Matching Items (20)

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Electroplating of Aluminium on Silicon in an Ionic Liquid

Description

Electroplating of aluminum (Al) on silicon (Si) substrates has been demonstrated in an above-room-temperature ionic liquid for the metallization of wafer-Si solar cells. The electrolyte was prepared by mixing anhydrous aluminum chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate. The plating was carried out

Electroplating of aluminum (Al) on silicon (Si) substrates has been demonstrated in an above-room-temperature ionic liquid for the metallization of wafer-Si solar cells. The electrolyte was prepared by mixing anhydrous aluminum chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate. The plating was carried out by means of galvanostatic electrolysis. The structural and compositional properties of the Al deposits were characterized, and the sheet resistance of the deposits revealed the effects of pre-bake conditions, deposition temperature, and post-deposition annealing conditions. It was found that dense, adherent Al deposits with resistivity in the high 10-6 Ω-cm range can be reproducibly obtained directly on Si substrates.

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2014-11-30

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Characterization of Al/Si Junctions on Si(100) Wafers With Chemical Vapor Deposition-Based Sulfur Passivation

Description

Chemical vapor deposition-based sulfur passivation using hydrogen sulfide is carried out on both n-type and p-type Si(100) wafers. Al contacts are fabricated on sulfur-passivated Si(100) wafers and the resultant Schottky barriers are characterized with current–voltage (I–V), capacitance–voltage (C–V) and activation-energy

Chemical vapor deposition-based sulfur passivation using hydrogen sulfide is carried out on both n-type and p-type Si(100) wafers. Al contacts are fabricated on sulfur-passivated Si(100) wafers and the resultant Schottky barriers are characterized with current–voltage (I–V), capacitance–voltage (C–V) and activation-energy methods. Al/S-passivated n-type Si(100) junctions exhibit ohmic behavior with a barrier height of <0.078 eV by the I–V method and significantly lower than 0.08 eV by the activation-energy method. For Al/S-passivated p-type Si(100) junctions, the barrier height is ~0.77 eV by I–V and activation-energy methods and 1.14 eV by the C–V method. The discrepancy between C–V and other methods is explained by image force-induced barrier lowering and edge-leakage current. The I–V behavior of an Al/S-passivated p-type Si(100) junction remains largely unchanged after 300 °C annealing in air. It is also discovered that heating the S-passivated Si(100) wafer before Al deposition significantly improves the thermal stability of an Al/S-passivated n-type Si(100) junction to 500 °C.

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2014-09-01

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Electrical and thermal transport in alternative device technologies

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The goal of this research work is to develop a particle-based device simulator for modeling strained silicon devices. Two separate modules had to be developed for that purpose: A generic bulk Monte Carlo simulation code which in the long-time limit

The goal of this research work is to develop a particle-based device simulator for modeling strained silicon devices. Two separate modules had to be developed for that purpose: A generic bulk Monte Carlo simulation code which in the long-time limit solves the Boltzmann transport equation for electrons; and an extension to this code that solves for the bulk properties of strained silicon. One scattering table is needed for conventional silicon, whereas, because of the strain breaking the symmetry of the system, three scattering tables are needed for modeling strained silicon material. Simulation results for the average drift velocity and the average electron energy are in close agreement with published data. A Monte Carlo device simulation tool has also been employed to integrate the effects of self-heating into device simulation for Silicon on Insulator devices. The effects of different types of materials for buried oxide layers have been studied. Sapphire, Aluminum Nitride (AlN), Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Diamond have been used as target materials of interest in the analysis and the effects of varying insulator layer thickness have also been investigated. It was observed that although AlN exhibits the best isothermal behavior, diamond is the best choice when thermal effects are accounted for.

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2013

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Codoped zinc oxide by a novel co-spray deposition technique for solar cells applications

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Zinc oxide (ZnO), a naturally n-type semiconductor has been identified as a promising candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in solar cells, because of its wide bandgap (3.37 eV), abundant source materials and suitable refractive

Zinc oxide (ZnO), a naturally n-type semiconductor has been identified as a promising candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in solar cells, because of its wide bandgap (3.37 eV), abundant source materials and suitable refractive index (2.0 at 600 nm). Spray deposition is a convenient and low cost technique for large area and uniform deposition of semiconductor thin films. In particular, it provides an easier way to dope the film by simply adding the dopant precursor into the starting solution. In order to reduce the resistivity of undoped ZnO, many works have been done by doping in the ZnO with either group IIIA elements or VIIA elements using spray pyrolysis. However, the resistivity is still too high to meet TCO's resistivity requirement. In the present work, a novel co-spray deposition technique is developed to bypass a fundamental limitation in the conventional spray deposition technique, i.e. the deposition of metal oxides from incompatible precursors in the starting solution. With this technique, ZnO films codoped with one cationic dopant, Al, Cr, or Fe, and an anionic dopant, F, have been successfully synthesized, in which F is incompatible with all these three cationic dopants. Two starting solutions were prepared and co-sprayed through two separate spray heads. One solution contained only the F precursor, NH 4F. The second solution contained the Zn and one cationic dopant precursors, Zn(O 2CCH 3) 2 and AlCl 3, CrCl 3, or FeCl 3. The deposition was carried out at 500 &degC; on soda-lime glass in air. Compared to singly-doped ZnO thin films, codoped ZnO samples showed better electrical properties. Besides, a minimum sheet resistance, 55.4 &ohm;/sq, was obtained for Al and F codoped ZnO films after vacuum annealing at 400 &degC;, which was lower than singly-doped ZnO with either Al or F. The transmittance for the Al and F codoped ZnO samples was above 90% in the visible range. This co-spray deposition technique provides a simple and cost-effective way to synthesize metal oxides from incompatible precursors with improved properties.

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2013

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Silver Recovery from Silver Fluoride Solution for Solar Module Recycling

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As Energy needs grow and photovoltaics expand to meet humanity’s demand for electricity, waste modules will start building up. Tao et. al. propose a recycling process to recover all precious solar cell materials, a process estimated to generate a potential

As Energy needs grow and photovoltaics expand to meet humanity’s demand for electricity, waste modules will start building up. Tao et. al. propose a recycling process to recover all precious solar cell materials, a process estimated to generate a potential $15 billion in revenue by 2050. A key part of this process is metal recovery, and specifically, silver recovery. Silver recovery via electrowinning was studied using a hydrofluoric acid leachate/electrolyte. Bulk electrolysis trials were performed at varied voltages using a silver working electrode, silver pseudo-reference electrode and a graphite counter-electrode. The highest mass recovery achieved was 98.8% which occurred at 0.65 volts. Product purity was below 90% for all trials and coulombic efficiency never reached above 20%. The average energy consumption per gram of reduced silver was 2.16kWh/kg. Bulk electrolysis indicates that parasitic reactions are drawing power from the potentiostat and limiting the mass recovery of the system. In order to develop this process to the practical use stage, parasitic reactions must be eliminated, and product purity and power efficiency must improve. The system should be run in a vacuum environment and the reduction peaks in the cell should be characterized using cyclic voltammetry.

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2020-12

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Tuning the Band Gap of Hematite Alpha-Fe2O3 by Sulfur Doping

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Based on the density functional theory, the band structure and optical absorption of the isovalent sulfur-doped hematite alpha-Fe2O3 are studied systematically. The results show that the band gap of alpha-Fe2O3-xSx decreases monotonically with increasing the sulfur concentration, resulting in an

Based on the density functional theory, the band structure and optical absorption of the isovalent sulfur-doped hematite alpha-Fe2O3 are studied systematically. The results show that the band gap of alpha-Fe2O3-xSx decreases monotonically with increasing the sulfur concentration, resulting in an obvious increase of the optical absorption edge in the visible range. Most intriguingly, unlike the pure alpha-Fe2O3 material, the alpha-Fe2O3-xSx with x approximate to 0.17 (S concentration of similar to 5.6%) exhibits a direct band gap of an ideal value (similar to 1.45 eV), together with high optical absorption (similar to 10(5) cm(-1)) and lower carriers effective masses. These results indicate that alpha-Fe2O3-xSx, with a proper concentration of sulfur, may serve as a promising candidate for low-cost solar-cell materials.

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2013-09-05

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Monocrystalline ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructure solar cells grown on InSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

Description

There has been recent interest in demonstrating solar cells which approach the detailed-balance or thermodynamic efficiency limit in order to establish a model system for which mass-produced solar cells can be designed. Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe heterostructures are currently one of many

There has been recent interest in demonstrating solar cells which approach the detailed-balance or thermodynamic efficiency limit in order to establish a model system for which mass-produced solar cells can be designed. Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe heterostructures are currently one of many competing solar cell material systems. Despite being polycrystalline, efficiencies up to 21 % have been demonstrated by the company First Solar. However, this efficiency is still far from the detailed-balance limit of 32.1 % for CdTe. This work explores the use of monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe and ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DHs) grown on (001) InSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for photovoltaic applications.

Undoped CdTe/MgCdTe DHs are first grown in order to determine the material quality of the CdTe epilayer and to optimize the growth conditions. DH samples show strong photoluminescence with over double the intensity as that of a GaAs/AlGaAs DH with an identical layer structure. Time-resolved photoluminescence of the CdTe/MgCdTe DH gives a carrier lifetime of up to 179 ns for a 2 µm thick CdTe layer, which is more than one order of magnitude longer than that of polycrystalline CdTe films. MgCdTe barrier layers are found to be effective at confining photogenerated carriers and have a relatively low interface recombination velocity of 461 cm/s. The optimal growth temperature and Cd/Te flux ratio is determined to be 265 °C and 1.5, respectively.

Monocrystalline ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe P-n-N DH solar cells are designed, grown, processed into solar cell devices, and characterized. A maximum efficiency of 6.11 % is demonstrated for samples without an anti-reflection coating. The low efficiency is mainly due to the low open-circuit voltage (Voc), which is attributed to high dark current caused by interface recombination at the ZnTe/CdTe interface. Low-temperature measurements show a linear increase in Voc with decreasing temperature down to 77 K, which suggests that the room-temperature operation is limited by non-radiative recombination. An open-circuit voltage of 1.22 V and an efficiency of 8.46 % is demonstrated at 77 K. It is expected that a coherently strained MgCdTe/CdTe/MgCdTe DH solar cell design will produce higher efficiency and Voc compared to the ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe design with relaxed ZnTe layer.

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2014

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Novel materials, grid design rule, and characterization methods for multi-junction solar cells

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This dissertation addresses challenges pertaining to multi-junction (MJ) solar cells from material development to device design and characterization. Firstly, among the various methods to improve the energy conversion efficiency of MJ solar cells using, a novel approach proposed recently is

This dissertation addresses challenges pertaining to multi-junction (MJ) solar cells from material development to device design and characterization. Firstly, among the various methods to improve the energy conversion efficiency of MJ solar cells using, a novel approach proposed recently is to use II-VI (MgZnCd)(SeTe) and III-V (AlGaIn)(AsSb) semiconductors lattice-matched on GaSb or InAs substrates for current-matched subcells with minimal defect densities. CdSe/CdTe superlattices are proposed as a potential candidate for a subcell in the MJ solar cell designs using this material system, and therefore the material properties of the superlattices are studied. The high structural qualities of the superlattices are obtained from high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images. The effective bandgap energies of the superlattices obtained from the photoluminescence (PL) measurements vary with the layer thicknesses, and are smaller than the bandgap energies of either the constituent material. Furthermore, The PL peak position measured at the steady state exhibits a blue shift that increases with the excess carrier concentration. These results confirm a strong type-II band edge alignment between CdSe and CdTe. The valence band offset between unstrained CdSe and CdTe is determined as 0.63 eV±0.06 eV by fitting the measured PL peak positions using the Kronig-Penney model. The blue shift in PL peak position is found to be primarily caused by the band bending effect based on self-consistent solutions of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations. Secondly, the design of the contact grid layout is studied to maximize the power output and energy conversion efficiency for concentrator solar cells. Because the conventional minimum power loss method used for the contact design is not accurate in determining the series resistance loss, a method of using a distributed series resistance model to maximize the power output is proposed for the contact design. It is found that the junction recombination loss in addition to the series resistance loss and shadowing loss can significantly affect the contact layout. The optimal finger spacing and maximum efficiency calculated by the two methods are close, and the differences are dependent on the series resistance and saturation currents of solar cells. Lastly, the accurate measurements of external quantum efficiency (EQE) are important for the design and development of MJ solar cells. However, the electrical and optical couplings between the subcells have caused EQE measurement artifacts. In order to interpret the measurement artifacts, DC and small signal models are built for the bias condition and the scan of chopped monochromatic light in the EQE measurements. Characterization methods are developed for the device parameters used in the models. The EQE measurement artifacts are found to be caused by the shunt and luminescence coupling effects, and can be minimized using proper voltage and light biases. Novel measurement methods using a pulse voltage bias or a pulse light bias are invented to eliminate the EQE measurement artifacts. These measurement methods are nondestructive and easy to implement. The pulse voltage bias or pulse light bias is superimposed on the conventional DC voltage and light biases, in order to control the operating points of the subcells and counterbalance the effects of shunt and luminescence coupling. The methods are demonstrated for the first time to effectively eliminate the measurement artifacts.

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2012

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Nanowire synthesis and characterization: erbium chloride silicate and two segment CdS-CdSe nanowires and belts

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In this work, I worked on the synthesis and characterization of nanowires and belts, grown using different materials, in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system with catalytic growth method. Through this thesis, I utilized the Photoluminescence (PL), Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM),

In this work, I worked on the synthesis and characterization of nanowires and belts, grown using different materials, in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system with catalytic growth method. Through this thesis, I utilized the Photoluminescence (PL), Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to find out the properties of Erbium Chloride Silicate (ECS) and two segment CdS-CdSe samples. In the first part of my research, growth of very new material, Erbium Chloride Silicate (ECS), in form of core/shell Si/ECS and pure ECS nanowires, was demonstrated. This new material has very fascinating properties for new Si based photonic devices. The Erbium density in those nanowires is which is very high value compared to the other Erbium doped materials. It was shown that the luminescence peaks of ECS nanowires are very sharp and stronger than their counterparts. Furthermore, both PL and XRD peaks get sharper and stronger as growth temperature increases and this shows that crystalline quality of ECS nanowires gets better with higher temperature. In the second part, I did a very detail research for growing two segment axial nanowires or radial belts and report that the structure type mostly depends on the growth temperature. Since our final step is to create white light LEDs using single axial nanowires which have three different regions grown with distinct materials and give red, green and blue colors simultaneously, we worked on growing CdS-CdSe nanowires or belts for the first step of our aim. Those products were successfully grown and they gave two luminescence peaks with maximum 160 nm wavelength separation depending on the growth conditions. It was observed that products become more likely belt once the substrate temperature increases. Also, dominance between VLS and VS is very critical to determine the shape of the products and the substitution of CdS by CdSe is very effective; hence, CdSe growth time should be chosen accordingly. However, it was shown two segmented products can be synthesized by picking the right conditions and with very careful analyses. We also demonstrated that simultaneous two colors lasing from a single segmented belt structures is possible with strong enough-pumping-power.

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2012

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Waste Management and Equipment Design of Recycling Solar Cells

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In Professor Meng Tao and Wen-His Huang's paper's [1,2] the recycling process to create a sustainable Photovoltaic (PV) industry is laid out. The process utilized to recycle the materials requires the use of three semi-problematic chemicals including: Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH),

In Professor Meng Tao and Wen-His Huang's paper's [1,2] the recycling process to create a sustainable Photovoltaic (PV) industry is laid out. The process utilized to recycle the materials requires the use of three semi-problematic chemicals including: Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Nitric Acid (HNO3), and Hydrofluoric Acid (HF). By utilizing a combination of reverse osmosis filtration, pre-lime treatment, neutralization by combination, and mineral specific filtering the chemicals can either by recycled as Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standardized waste water or profitable byproducts such as Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3). For the recycling of hydrofluoric acid, a combination of pre-lime coagulation, microfiltration and a spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) system, less than 1mg/L in line with national standards for human consumption. The sodium hydroxide and nitric acid recycling process handles more contaminants that just the byproduct of the chemicals and manages this through a combination of multi-stage flash/vapor distillation along with a reverse osmosis filtration system. By utilizing both systems of recycling, a completely closed loop system for recycling silicon solar cells is laid out and creates a new standard for clean energy management.

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2016-12