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In order to catch the smartest criminals in the world, digital forensics examiners need a means of collaborating and sharing information with each other and outside experts that is not prohibitively difficult. However, standard operating procedures and the rules of evidence generally disallow the use of the collaboration software and techniques that are currently available because they do not fully adhere to the dictated procedures for the handling, analysis, and disclosure of items relating to cases. The aim of this work is to conceive and design a framework that provides a completely new architecture that 1) can perform fundamental functions that are common and necessary to forensic analyses, and 2) is structured such that it is possible to include collaboration-facilitating components without changing the way users interact with the system sans collaboration. This framework is called the Collaborative Forensic Framework (CUFF). CUFF is constructed from four main components: Cuff Link, Storage, Web Interface, and Analysis Block. With the Cuff Link acting as a mediator between components, CUFF is flexible in both the method of deployment and the technologies used in implementation. The details of a realization of CUFF are given, which uses a combination of Java, the Google Web Toolkit, Django with Apache for a RESTful web service, and an Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud using Eucalyptus. The functionality of CUFF's components is demonstrated by the integration of an acquisition script designed for Android OS-based mobile devices that use the YAFFS2 file system. While this work has obvious application to examination labs which work under the mandate of judicial or investigative bodies, security officers at any organization would benefit from the improved ability to cooperate in electronic discovery efforts and internal investigations.
In this dissertation, two interrelated problems of service-based systems (SBS) are addressed: protecting users' data confidentiality from service providers, and managing performance of multiple workflows in SBS. Current SBSs pose serious limitations to protecting users' data confidentiality. Since users' sensitive data is sent in unencrypted forms to remote machines owned and operated by third-party service providers, there are risks of unauthorized use of the users' sensitive data by service providers. Although there are many techniques for protecting users' data from outside attackers, currently there is no effective way to protect users' sensitive data from service providers. In this dissertation, an approach is presented to protecting the confidentiality of users' data from service providers, and ensuring that service providers cannot collect users' confidential data while the data is processed or stored in cloud computing systems. The approach has four major features: (1) separation of software service providers and infrastructure service providers, (2) hiding the information of the owners of data, (3) data obfuscation, and (4) software module decomposition and distributed execution. Since the approach to protecting users' data confidentiality includes software module decomposition and distributed execution, it is very important to effectively allocate the resource of servers in SBS to each of the software module to manage the overall performance of workflows in SBS. An approach is presented to resource allocation for SBS to adaptively allocating the system resources of servers to their software modules in runtime in order to satisfy the performance requirements of multiple workflows in SBS. Experimental results show that the dynamic resource allocation approach can substantially increase the throughput of a SBS and the optimal resource allocation can be found in polynomial time
The Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) framework is a standard of module system and service platform that implements a complete and dynamic component model. Currently most of OSGi implementations are implemented by Java, which has similarities of Android language. With the emergence of Android operating system, due to the similarities between Java and Android, the integration of module system and service platform from OSGi to Android system attracts more and more attention. How to make OSGi run in Android is a hot topic, further, how to find a mechanism to enable communication between OSGi and Android system is a more advanced area than simply making OSGi running in Android. This paper, which aimed to fulfill SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) and CBA (Component Based Architecture), proposed a solution on integrating Felix OSGi platform with Android system in order to build up Distributed OSGi framework between mobile phones upon XMPP protocol. And in this paper, it not only successfully makes OSGi run on Android, but also invents a mechanism that makes a seamless collaboration between these two platforms.
In modern healthcare environments, there is a strong need to create an infrastructure that reduces time-consuming efforts and costly operations to obtain a patient's complete medical record and uniformly integrates this heterogeneous collection of medical data to deliver it to the healthcare professionals. As a result, healthcare providers are more willing to shift their electronic medical record (EMR) systems to clouds that can remove the geographical distance barriers among providers and patient. Even though cloud-based EMRs have received considerable attention since it would help achieve lower operational cost and better interoperability with other healthcare providers, the adoption of security-aware cloud systems has become an extremely important prerequisite for bringing interoperability and efficient management to the healthcare industry. Since a shared electronic health record (EHR) essentially represents a virtualized aggregation of distributed clinical records from multiple healthcare providers, sharing of such integrated EHRs may comply with various authorization policies from these data providers. In this work, we focus on the authorized and selective sharing of EHRs among several parties with different duties and objectives that satisfies access control and compliance issues in healthcare cloud computing environments. We present a secure medical data sharing framework to support selective sharing of composite EHRs aggregated from various healthcare providers and compliance of HIPAA regulations. Our approach also ensures that privacy concerns need to be accommodated for processing access requests to patients' healthcare information. To realize our proposed approach, we design and implement a cloud-based EHRs sharing system. In addition, we describe case studies and evaluation results to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.
The energy consumption of data centers is increasing steadily along with the associ- ated power-density. Approximately half of such energy consumption is attributed to the cooling energy, as a result of which reducing cooling energy along with reducing servers energy consumption in data centers is becoming imperative so as to achieve greening of the data centers. This thesis deals with cooling energy management in data centers running data-processing frameworks. In particular, we propose ther- mal aware scheduling for MapReduce framework and its Hadoop implementation to reduce cooling energy in data centers. Data-processing frameworks run many low- priority batch processing jobs, such as background log analysis, that do not have strict completion time requirements; they can be delayed by a bounded amount of time. Cooling energy savings are possible by being able to temporally spread the workload, and assign it to the computing equipments which reduce the heat recirculation in data center room and therefore the load on the cooling systems. We implement our scheme in Hadoop and performs some experiments using both CPU-intensive and I/O-intensive workload benchmarks in order to evaluate the efficiency of our scheme. The evaluation results highlight that our thermal aware scheduling reduces hot-spots and makes uniform temperature distribution within the data center possible. Sum- marizing the contribution, we incorporated thermal awareness in Hadoop MapReduce framework by enhancing the native scheduler to make it thermally aware, compare the Thermal Aware Scheduler(TAS) with the Hadoop scheduler (FCFS) by running PageRank and TeraSort benchmarks in the BlueTool data center of Impact lab and show that there is reduction in peak temperature and decrease in cooling power using TAS over FCFS scheduler.
Commercial load balancers are often in use, and the production network at Arizona State University (ASU) is no exception. However, because the load balancer uses IP addresses, the solution does not apply to all applications. One such application is Rsyslog. This software processes syslog packets and stores them in files. The loss rate of incoming log packets is high due to the incoming rate of the data. The Rsyslog servers are overwhelmed by the continuous data stream. To solve this problem a software defined networking (SDN) based load balancer is designed to perform a transport-level load balancing over the incoming load to Rsyslog servers. In this solution the load is forwarded to one Rsyslog server at a time, according to one of a Round-Robin, Random, or Load-Based policy. This gives time to other servers to process the data they have received and prevent them from being overwhelmed. The evaluation of the proposed solution is conducted a physical testbed with the same data feed as the commercial solution. The results suggest that the SDN-based load balancer is competitive with the commercial load balancer. Replacing the software OpenFlow switch with a hardware switch is likely to further improve the results.
Security has been one of the top concerns in cloud community while cloud resource abuse and malicious insiders are considered as top threats. Traditionally, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) have been widely deployed to manipulate cloud security, with the latter one providing additional prevention capability. However, as one of the most creative networking technologies, Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is rarely used to implement IDPS in the cloud computing environment because the lack of comprehensive development framework and processing flow. Simply migration from traditional IDS/IPS systems to SDN environment are not effective enough for detecting and defending malicious attacks. Hence, in this thesis, we present an IPS development framework to help user easily design and implement their defensive systems in cloud system by SDN technology. This framework enables SDN approaches to enhance the system security and performance. A Traffic Information Platform (TIP) is proposed as the cornerstone with several upper layer security modules such as Detection, Analysis and Prevention components. Benefiting from the flexible, compatible and programmable features of SDN, Customized Detection Engine, Network Topology Finder, Source Tracer and further user-developed security appliances are plugged in our framework to construct a SDN-based defensive system. Two main categories Python-based APIs are designed to support developers for further development. This system is designed and implemented based on the POX controller and Open vSwitch in the cloud computing environment. The efficiency of this framework is demonstrated by a sample IPS implementation and the performance of our framework is also evaluated.
Cloud computing is known as a new and powerful computing paradigm. This new generation of network computing model delivers both software and hardware as on-demand resources and various services over the Internet. However, the security concerns prevent users from adopting the cloud-based solutions to fulfill the IT requirement for many business critical computing. Due to the resource-sharing and multi-tenant nature of cloud-based solutions, cloud security is especially the most concern in the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). It has been attracting a lot of research and development effort in the past few years.
Virtualization is the main technology of cloud computing to enable multi-tenancy.
Computing power, storage, and network are all virtualizable to be shared in an IaaS system. This important technology makes abstract infrastructure and resources available to users as isolated virtual machines (VMs) and virtual networks (VNs). However, it also increases vulnerabilities and possible attack surfaces in the system, since all users in a cloud share these resources with others or even the attackers. The promising protection mechanism is required to ensure strong isolation, mediated sharing, and secure communications between VMs. Technologies for detecting anomalous traffic and protecting normal traffic in VNs are also needed. Therefore, how to secure and protect the private traffic in VNs and how to prevent the malicious traffic from shared resources are major security research challenges in a cloud system.
This dissertation proposes four novel frameworks to address challenges mentioned above. The first work is a new multi-phase distributed vulnerability, measurement, and countermeasure selection mechanism based on the attack graph analytical model. The second work is a hybrid intrusion detection and prevention system to protect VN and VM using virtual machines introspection (VMI) and software defined networking (SDN) technologies. The third work further improves the previous works by introducing a VM profiler and VM Security Index (VSI) to keep track the security status of each VM and suggest the optimal countermeasure to mitigate potential threats. The final work is a SDN-based proactive defense mechanism for a cloud system using a reconfiguration model and moving target defense approaches to actively and dynamically change the virtual network configuration of a cloud system.
A load balancer is an essential part of many network systems. A load balancer is capable of dividing and redistributing incoming network traffic to different back end servers, thus improving reliability and performance. Existing load balancing solutions can be classified into two categories: hardware-based or software-based. Hardware-based load balancing systems are hard to manage and force network administrators to scale up (replacing with more powerful but expensive hardware) when their system can not handle the growing traffic. Software-based solutions have a limitation when dealing with a single large TCP flow. In recent years, with the fast developments of virtualization technology, a new trend of network function virtualization (NFV) is being adopted. Instead of using proprietary hardware, an NFV network infrastructure uses virtual machines running to implement network functions such as load balancers, firewalls, etc. In this thesis, a new load balancing system is designed and evaluated. This system is high performance and flexible. It can fully utilize the bandwidth between a load balancer and back end servers compared to traditional load balancers such as HAProxy. The experimental results show that using this NFV load balancer could have $n$ ($n$ is the number of back end servers) times better performance than HAProxy. Also, an extract, transform and load (ETL) application was implemented to demonstrate that this load balancer can shorten data load time. The experiment shows that when loading a large data set (18.3GB), our load balancer needs only 28\% less time than traditional load balancer.
With the software-defined networking trend growing, several network virtualization controllers have been developed in recent years. These controllers, also called network hypervisors, attempt to manage physical SDN based networks so that multiple tenants can safely share the same forwarding plane hardware without risk of being affected by or affecting other tenants. However, many areas remain unexplored by current network hypervisor implementations. This thesis presents and evaluates some of the features offered by network hypervisors, such as full header space availability, isolation, and transparent traffic forwarding capabilities for tenants. Flow setup time and throughput are also measured and compared among different network hypervisors. Three different network hypervisors are evaluated: FlowVisor, VeRTIGO and OpenVirteX. These virtualization tools are assessed with experiments conducted on three different testbeds: an emulated Mininet scenario, a physical single-switch testbed, and also a remote GENI testbed. The results indicate that network hypervisors bring SDN flexibility to network virtualization, making it easier for network administrators to define with precision how the network is sliced and divided among tenants. This increased flexibility, however, may come with the cost of decreased performance, and also brings additional risks of interoperability due to a lack of standardization of virtualization methods.