Matching Items (16)

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The CDC Healthy Aging Research Network: advancing science toward action and policy for the evidence-based health promotion movement

Description

Despite recent progress in the uptake of evidence-based health promotion (EBHP) programs within communities, many factors contribute to the need to focus on dissemination. These include the growth in the

Despite recent progress in the uptake of evidence-based health promotion (EBHP) programs within communities, many factors contribute to the need to focus on dissemination. These include the growth in the aging population, health care resource limitations, and interests in preserving community-based opportunities for maintaining independence and maximizing quality of life. For these reasons, The Prevention Research Centers’ Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Healthy Aging Program, has as its core mission, to translate effective healthy aging interventions into sustainable community-based programs. Researchers and community-based stakeholders collaborate across HAN’s seven member center and two affiliate universities (Figure 1) to develop and implement health promotion programs for older adults at individual, organizational, environmental, and policy levels (1–3). This commentary highlights selected HAN contributions to the EBHP movement from 2001 to 2014. These contributions serve as examples of potential models for future partnership efforts to enhance implementation, dissemination, and sustainability of EBHP programs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-27

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Incorporating religion and spirituality into the design of community-based physical activity programs for African American women: a qualitative inquiry

Description

Objective
Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was

Objective
Limited research has examined how aspects of religion and spirituality can be incorporated into community-based physical activity programs delivered outside of religious institutions. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how spirituality and religion can be leveraged in the design of community-based physical activity programs for African American women delivered outside of faith-based or faith-placed settings.
Results
Three focus groups were conducted were conducted with 23 African American women (M age = 37.8 years, M BMI = 39.6 kg m[superscript 2]). Results showed that incorporating aspects of spirituality (i.e., words encouraging connectedness to a higher power, meditation, mind–body activities) into a physical activity program was universally accepted among participants, regardless of religious affiliation. In contrast, including concepts of religion (i.e., bible verses and/or quotes from religious leaders) was controversial and not recommended among women who did not identify with a religious faith. Findings indicate that when developing community-based physical activity interventions that will not be delivered through faith-based or faith-placed settings, researchers should avoid references to specific religious beliefs. Instead, interventions should focus on spirituality and emphasize the mind–body relationship between physical activity and an African American women’s inner-being and her connectedness with a higher power.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-10-23

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Sedentary behavior and subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans: cross-sectional analysis of the Jackson heart study

Description

Background
Previous studies have reported conflicting results as to whether an association exists between sedentary time and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. These studies, however, were limited by

Background
Previous studies have reported conflicting results as to whether an association exists between sedentary time and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. These studies, however, were limited by lack of consideration of sedentary behavior in leisure versus non-leisure settings. To elucidate this relation, we investigated the associations of television (TV) viewing time and occupational sitting with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a subclinical atherosclerosis measure, in a community-based sample of African Americans.
Methods
We studied 3410 participants from the Jackson Heart Study, a single-site, community-based study of African Americans residing in Jackson, MS. CIMT was assessed by ultrasonography and represented mean far-wall thickness across right and left sides of the common carotid artery. TV viewing time, a measure of leisure sedentary behavior, and occupational sitting, a measure of non-leisure sedentary behavior, were assessed by questionnaire.
Results
In a multivariable regression model that included physical activity and CVD risk factors, longer TV viewing time (2–4 h/day and >4 h/day) was associated with greater CIMT (adjusted mean ± SE difference from referent [<2 h/day] of 0.009 ± 0.008 mm for 2–4 h/day, and 0.028 ± 0.009 mm for >4 h/day; P-trend =0.001). In contrast, more frequent occupational sitting (‘sometimes’ and ‘often/always’) was associated with lower CIMT (adjusted mean ± SE difference from referent [‘never/seldom’]:−0.021 ± 0.009 mm for ‘sometimes’, and−0.018 ± 0.008 mm for ‘often/always’; P-trend = 0.042).
Conclusions
Longer TV viewing time was associated with greater CIMT, while occupational sitting was associated with lower CIMT. These findings suggest the role of sedentary behaviors in the pathogenesis of CVD among African Americans may vary by whether individuals engage in leisure versus non-leisure sedentary behaviors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-03-01

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In-depth interviews with state public health practitioners on the United States National Physical Activity Plan

Description

Background
The United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP; 2010), the country’s first national plan for physical activity, provides strategies to increase population-level physical activity to complement the 2008 physical

Background
The United States National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP; 2010), the country’s first national plan for physical activity, provides strategies to increase population-level physical activity to complement the 2008 physical activity guidelines. This study examined state public health practitioner awareness, dissemination, use, challenges, and recommendations for the NPAP.
Methods
In 2011–2012, we interviewed 27 state practitioners from 25 states. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded using a standard protocol, verified and reconciled by an independent coder, and input into qualitative software to facilitate development of common themes.
Results
NPAP awareness was high among state practitioners; dissemination to local constituents varied. Development of state-level strategies and goals was the most frequently reported use of the NPAP. Some respondents noted the usefulness of the NPAP for coalitions and local practitioners. Challenges to the plan included implementation cost, complexity, and consistency with other policies. The most frequent recommendation made was to directly link examples of implementation activities to the plan.
Conclusions
These results provide early evidence of NPAP dissemination and use, along with challenges encountered and suggestions for future iterations. Public health is one of eight sectors in the NPAP. Further efforts are needed to understand uptake and use by other sectors, as well as to monitor long-term relevance, progress, and collaboration across sectors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-06-04

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Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study

Description

Background
High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is

Background
High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing.
Methods
The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2max]). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high).
Results
High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P < 0.05). Compared to high CRF, the odds ratios for having ≥3 main CVD risk factors (overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in low and moderate CRF were 2.09 (95% CI: 1.48-2.94) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.29-2.62), respectively. The proportion of participants with clinical ST segment depression and prolonged QTC interval during cycle ergometer testing was significantly higher in women with low CRF.
Conclusions
Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05-01

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Effects of Motor-Assisted and Functional Electrical Stimulation Cyclings on Postprandial Glucose in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes and Activities of Daily Living Disability

Description

Background: Effective glucose management using exercise modalities in older patients with type 2 diabetes and activities of daily living (ADL) disabilities are unknown.

Purpose: The study investigated the acute

Background: Effective glucose management using exercise modalities in older patients with type 2 diabetes and activities of daily living (ADL) disabilities are unknown.

Purpose: The study investigated the acute effects of motor-assisted cycling and functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the 2-h postprandial glucose responses compared with sitting control in older adults with type 2 diabetes and ADL disabilities.

Methods: The study used a 3×3 crossover study design. Nine participants were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment sequences: ABC, BCA, and CAB. (A, motor-assisted cycling; B, FES cycling; C, sitting control). Linear mixed models (LMM) with Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to test the mean differences for the 2-h postprandial glucose, estimated by the area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC (iAUC), between intervention and control treatments after adjustment for covariates (e.g., age, sex, and race).

Results: There were significant mean differences for iAUC (p = 0.005) and AUC (p = 0.038) across motor-assisted cycling, control, and FES cycling treatments. The FES cycling had a lower mean of 2-hour postprandial iAUC as compared with sitting control (iAUC 3.98 mmol∙h/L vs 6.92 mmol∙h/L, p = 0.006, effect size [ES] = 1.72) and the motor-assisted cycling (iAUC, 3.98 mmol∙h/L vs 6.19 mmol∙h/L , p = 0.0368, ES = 1.29), respectively. The FES cycling also had a lower mean of the 2-hour postprandial AUC as compared with sitting control (AUC, 18.29 mmol∙h/L vs 20.95 mmol∙h/L, p = 0.043, ES = 0.89), but had an AUC similar to the motor-assisted cycling (18.29 mmol∙h/L vs 20.23 mmol∙h/L , p = 0.183, ES = 0.19). There were no statistical differences in iAUC (6.19 mmol∙h/L vs 6.92 mmol∙h/L) and AUC (20.23 mmol∙h/L vs 20.95 mmol∙h/L) between the motor-assisted cycling and sitting control (all p>0.05).

Conclusion: Performing 30 minutes of FES cycling on a motor-assisted bike (40 Hz, 39 rpm, 25-29 mA) significantly decreased the 2-h postprandial glucose levels in older adults with type 2 diabetes and ADL disabilities. These findings suggested that FES cycling can be a promising exercise modality for glucose management in diabetic patients with ADL disabilities.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Barriers & motivators to physical activity in older Mexican American men

Description

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the cultural, social, environmental, and gender factors that may influence physical activity (PA) in older Mexican American (MA) men living in

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the cultural, social, environmental, and gender factors that may influence physical activity (PA) in older Mexican American (MA) men living in Tucson, Arizona. The Mexican origin population is the fastest growing Hispanic subgroup in our nation, increasing from 20.6 million in the year 2000 to 31.8 million in 2010. Arizona has the sixth largest Hispanic population in the United States and the Mexican origin population accounts for 91% of Arizona's Hispanics. Despite the fast growing Mexican population, there are a limited number of studies that examine MAs and PA. There are even fewer interventions created to foster PA among older (≥65 years old) MA men. Fourteen individual interviews were conducted with older MA men living in Tucson, Arizona. Data was collected, organized, and analyzed according to the methodologies of Clark Moustakas and the Social Ecology Model for Health Promotion framework. Six themes emerged which reflected the older MA male's perception of health, masculinity, and physical activity: a) Retirement promotes self-care behaviors, b) Women, health care providers, and the Internet are important in promoting health, c) Aging changes physical activity, d) I take care of myself, e) Physical activity is a personal choice and lifestyle, and f) I learn and make adjustments as needed. Themes were used to create textural and structural descriptions of their experiences. Descriptions were formed into the essence of the phenomenon. The results of this study increase our understanding of health, masculinity, and physical activity in older MA men. This research will inform the development of an evidence-based PA intervention to promote cardiovascular (CV) health in older MA men that may be implemented in a variety of community-based settings.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Dietary Patterns among Overweight/Obese Hispanic Women at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

Description

Background: Hispanic women are at high risk for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), in part due to their high prevalence of obesity, which may influence the development of insulin resistance and

Background: Hispanic women are at high risk for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), in part due to their high prevalence of obesity, which may influence the development of insulin resistance and disease onset. Unhealthy eating contributes to T2D risk. Dietary patterns are the combination of total foods and beverages among individual’s over time, but there is limited information regarding its role on T2D risk factors among Hispanic women. Objective: To identify a posteriori dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors (age, BMI, abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c) among overweight/obese Hispanic women. Design: Cross-sectional dietary data were collected among 191 women with or at risk for T2D using the Southwestern Food Frequency Questionnaire capturing the prior three months of intake. Dietary patterns were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Regression scores were used to explore associations between dietary patterns and diabetes risk factors. Results: The patterns derived were: 1) “sugar and fat-laden”, with high loads of sweets, drinks, pastries, and fats; 2) “plant foods and fish”, with high loads of vegetables, fruits, fish, and beans; 3) “soups and starchy dishes”, with high loads of soups, starchy foods, and mixed dishes; 4) “meats and snacks”, with high loads of red meat, salty snacks, and condiments; 5) “beans and grains”, with high loads of beans and seeds, whole-wheat and refined grain foods, fish, and alcohol; and 6) “eggs and dairy”, with high loads of eggs, dairy, and fats. The “sugar and fat-laden” and “meats and snacks” patterns were negatively associated with age (r= -0.230, p= 0.001 and r= -0.298, p<0.001, respectively). Scores for “plant foods and fish” were associated with fasting blood glucose (r= 0.152, p= 0.037). There were no other statistically significant relationships between the dietary patterns and risk factors for T2D. Conclusions: A variety of patterns with healthy and unhealthy traits among Hispanic women were observed. Being younger may play an important role in adhering to a dietary pattern rich in sugary and high-fat foods and highlights the importance of assessing dietary patterns among young women to early identify dietary traits detrimental for their health.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The community food environment's influence on dietary behaviors

Description

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Dietary behaviors influence the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases. The U.S. population consumes too few fruits and

Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Dietary behaviors influence the risk of developing multiple chronic diseases. The U.S. population consumes too few fruits and vegetables and too much sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast food. The Social Ecological Model (SEM) was created as a framework for health promotion interventions. The SEM organizes factors that can influence health into five layers: intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, institutional/organizational factors, community factors, and public policy. Each layer can influence dietary behaviors and other layers.

This work aims to understand how the community layer, represented by the food environment, moderates the association of two other layers and dietary behaviors: the interpersonal layer, represented by receiving health care provider’s (HCP) advice to lose weight, and the policy layer, represented by participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and a policy change within the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

Participant data were obtained from a household telephone survey of 2,211 adults in four cities in New Jersey from two cross-sectional panels in 2009-10 and 2014. Community food data were purchased and classified according to previously established protocol. Interaction and stratified analyses determined the differences in the association between HCP advice, SNAP participation, and time (for WIC participants) and eating behaviors by the food environment.

Interaction and stratified analyses revealed that HCP advice was associated with a decrease in SSB consumption when participants lived near a small grocery store, or far from a supermarket, limited service restaurant (LSR), or convenience store. SNAP participation was associated with a higher SSB consumption when respondents lived close to a small grocery store, supermarket, and LSR. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between two time points among WIC participants, or by food outlet.

The food environment, part of the community layer of SEM, moderated the relationship between the interpersonal layer and dietary behaviors and the policy layer and dietary behaviors. The association between HCP advice and dietary behaviors and SNAP participation and dietary behaviors were both influenced by the food environment in which participants lived.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Biomechanical evaluation of a cervical intervertebral disc degeneration model

Description

Introduction. Intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) is one of the most common diagnoses in patients with neck pain and contributes to worldwide disability. Despite the advances in diagnostic imaging

Introduction. Intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) is one of the most common diagnoses in patients with neck pain and contributes to worldwide disability. Despite the advances in diagnostic imaging today, little is known about functional status of cervical DD. The purpose of this research was to 1) develop and validate an ovine model of cervical spine DD, 2) to quantify and compare the effect of disc lesions on dynamic spinal stiffness, and 3) study the effect of disc lesions on spinal accelerations and displacements during two types of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). Methods. Fifteen sheep received surgically induced disc injury to the mid-cervical spine via scalpel wound a minimum of five months earlier and 15 sheep served as controls. All animals were biomechanically assessed at the level of the lesion using swept-sine mechanical loads from 0-20 Hz under load control to quantify dynamic dorsoventral (DV) spine stiffness (load/deformation, N/mm). The effect of disc lesion on stiffness was assessed using a one-factor repeated measures ANOVA comparing 32 mechanical excitation frequencies. Tri-axial accelerometers rigidly attached to adjacent vertebrae across the target level further evaluated the effect of disc lesion on spinal motion response during two types of SMTs. A 2x6x2 repeated measures ANOVA examined the effect of disc lesion and SMT force-time profile on spine motion response. Postmortem histological analysis graded specimens at the target site and comparison was made with descriptive statistics. Results. Annular disc tears were only observed in the disc lesion group and the mild degeneration identified was localized to the injured annular tissue that did not progress to affect other areas of the disc. No difference in overall DD grading was found among the groups. DV stiffness was significantly increased in the disc lesion group by approximately 34% at 31 of 32 frequencies examined (p<.05). SMTs resulted in decreased displacements in the disc lesion group (p<.05), and SMT type significantly influenced spinal accelerations for both the DV and axial planes. Conclusion. Disc lesions in the ovine cervical spine produce localized annular degenerative changes that increase the cervical spine dynamic stiffness and reduce its spinal motion response during manual examination and treatment that is further augmented by the force-time profile administered by the clinician.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015