Matching Items (9)

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The indices of bone changes in response to exercise

Description

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus can be used as indicators of bone change but the sensitivity and time course of these indices to short term interventions are unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold: to compare monthly changes in OST and QUS in response to jump training and to evaluate the relationship between DXA, OST and QUS. Young women with QUS t-scores less than 1.0 were randomized into a jump training (J) (n=16) or control (C) (n=16). J consisted of a progressive routine of 1 and 2-footed jumping performed 3 days per week for 4 months. Body composition, QUS and OST were measured at baseline, and monthly for 4 months. DXA and 24-hour dietary recalls were completed at baseline and 4 months. Low attrition rate (12.5%) and high compliance (98%) with the exercise intervention was recorded. No significant correlations between QUS and OST existed. No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline in body composition or bone variables. Monthly increases in OST were observed but there were no significant differences over time between groups in any bone variables. OST and QUS may be indicative of short term bone changes but these variables were not specifically sensitive to the jumping intervention in this population of women.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Effect of a lifestyle and Type 2 diabetes-prevention intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress in obese prediabetic Latino youth

Description

Background. Effects of lifestyle interventions on early biomarkers of oxidative stress and CVD risk in youth with prediabetes are unknown. Objective. To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention to

Background. Effects of lifestyle interventions on early biomarkers of oxidative stress and CVD risk in youth with prediabetes are unknown. Objective. To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes among obese prediabetic Latino adolescents on oxidized lipoproteins. Design: In a quasi-experimental design, 35 adolescents (51.4% male, age 15.5(1.0) y, body mass index (BMI) percentile 98.5(1.2), and glucose 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test-OGTT 141.2(12.2) mg/dL) participated in a 12-week intervention that included weekly exercise (three 60 min-sessions) and nutrition education (one 60 min-session). Outcomes measured at baseline and post-intervention were: fasting oxidized LDL and oxidized HDL (oxLDL and oxHDL) as oxidative stress variables; dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetable (F&V) and fitness (VO2max) as behavioral variables; weight, BMI, body fat, and waist circumference as anthropometric variables; fasting glucose and insulin, 2hour glucose and insulin after an OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid panel (triglycerides, total cholesterol, VLDL-c, LDL-c, HDL-c, and Non-HDL) as cardiometabolic variables. Results. Comparing baseline to post-intervention, significant decreases in oxLDL concentration were shown (51.0(14.0) and 48.7(12.8) U/L, p=0.022); however, the intervention did not decrease oxHDL (395.2(94.6) and 416.1(98.4) ng/mL, p=0.944). F&V dietary intake (116.4(97.0) and 165.8(91.0) g/d, p=0.025) and VO2max (29.7(5.0) and 31.6(4.7) ml*kg-1*min-1, p<0.001) significantly increased. Within-subjects correlations between changes in F&V intake and oxidized lipoproteins, adjusted for VO2max changes, were non-significant (R=-0.15, p=0.52 for oxLDL; R=0.22, p=0.25 for oxHDL). Anthropometric variables were significantly reduced (weight -1.3% p=0.042; BMI -2.2% and BMI percentile -0.4%, p=0.001; body fat -6.6% and waist circumference -1.8%, p=0.025). Cardiometabolic variables significantly improved, including reductions in glucose 2hour (-19.3% p<0.001), fasting insulin (-12.9% p=0.008), insulin 2hour (-53.5% p<0.001), and HOMA-IR (-12.5% p=0.015), with 23 participants (66%) that reverted toward a normal glucose tolerance status. Most lipid panel significantly changed (triglycerides -10.2% p=0.032; total cholesterol -5.4% p=0.002; VLDL-c -10.4% p=0.029; HDL-c -3.2% p=0.022; and Non-HDL -5.5% p=0.0007). Conclusion. The intervention resulted in differential effects on oxidized lipoproteins and significant improvements in behavioral, anthropometric and cardiometabolic variables, reducing the high metabolic risk of obese prediabetic kids.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Effect of a Wii Fit® intervention on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in middle-aged women

Description

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on its preventative ability in non-clinical populations. The purpose was to determine the impact of 12-weeks of interactive play with the Wii Fit® on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in peri- menopausal women. METHODS: 24 peri-menopausal-women were randomized into study groups. Balance was assessed using the Berg/FICSIT-4 and a force plate. Muscular strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/180°/240°/sec and endurance was assessed using 50 repetitions at 240°/sec. Bone health was tracked using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the hip/lumbar spine and qualitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel. Serum osteocalcin was assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Physical activity was quantified using the Women's Health Initiative Physical Activity Questionnaire and dietary patterns were measured using the Nurses' Health Food Frequency Questionnaire. All measures were repeated at weeks 6 and 12, except for the DXA, which was completed pre-post. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in diet and PA between groups. Wii Fit® training did not improve scores on the Berg/FICSIT-4, but improved center of pressure on the force plate for Tandem Step, Eyes Closed (p-values: 0.001-0.051). There were no significant improvements for muscular fitness at any of the angular velocities. DXA BMD of the left femoral neck improved in the intervention group (+1.15%) and decreased in the control (-1.13%), but no other sites had significant changes. Osteocalcin indicated no differences in bone turnover between groups at baseline, but the intervention group showed increased bone turnover between weeks 6 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that WiiFit® training may improve balance by preserving center of pressure. QUS, DXA and osteocalcin data confirm that those in the intervention group were experiencing more bone turnover and bone formation than the control group. In summary, twelve weeks of strength /balance training with the Wii Fit® shows promise as a preventative intervention to reduce fall and fracture risk in non-clinical middle aged women who are at risk.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Interest in alternative approaches for gestational weight gain and maternal stress management: a survey

Description

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Studies have reported more than 70% of pregnant women gain excessive weight which may pose increased maternal

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Studies have reported more than 70% of pregnant women gain excessive weight which may pose increased maternal and fetal risks. Little is known about the relationships of GWG to behavioral factors (i.e., physical activity, sleep, social support) and maternal mental health (i.e., stress, anxiety, depression) during pregnancy. This descriptive, cross-sectional study explored the relationships of GWG to behavioral factors and maternal mental health during pregnancy. Secondarily, this study described the preferences, uses of, and interests in alternative approaches as well as the mental health differences between users and non-users of alternative approaches during pregnancy. A national survey was administered to women ≥8 weeks pregnant, ≥18 years old, and residing in the United States (N=968). Bivariate correlations were used to determine relationships between GWG and variables of interest. Independent t-tests were used to observe mental health differences between users and non-users of alternative approaches. Data were analyzed throughout pregnancy and by trimester. Throughout pregnancy, significant relationships were found in GWG to stressful events (r=-.112, p<.01), depression (r=.066, p<.05), mindfulness (r=-.067, p<.05), and sleep (r=.089, p<.01). When GWG was assessed by trimester, stressful events were significant in the second (r=-.216, p<.01) and third trimesters (r=-.085, p<.05). Depression remained positively related to GWG in the first (r=.409, p<.01) and second trimesters (r=.162, p<.01). A positive relationship emerged between GWG and anxiety in the first trimester (r=.340, p<.01) and physical activity became significant in the second (r=-.136; p<.05) and third trimesters (r=-.100; p<.05). Mindfulness was the only variable significantly related to GWG throughout all time points. Mean anxiety (d=.236; p=.001) and depression (d=.265; p<.001) scores were significantly lower in users compared to non-users of alternative approaches throughout pregnancy and when assessed by trimester anxiety (d=.424; p=.001) and depression (d=.526; p<.001) were significant in the second trimester. This study provides a framework for future analyses in GWG and maternal mental health. The information presented here may inform future interventions to test the effectiveness of alternative approaches to simultaneously manage maternal mental health and GWG due to the integrative nature of alternative approaches.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Novel Exploration of Temporal Relationships Between Self-Worth and Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

Description

Research provides increasing support of self-worth, non-physical motives, and body image for predicting physical activity in women. However, no empirical tests of these associations have been conducted. Ecological momentary assessment

Research provides increasing support of self-worth, non-physical motives, and body image for predicting physical activity in women. However, no empirical tests of these associations have been conducted. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been recognized as useful for understanding correlates of physical activity. This study tested the feasibility of a novel EMA protocol and explored temporal relationships between daily self-worth and physical activity in middle-aged women. Women aged 35-64 years (N=63; M age=49.2±8.2 years) received text message prompts to an Internet-based mobile survey three times daily for 28 days. The survey assessed momentary activity, self-worth (knowledge, emotional, social, physical, general), and self-efficacy. Women concurrently wore an accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist. Feasibility was assessed via accelerometer wear-time estimates, survey completion rates, and participant feedback. Multilevel models examined the predictive influence of self-worth on daily activity counts. Self-efficacy was also tested due to known relationships with self-worth and physical activity in women. Wear time was high (952.92 ± 100.99 min per day), with only 141 observations lost to non-wear. However, 449 were lost to accelerometer malfunction. Women completed 80.8% of surveys. After excluding missing physical activity data, 67.5% of observations (N=3573) were analyzed. Although women thought the survey was easy to complete, perceptions of the accelerometer were mixed. Approximately 34% of the variance in daily counts was within individuals (ICC=0.66). Average self-efficacy (β=0.005, p=0.009), daily fluctuations in self-efficacy (β=0.001, p<0.001), and daily fluctuations in general self-worth (β=0.04, p=0.003) predicted daily activity. There were significant individual differences in relationships between daily fluctuations in emotional (β=0.006, p=0.02) and general self-worth (β=0.005, p=0.02) and daily activity. The use of text message prompts and an Internet-based mobile survey was feasible for conducting EMA in middle-aged women. Research identifying optimal methods of behavior monitoring in longitudinal studies is needed. Results provide support for small but significant associations among daily fluctuations in self-efficacy and general self-worth and daily activity in middle-aged women. The impact of emotional self-worth may differ across women. Further research examining the transient natures of self-efficacy and general self-worth, improving self-worth scales, and testing momentary strategies to increase women's self-worth and physical activity is warranted.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Vitamin C supplementation and physical activity levels in young men

Description

Among its many roles in the body, ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor in carnitine and catecholamine synthesis, metabolites involved in fat oxidation and mood regulation, respectively. Given that

Among its many roles in the body, ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor in carnitine and catecholamine synthesis, metabolites involved in fat oxidation and mood regulation, respectively. Given that fat oxidation and mood affect one's feelings of vigor, I hypothesized that those with lower levels of plasma ascorbic acid would be less likely to exercise at high levels than individuals with adequate or high levels of vitamin C. To test this, I conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A group of healthy, non-smoking males between the ages of 18 and 40 were put on a vitamin C-restricted diet for two weeks and then randomized to a control group that received placebo capsules for six weeks or an intervention group that received 500 mg of vitamin C daily for six weeks. The men were restricted from eating foods high in vitamin C, instructed to wear a pedometer daily and to record their step counts, and to take a pill daily (either the placebo or vitamin C supplement). Unexpectedly, the subjects receiving the intervention had lower step counts than the control group; the control group, rather than the vitamin C group, significantly (p=0.017) increased their steps at week 8 compared to week 2. However, I also estimated daily Metabolic Equivalent Tasks (METs), and subjects receiving the placebo had lower MET outputs than subjects receiving vitamin C at the end of the trial, in spite of having higher step counts. This means the intensity of their activity was higher, based on METs expenditure. Additionally, depression scores (POMS-D) as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire were significantly higher (p=0.041) among subjects receiving the placebo at the end of the study. These latter results are consistent with my expectations that subjects with higher levels of plasma vitamin C would have improved mood and higher energy output than subjects with low levels of vitamin C.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

The Power of Yoga: Investigating the Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of a Prenatal Yoga Intervention to Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain

Description

Excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) affects 50% of US pregnant women and may be an important contributor to obesity in both the mother and child. Novel strategies to prevent EGWG

Excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) affects 50% of US pregnant women and may be an important contributor to obesity in both the mother and child. Novel strategies to prevent EGWG are needed to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes for the mother and child. This dissertation presents three manuscripts that 1) propose a novel model to explain how prenatal yoga may prevent EGWG through behavioral, psychological/emotional, and physical factors, 2) test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a prenatal yoga intervention to prevent EGWG compared to a pregnancy education comparison group, and 3) qualitatively investigate pregnant women’s experiences participating in a prenatal yoga intervention to prevent EGWG. In manuscript two, 49 women were recruited and randomized to a 12-week prenatal yoga intervention (n=23) or a time-matched pregnancy education comparison group (n=26). A satisfaction survey was administered at post-intervention to assess feasibility outcomes (e.g., acceptability, demand). Mindfulness, emotion regulation, self-awareness, sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (12-weeks) and GWG was assessed weekly. Linear mixed models were used to analyze pre-post changes in primary (i.e., GWG during pregnancy) and secondary (i.e., mindfulness, emotion regulation, self-awareness, sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and stress) outcomes. In manuscript three, interviews were conducted with pregnant women who participated in the prenatal yoga intervention (n=13). Interview responses were summarized using an inductive approach to thematic analysis. Findings in manuscript two suggest that prenatal yoga was a feasible method to prevent EGWG with high enjoyment and satisfaction reported among participants. The average number of prenatal yoga sessions attended was 8.84 (SD = 3.85). There was no significant group differences on the rate of GWG or total GWG throughout the intervention and a significant group x time interaction effect for stress (p=.03). In manuscript three, twelve themes were identified among the data and were organized into the following categories (three themes each): 1) experiences of prenatal yoga, 2) prenatal yoga and weight, 3) barriers to prenatal yoga, and 4) facilitators of prenatal yoga. This initial evidence suggests that prenatal yoga has potential as a strategy to prevent EGWG in pregnant women.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Does It Work for Me? Supporting Self-Experimentation of Simple Health Behavior Interventions

Description

Many individual-level behavioral interventions improve health and well-being. However, most interventions exhibit considerable heterogeneity in response. Put differently, what might be effective on average might not be effective for specific

Many individual-level behavioral interventions improve health and well-being. However, most interventions exhibit considerable heterogeneity in response. Put differently, what might be effective on average might not be effective for specific individuals. From an individual’s perspective, many healthy behaviors exist that seem to have a positive impact. However, few existing tools support people in identifying interventions that work for them, personally.

One approach to support such personalization is via self-experimentation using single-case designs. ‘Hack Your Health’ is a tool that guides individuals through an 18-day self-experiment to test if an intervention they choose (e.g., meditation, gratitude journaling) improves their own psychological well-being (e.g., stress, happiness), whether it fits in their routine, and whether they enjoy it.

The purpose of this work was to conduct a formative evaluation of Hack Your Health to examine user burden, adherence, and to evaluate its usefulness in supporting decision-making about a health intervention. A mixed-methods approach was used, and two versions of the tool were tested via two waves of participants (Wave 1, N=20; Wave 2, N=8). Participants completed their self-experiments and provided feedback via follow-up surveys (n=26) and interviews (n=20).

Findings indicated that the tool had high usability and low burden overall. Average survey completion rate was 91%, and compliance to protocol was 72%. Overall, participants found the experience useful to test if their chosen intervention helped them. However, there were discrepancies between participants’ intuition about intervention effect and results from analyses. Participants often relied on intuition/lived experience over results for decision-making. This suggested that the usefulness of Hack Your Health in its current form might be through the structure, accountability, and means for self-reflection it provided rather than the specific experimental design/results. Additionally, situations where performing interventions within a rigorous/restrictive experimental set-up may not be appropriate (e.g., when goal is to assess intervention enjoyment) were uncovered. Plausible design implications include: longer experimental and phase durations, accounting for non-compliance, missingness, and proximal/acute effects, and exploring strategies to complement quantitative data with participants’ lived experiences with interventions to effectively support decision-making. Future work should explore ways to balance scientific rigor with participants’ needs for such decision-making.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Feasibility of Using Prompts to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Office Workers with Sit-Stand Workstations: A randomized Cross-Over Trial

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven and a atheoretical reminder point-of-choice (PoC) prompt interventions on reducing workplace sedentary behavior in

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven and a atheoretical reminder point-of-choice (PoC) prompt interventions on reducing workplace sedentary behavior in office workers with self-reported low usage (<4 hours per day) of their sit-stand workstations in the standing position. The design of this study was a cross-over trial including randomization into either the theory-driven or atheoertical reminder condition, after completion of a no prompt control condition. Participants (N=19) included full-time, primarily female, Caucasian, middle-aged office workers. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of these two PoC prompt conditions on reducing sedentary behaviors through the use of a Therapy Evaluation Questionnaire. The secondary aim of this study was to assess the preliminary efficacy of the two PoC prompt conditions on reducing sedentary behaviors relative to no-prompt control using the activPAL micro device. For the primary aim, descriptive means adjusted for ordering effect were computed. For the secondary aim, mixed-effects regression models were used to cluster for observations within-persons and were adjusted for age, gender, race, job-type, and ordering effects. During the no-prompt control, participants spent 267.90 ± 68.01 sitting and 170.20 ± 69.34 min/8hr workday standing. The reminder PoC prompt condition significantly increased sanding time (b[se] = 24.52 [11.09], p=0.034) while the theory-driven PoC condition significantly decreased time spent in long sitting bouts b[se] = -34.86 [16.20], p=0.036), both relative to no prompt control. No statistically significant reductions in sitting time were seen in either PoC prompt condition. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between the two PoC prompt conditions were observed. This study provides feasibility insight in addition to objective measures of sedentary behaviors regarding the use of PoC prompt interventions in the workplace.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018