Matching Items (16)

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In-Depth Interviews With State Public Health Practitioners on the United States National Physical Activity Plan

Description

Background: The United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP; 2010), the country’s first national plan for physical activity, provides strategies to increase population-level physical activity to complement the 2008 physical activity guidelines. This study examined state public health practitioner awareness, dissemination,

Background: The United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP; 2010), the country’s first national plan for physical activity, provides strategies to increase population-level physical activity to complement the 2008 physical activity guidelines. This study examined state public health practitioner awareness, dissemination, use, challenges, and recommendations for the NPAP.

Methods: In 2011–2012, we interviewed 27 state practitioners from 25 states. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using a standard protocol, verified and reconciled by an independent coder, and input into qualitative software to facilitate development of common themes.

Results: NPAP awareness was high among state practitioners; dissemination to local constituents varied. Development of state-level strategies and goals was the most frequently reported use of the NPAP. Some respondents noted the usefulness of the NPAP for coalitions and local practitioners. Challenges to the plan included implementation cost, complexity, and consistency with other policies. The most frequent recommendation made was to directly link examples of implementation activities to the plan.

Conclusions: These results provide early evidence of NPAP dissemination and use, along with challenges encountered and suggestions for future iterations. Public health is one of eight sectors in the NPAP. Further efforts are needed to understand uptake and use by other sectors, as well as to monitor long-term relevance, progress, and collaboration across sectors.

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Created

Date Created
2013-06-04

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Associations of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Middle-Aged Chinese Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

Description

Background: High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration

Background: High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing.

Methods: The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2max]). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high).

Results: High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P < 0.05). Compared to high CRF, the odds ratios for having ≥3 main CVD risk factors (overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in low and moderate CRF were 2.09 (95% CI: 1.48-2.94) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.29-2.62), respectively. The proportion of participants with clinical ST segment depression and prolonged QTC interval during cycle ergometer testing was significantly higher in women with low CRF.

Conclusions: Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05-01

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Sedentary Behavior and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in African Americans: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Jackson Heart Study

Description

Background: Previous studies have reported conflicting results as to whether an association exists between sedentary time and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. These studies, however, were limited by lack of consideration of sedentary behavior in leisure versus non-leisure settings.

Background: Previous studies have reported conflicting results as to whether an association exists between sedentary time and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. These studies, however, were limited by lack of consideration of sedentary behavior in leisure versus non-leisure settings. To elucidate this relation, we investigated the associations of television (TV) viewing time and occupational sitting with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a subclinical atherosclerosis measure, in a community-based sample of African Americans.

Methods: We studied 3410 participants from the Jackson Heart Study, a single-site, community-based study of African Americans residing in Jackson, MS. CIMT was assessed by ultrasonography and represented mean far-wall thickness across right and left sides of the common carotid artery. TV viewing time, a measure of leisure sedentary behavior, and occupational sitting, a measure of non-leisure sedentary behavior, were assessed by questionnaire.

Results: In a multivariable regression model that included physical activity and CVD risk factors, longer TV viewing time (2–4 h/day and >4 h/day) was associated with greater CIMT (adjusted mean ± SE difference from referent [<2 h/day] of 0.009 ± 0.008 mm for 2–4 h/day, and 0.028 ± 0.009 mm for >4 h/day; P-trend =0.001). In contrast, more frequent occupational sitting (‘sometimes’ and ‘often/always’) was associated with lower CIMT (adjusted mean ± SE difference from referent [‘never/seldom’]:−0.021 ± 0.009 mm for ‘sometimes’, and−0.018 ± 0.008 mm for ‘often/always’; P-trend = 0.042).

Conclusions: Longer TV viewing time was associated with greater CIMT, while occupational sitting was associated with lower CIMT. These findings suggest the role of sedentary behaviors in the pathogenesis of CVD among African Americans may vary by whether individuals engage in leisure versus non-leisure sedentary behaviors.

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Created

Date Created
2016-03-01

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Incorporating religion and spirituality into the design of community-based physical activity programs for African American women: a qualitative inquiry

Description

Objective
Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how spirituality and religion can be leveraged

Objective
Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how spirituality and religion can be leveraged in the design of community-based physical activity programs for African American women delivered outside of faith-based or faith-placed settings.
Results
Three focus groups were conducted were conducted with 23 African American women (M age = 37.8 years, M BMI = 39.6 kg m[superscript 2]). Results showed that incorporating aspects of spirituality (i.e., words encouraging connectedness to a higher power, meditation, mind–body activities) into a physical activity program was universally accepted among participants, regardless of religious affiliation. In contrast, including concepts of religion (i.e., bible verses and/or quotes from religious leaders) was controversial and not recommended among women who did not identify with a religious faith. Findings indicate that when developing community-based physical activity interventions that will not be delivered through faith-based or faith-placed settings, researchers should avoid references to specific religious beliefs. Instead, interventions should focus on spirituality and emphasize the mind–body relationship between physical activity and an African American women’s inner-being and her connectedness with a higher power.

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Created

Date Created
2017-10-23

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The CDC Healthy Aging Research Network: Advancing Science Toward Action and Policy for the Evidence-Based Health Promotion Movement

Description

Despite recent progress in the uptake of evidence-based health promotion (EBHP) programs within communities, many factors contribute to the need to focus on dissemination. These include the growth in the aging population, health care resource limitations, and interests in preserving

Despite recent progress in the uptake of evidence-based health promotion (EBHP) programs within communities, many factors contribute to the need to focus on dissemination. These include the growth in the aging population, health care resource limitations, and interests in preserving community-based opportunities for maintaining independence and maximizing quality of life. For these reasons, The Prevention Research Centers’ Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Healthy Aging Program, has as its core mission, to translate effective healthy aging interventions into sustainable community-based programs. Researchers and community-based stakeholders collaborate across HAN’s seven member center and two affiliate universities (Figure 1) to develop and implement health promotion programs for older adults at individual, organizational, environmental, and policy levels (1–3). This commentary highlights selected HAN contributions to the EBHP movement from 2001 to 2014. These contributions serve as examples of potential models for future partnership efforts to enhance implementation, dissemination, and sustainability of EBHP programs.

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Created

Date Created
2015-04-27

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Novel Exploration of Temporal Relationships Between Self-Worth and Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

Description

Research provides increasing support of self-worth, non-physical motives, and body image for predicting physical activity in women. However, no empirical tests of these associations have been conducted. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been recognized as useful for understanding correlates of

Research provides increasing support of self-worth, non-physical motives, and body image for predicting physical activity in women. However, no empirical tests of these associations have been conducted. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been recognized as useful for understanding correlates of physical activity. This study tested the feasibility of a novel EMA protocol and explored temporal relationships between daily self-worth and physical activity in middle-aged women. Women aged 35-64 years (N=63; M age=49.2±8.2 years) received text message prompts to an Internet-based mobile survey three times daily for 28 days. The survey assessed momentary activity, self-worth (knowledge, emotional, social, physical, general), and self-efficacy. Women concurrently wore an accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist. Feasibility was assessed via accelerometer wear-time estimates, survey completion rates, and participant feedback. Multilevel models examined the predictive influence of self-worth on daily activity counts. Self-efficacy was also tested due to known relationships with self-worth and physical activity in women. Wear time was high (952.92 ± 100.99 min per day), with only 141 observations lost to non-wear. However, 449 were lost to accelerometer malfunction. Women completed 80.8% of surveys. After excluding missing physical activity data, 67.5% of observations (N=3573) were analyzed. Although women thought the survey was easy to complete, perceptions of the accelerometer were mixed. Approximately 34% of the variance in daily counts was within individuals (ICC=0.66). Average self-efficacy (β=0.005, p=0.009), daily fluctuations in self-efficacy (β=0.001, p<0.001), and daily fluctuations in general self-worth (β=0.04, p=0.003) predicted daily activity. There were significant individual differences in relationships between daily fluctuations in emotional (β=0.006, p=0.02) and general self-worth (β=0.005, p=0.02) and daily activity. The use of text message prompts and an Internet-based mobile survey was feasible for conducting EMA in middle-aged women. Research identifying optimal methods of behavior monitoring in longitudinal studies is needed. Results provide support for small but significant associations among daily fluctuations in self-efficacy and general self-worth and daily activity in middle-aged women. The impact of emotional self-worth may differ across women. Further research examining the transient natures of self-efficacy and general self-worth, improving self-worth scales, and testing momentary strategies to increase women's self-worth and physical activity is warranted.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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The feasibility of a spirituality-based wellness program on stress reduction and health behavior change

Description

Introduction: Several faith-based or faith-placed programs have focused on the physical dimension of wellness in efforts to improve health by increasing physical activity and improving diet behaviors. However, these programs were not designed to intervene on the mental dimension of

Introduction: Several faith-based or faith-placed programs have focused on the physical dimension of wellness in efforts to improve health by increasing physical activity and improving diet behaviors. However, these programs were not designed to intervene on the mental dimension of wellness which is critical for stress reduction and health behavior change. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a spirituality-based stress reduction and health behavior change intervention using the Spiritual Framework of Coping (SFC) model. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental one group pretest posttest design. The study was a total of eight weeks conducted at a non-denominational Christian church. Participants were recruited from the church through announcements and flyers. The Optimal Health program met once a week for 1.5 hours with weekly phone calls during an additional four week follow-up period. Feasibility was assessed by the acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, integration, and limited efficacy of the program. Analysis: Frequencies for demographics were assessed. Statistical analyses of feasibility objectives were assessed by frequencies and distribution of responses to feasibility evaluations. Limited efficacy of pretest and posttest measures were conducted using paired t-test (p <.05). Results: The Optimal Health Program was positively accepted by participants. The demand for the program was shown with average attendance of 78.7%. The program was successfully implemented as shown by meeting session objectives and 88% homework completion. The program was both practical for the intended participants and was successfully integrated within the existing environment. Limited efficacy changes within the program were mostly non-significant. Conclusion: This study tested the feasibility of implementing the Optimal Health program that specifically targeted the structural components of the Spiritual Framework of Coping Model identified to create meaning making and enhance well-being. This program may ultimately be used to help individuals improve and balance the spiritual, mental, and physical dimensions of wellness. However, length of study and limited efficacy measures will need to be reevaluated for program success.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Comparison of concentric and eccentric bench press

Description

Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable

Eccentric muscle action (ECC) occurs when the force exerted by a working muscle is less than that of an outside resistance. This is characterized by muscle lengthening, despite actin-myosin crossbridge formation. Research has indicated that muscles acting eccentrically are capable of producing more force when compared to muscles acting concentrically. Further, research has shown ECC muscle actions may have different fatigue patterns that CON actions. The purpose of this study was to determine if a) ECC bench press yields greater strength than concentric (CON) as measured by one-repetition maximum (1RM), b) there is a difference between the number of repetitions that can be completed concentrically and eccentrically under the same relative intensities of 1RM (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%), c) a prediction model may be able to predict ECC 1RM from CON 1RM or CON repetitions to fatigue. For this study, 30 healthy males (age = 24.63 + 5.6 years) were tested for 1RM in CON and ECC bench press, as well as the number of repetitions they were able to complete at various intensities of mode-specific 1RM. A mechanical hoist was affixed to a gantry crane and placed over a standard weightlifting bench. The hoist was connected to 45lb plates that were loaded on a standard barbell, which allowed for mechanical raising and lowering of the barbell. For CON repetitions, the weight was mechanically lowered to the chest and the participant pressed it up. For ECC repetitions, the weight was mechanically raised and the participant lowered it. Paired t-tests showed that ECC 1RM was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CON 1RM (ECC =255.17 + 68.37lbs, CON = 205.83 + 58.43lbs). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of repetitions completed at 90% 1RM (CON = 4.57 + 2.21 repetitions, ECC = 7.67 + 3.24 repetitions). There were no differences in repetitions completed at any other intensity 1RM. CON 1RM and the number of repetitions completed with two different absolute loads (130-150lbs and 155-175lbs) concentrically and eccentrically were valid predictors of ECC 1RM. These data indicate that ECC actions yield increased force capabilities than CON actions, there is no difference in the rate of the fatigue, and ECC 1RM may be predicted from various CON tests.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Posture, mobility, and 30-day hospital readmission in older adults with heart failure

Description

Background: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults and has the highest 30-day readmission rate of all diagnoses. An estimated 30 to 60 percent of older adults lose some degree of physical function in the course

Background: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults and has the highest 30-day readmission rate of all diagnoses. An estimated 30 to 60 percent of older adults lose some degree of physical function in the course of an acute hospital stay. Few studies have addressed the role of posture and mobility in contributing to, or improving, physical function in older hospitalized adults. No study to date that we are aware of has addressed this in the older heart failure population.

Purpose: To investigate the predictive value of mobility during a hospital stay and patterns of mobility during the month following discharge on hospital readmission and 30-day changes in functional status in older heart failure patients.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 21 older (ages 60+) patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. Patients wore two inclinometric accelerometers (rib area and thigh) to record posture and an accelerometer placed at the ankle to record ambulatory activity. Patients wore all sensors continuously during hospitalization and the ankle accelerometer for 30 days after hospital discharge. Function was assessed in all patients the day after hospital discharge and again at 30 days post-discharge.

Results: Five patients (23.8%) were readmitted within the 30 day post-discharge period. None of the hospital or post-discharge mobility measures were associated with readmission after adjustment for covariates. Higher percent lying time in the hospital was associated with slower Timed Up and Go (TUG) time (b = .08, p = .01) and poorer hand grip strength (b = -13.94, p = .02) at 30 days post-discharge. Higher daily stepping activity during the 30 day post-discharge period was marginally associated with improvements in SPPB scores at 30 days (b = <.001, p = .06).

Conclusion: For older heart failure patients, increased time lying while hospitalized is associated with slower walking time and poor hand grip strength 30 days after discharge. Higher daily stepping after discharge may be associated with improvements in physical function at 30 days.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Effects of Motor-Assisted and Functional Electrical Stimulation Cyclings on Postprandial Glucose in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes and Activities of Daily Living Disability

Description

Background: Effective glucose management using exercise modalities in older patients with type 2 diabetes and activities of daily living (ADL) disabilities are unknown.

Purpose: The study investigated the acute effects of motor-assisted cycling and functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling

Background: Effective glucose management using exercise modalities in older patients with type 2 diabetes and activities of daily living (ADL) disabilities are unknown.

Purpose: The study investigated the acute effects of motor-assisted cycling and functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the 2-h postprandial glucose responses compared with sitting control in older adults with type 2 diabetes and ADL disabilities.

Methods: The study used a 3×3 crossover study design. Nine participants were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment sequences: ABC, BCA, and CAB. (A, motor-assisted cycling; B, FES cycling; C, sitting control). Linear mixed models (LMM) with Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to test the mean differences for the 2-h postprandial glucose, estimated by the area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC (iAUC), between intervention and control treatments after adjustment for covariates (e.g., age, sex, and race).

Results: There were significant mean differences for iAUC (p = 0.005) and AUC (p = 0.038) across motor-assisted cycling, control, and FES cycling treatments. The FES cycling had a lower mean of 2-hour postprandial iAUC as compared with sitting control (iAUC 3.98 mmol∙h/L vs 6.92 mmol∙h/L, p = 0.006, effect size [ES] = 1.72) and the motor-assisted cycling (iAUC, 3.98 mmol∙h/L vs 6.19 mmol∙h/L , p = 0.0368, ES = 1.29), respectively. The FES cycling also had a lower mean of the 2-hour postprandial AUC as compared with sitting control (AUC, 18.29 mmol∙h/L vs 20.95 mmol∙h/L, p = 0.043, ES = 0.89), but had an AUC similar to the motor-assisted cycling (18.29 mmol∙h/L vs 20.23 mmol∙h/L , p = 0.183, ES = 0.19). There were no statistical differences in iAUC (6.19 mmol∙h/L vs 6.92 mmol∙h/L) and AUC (20.23 mmol∙h/L vs 20.95 mmol∙h/L) between the motor-assisted cycling and sitting control (all p>0.05).

Conclusion: Performing 30 minutes of FES cycling on a motor-assisted bike (40 Hz, 39 rpm, 25-29 mA) significantly decreased the 2-h postprandial glucose levels in older adults with type 2 diabetes and ADL disabilities. These findings suggested that FES cycling can be a promising exercise modality for glucose management in diabetic patients with ADL disabilities.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019