breaks, whereas ineffective coping included avoidance coping.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

135482-Thumbnail Image.png

Perceptions of Writing Errors

Description

This study set out to determine how students perceive writing quality in the presence of specific errors. Error pattern was a within-subjects variable with four levels: no errors, superficial (mechanical)

This study set out to determine how students perceive writing quality in the presence of specific errors. Error pattern was a within-subjects variable with four levels: no errors, superficial (mechanical) errors, substantive (conceptual) errors, and both types of errors. All participants assessed a randomized selection of four essays containing each of the four error patterns. Overall ratings of writing quality decreased with the presence of errors; superficial errors had a significantly larger impact than substantive errors. In addition, participants rated traits about the author of the essays lower with the presence of errors in a similar pattern to writing quality.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

135215-Thumbnail Image.png

The Development and Validation of LGBT Bias Content for Use in an Online Training Program

Description

Previous research has shown that an individual's bias can have a negative impact on behavior. One proposed method of modifying such behavior is vicarious (observational) learning. In the current study,

Previous research has shown that an individual's bias can have a negative impact on behavior. One proposed method of modifying such behavior is vicarious (observational) learning. In the current study, the researcher explored the possibility of using vicarious learning to create an effective training video on LGBT bias. The researcher predicted that a vicarious learning video would be more effective at reducing negative LGBT bias than an informationally-equivalent control video. Participants completed the Explicit Attitudes of Sexuality questionnaire (EASQ), were randomized into one of two groups (vicarious or control), watched the assigned training video, and then completed the EASQ again to measure any changes in LGBT bias. The results of the study indicated that the vicarious video was no more effective in reducing negative LGBT bias when compared to the control. Additionally it was found that the vicarious training video was significantly more effective in eliciting new knowledge when compared to the control. The researcher discusses these findings in relation to Social Cognitive Theory for Personal and Social Change by Enabling Media. The researcher also explains how findings of insignificance could have been caused by a selection bias, self-report bias, and/or not enough treatment dosage.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

133390-Thumbnail Image.png

Teamwork in Orchestras

Description

The knowledge of cognitive processes of teams and how they work as a system, has drastically broadened in recent years. However, few researchers have applied their findings to an orchestral

The knowledge of cognitive processes of teams and how they work as a system, has drastically broadened in recent years. However, few researchers have applied their findings to an orchestral setting. In the current study, team cognition was observed and analyzed based off an 8th grade orchestra, in addition to the middle and highest-level orchestras at a junior high and high school in the Arizona Public School system. It was found, that in the 8th grade orchestra, most communication is either given or received in the form of auditory cues both verbal and musical. Regardless of skill level, groups that have higher interactions during practices have better performances.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05