Matching Items (17)

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Efficient and stable single-doped white OLEDs using a palladium-based phosphorescent excimer

Description

A tetradentate Pd(II) complex, Pd3O3, which exhibits highly efficient excimer emission is synthesized and characterized. Pd3O3 can achieve blue emission despite using phenyl-pyridine emissive ligands which have been a mainstay

A tetradentate Pd(II) complex, Pd3O3, which exhibits highly efficient excimer emission is synthesized and characterized. Pd3O3 can achieve blue emission despite using phenyl-pyridine emissive ligands which have been a mainstay of stable green and red phosphorescent emitter designs, making Pd3O3 a good candidate for stable blue or white OLEDs. Pd3O3 exhibits strong and efficient phosphorescent excimer emission expanding the excimer based white OLEDs beyond the sole class of Pt complexes. Devices of Pd3O3 demonstrate peak external quantum efficiencies as high as 24.2% and power efficiencies of 67.9 Lm per W for warm white devices. Furthermore, Pd3O3 devices in a carefully designed stable structure achieved a device operational lifetime of nearly 3000 h at 1000 cd m[superscript −2] without any outcoupling enhancement while simultaneously achieving peak external quantum efficiencies of 27.3% and power efficiencies over 81 Lm per W.

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  • 2017-09-11

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Detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy: a case study of big data analysis

Description

We develop a framework to uncover and analyse dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive datasets to eliminate

We develop a framework to uncover and analyse dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive datasets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat electroencephalogram recordings. We find a striking phenomenon: HFOs exhibit on–off intermittency that can be quantified by algebraic scaling laws. Our framework can be generalized to big data-related problems in other fields such as large-scale sensor data and seismic data analysis.

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Date Created
  • 2017-01-18

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Mechanical Characterization of the Tensile Properties of Glass Fiber and Its Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Composite under Varying Strain Rates and Temperatures

Description

Unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is tested at four initial strain rates (25, 50, 100 and 200 s[superscript −1]) and six temperatures (−25, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100

Unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is tested at four initial strain rates (25, 50, 100 and 200 s[superscript −1]) and six temperatures (−25, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C) on a servo-hydraulic high-rate testing system to investigate any possible effects on their mechanical properties and failure patterns. Meanwhile, for the sake of illuminating strain rate and temperature effect mechanisms, glass yarn samples were complementally tested at four different strain rates (40, 80, 120 and 160 s[superscript −1]) and varying temperatures (25, 50, 75 and 100 °C) utilizing an Instron drop-weight impact system. In addition, quasi-static properties of GFRP and glass yarn are supplemented as references. The stress–strain responses at varying strain rates and elevated temperatures are discussed. A Weibull statistics model is used to quantify the degree of variability in tensile strength and to obtain Weibull parameters for engineering applications.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05-19

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Directed dynamical influence is more detectable with noise

Description

Successful identification of directed dynamical influence in complex systems is relevant to significant problems of current interest. Traditional methods based on Granger causality and transfer entropy have issues such as

Successful identification of directed dynamical influence in complex systems is relevant to significant problems of current interest. Traditional methods based on Granger causality and transfer entropy have issues such as difficulty with nonlinearity and large data requirement. Recently a framework based on nonlinear dynamical analysis was proposed to overcome these difficulties. We find, surprisingly, that noise can counterintuitively enhance the detectability of directed dynamical influence. In fact, intentionally injecting a proper amount of asymmetric noise into the available time series has the unexpected benefit of dramatically increasing confidence in ascertaining the directed dynamical influence in the underlying system. This result is established based on both real data and model time series from nonlinear ecosystems. We develop a physical understanding of the beneficial role of noise in enhancing detection of directed dynamical influence.

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  • 2016-04-12

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Ground and excited states of zinc phthalocyanine, zinc tetrabenzoporphyrin, and azaporphyrin analogs using DFT and TDDFT with Franck-Condon analysis

Description

The electronic structure of eight zinc-centered porphyrin macrocyclic molecules are investigated using density functional theory for ground-state properties, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for excited states, and Franck-Condon (FC) analysis

The electronic structure of eight zinc-centered porphyrin macrocyclic molecules are investigated using density functional theory for ground-state properties, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for excited states, and Franck-Condon (FC) analysis for further characterization of the UV-vis spectrum. Symmetry breaking was utilized to find the lowest energy of the excited states for many states in the spectra. To confirm the theoretical modeling, the spectroscopic result from zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is used to compare to the TDDFT and FC result. After confirmation of the modeling, five more planar molecules are investigated: zinc tetrabenzoporphyrin (ZnTBP), zinc tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrin (ZnTBMAP), zinc tetrabenzocisdiazaporphyrin (ZnTBcisDAP), zinc tetrabenzotransdiazaporphyrin (ZnTBtransDAP), and zinc tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin (ZnTBTrAP). The two latter molecules are then compared to their phenylated sister molecules: zinc monophenyltetrabenzotriazaporphyrin (ZnMPTBTrAP) and zinc diphenyltetrabenzotransdiazaporphyrin (ZnDPTBtransDAP). The spectroscopic results from the synthesis of ZnMPTBTrAP and ZnDPTBtransDAP are then compared to their theoretical models and non-phenylated pairs. While the Franck-Condon results were not as illuminating for every B-band, the Q-band results were successful in all eight molecules, with a considerable amount of spectral analysis in the range of interest between 300 and 750 nm. The π-π [superscript ∗] transitions are evident in the results for all of the Q bands, while satellite vibrations are also visible in the spectra. In particular, this investigation finds that, while ZnPc has a D [subscript 4h] symmetry at ground state, a C [subscript 4v] symmetry is predicted in the excited-state Q band region. The theoretical results for ZnPc found an excitation energy at the Q-band 0-0 transition of 1.88 eV in vacuum, which is in remarkable agreement with published gas-phase spectroscopy, as well as our own results of ZnPc in solution with Tetrahydrofuran that are provided in this paper.

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Date Created
  • 2015-03-07

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Universal formalism of Fano resonance

Description

The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be

The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.

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Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

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Superpersistent currents and whispering gallery modes in relativistic quantum chaotic systems

Description

Persistent currents (PCs), one of the most intriguing manifestations of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect, are known to vanish for Schrödinger particles in the presence of random scatterings, e.g., due to

Persistent currents (PCs), one of the most intriguing manifestations of the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect, are known to vanish for Schrödinger particles in the presence of random scatterings, e.g., due to classical chaos. But would this still be the case for Dirac fermions? Addressing this question is of significant value due to the tremendous recent interest in two-dimensional Dirac materials. We investigate relativistic quantum AB rings threaded by a magnetic flux and find that PCs are extremely robust. Even for highly asymmetric rings that host fully developed classical chaos, the amplitudes of PCs are of the same order of magnitude as those for integrable rings, henceforth the term superpersistent currents (SPCs). A striking finding is that the SPCs can be attributed to a robust type of relativistic quantum states, i.e., Dirac whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that carry large angular momenta and travel along the boundaries. We propose an experimental scheme using topological insulators to observe and characterize Dirac WGMs and SPCs, and speculate that these features can potentially be the base for a new class of relativistic qubit systems. Our discovery of WGMs in relativistic quantum systems is remarkable because, although WGMs are common in photonic systems, they are relatively rare in electronic systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-11

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Universal flux-fluctuation law in small systems

Description

The relation between flux and fluctuation is fundamental to complex physical systems that support and transport flows. A recently obtained law predicts monotonous enhancement of fluctuation as the average flux

The relation between flux and fluctuation is fundamental to complex physical systems that support and transport flows. A recently obtained law predicts monotonous enhancement of fluctuation as the average flux is increased, which in principle is valid but only for large systems. For realistic complex systems of small sizes, this law breaks down when both the average flux and fluctuation become large. Here we demonstrate the failure of this law in small systems using real data and model complex networked systems, derive analytically a modified flux-fluctuation law, and validate it through computations of a large number of complex networked systems. Our law is more general in that its predictions agree with numerics and it reduces naturally to the previous law in the limit of large system size, leading to new insights into the flow dynamics in small-size complex systems with significant implications for the statistical and scaling behaviors of small systems, a topic of great recent interest.

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Date Created
  • 2014-10-27

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Complex behavior of chaotic synchronization under dual coupling channels

Description

Most previous works on complete synchronization of chaotic oscillators focused on the one-channel interaction scheme where the oscillators are coupled through only one variable or a symmetric set of variables.

Most previous works on complete synchronization of chaotic oscillators focused on the one-channel interaction scheme where the oscillators are coupled through only one variable or a symmetric set of variables. Using the standard framework of master-stability function (MSF), we investigate the emergence of complex synchronization behaviors under all possible configurations of two-channel coupling, which include, for example, all possible cross coupling schemes among the dynamical variables. Utilizing the classic Rössler and Lorenz oscillators, we find a rich variety of synchronization phenomena not present in any previously extensively studied, single-channel coupling configurations. For example, in many cases two coupling channels can enhance or even generate synchronization where there is only weak or no synchronization under only one coupling channel, which has been verified in a coupled neuron system. There are also cases where the oscillators are originally synchronized under one coupling channel, but an additional synchronizable coupling channel can, however, destroy synchronization. Direct numerical simulations of actual synchronization dynamics verify the MSF-based predictions. Our extensive computation and heuristic analysis provide an atlas for synchronization of chaotic oscillators coupled through two channels, which can be used as a systematic reference to facilitate further research in this area.

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  • 2015-02-18

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Quantum chaotic tunneling in graphene systems with electron-electron interactions

Description

An outstanding and fundamental problem in contemporary physics is to include and probe the many-body effect in the study of relativistic quantum manifestations of classical chaos. We address this problem

An outstanding and fundamental problem in contemporary physics is to include and probe the many-body effect in the study of relativistic quantum manifestations of classical chaos. We address this problem using graphene systems described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in the setting of resonant tunneling. Such a system consists of two symmetric potential wells separated by a potential barrier, and the geometric shape of the whole domain can be chosen to generate integrable or chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. Employing a standard mean-field approach to calculating a large number of eigenenergies and eigenstates, we uncover a class of localized states with near-zero tunneling in the integrable systems. These states are not the edge states typically seen in graphene systems, and as such they are the consequence of many-body interactions. The physical origin of the non-edge-state type of localized states can be understood by the one-dimensional relativistic quantum tunneling dynamics through the solutions of the Dirac equation with appropriate boundary conditions. We demonstrate that, when the geometry of the system is modified to one with chaos, the localized states are effectively removed, implying that in realistic situations where many-body interactions are present, classical chaos is capable of facilitating greatly quantum tunneling. This result, besides its fundamental importance, can be useful for the development of nanoscale devices such as graphene-based resonant-tunneling diodes.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12-16