Matching Items (40)

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Understanding the Impact of Phytoestrogens on Memory & the Cholinergic System

Description

Menopause is reproductive senescence characterized by a loss of ovarian estrogen and progesterone. Women can experience cognitive decline and other negative symptoms with the loss of ovarian hormones (Sherwin, 2006).

Menopause is reproductive senescence characterized by a loss of ovarian estrogen and progesterone. Women can experience cognitive decline and other negative symptoms with the loss of ovarian hormones (Sherwin, 2006). While hormone therapies (HT) can treat symptoms of menopause and may have neuroprotective properties, such as the potential to decrease the risk of Alzheimer's Disease (Behl & Manthey, 2000), there are many effects of current HTs that are not ideal. Indeed, optimizing conventional HTs has proven complex, indicating a need for alternative therapies. Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds found naturally in plants such as soybeans, that could provide new treatment options. Dietary phytoestrogens can benefit memory in the rodent model (Luine, 2006), although the mechanism underlying these effects is unclear. Basal forebrain cholinergic projections have been shown to mediate the cognitive benefits of estrogen (Gibbs, 2010); we hypothesize that phytoestrogens act similarly, via the cholinergic system, to impact memory. We administered varying doses of phytoestrogen-containing diets to ovariectomized female rats, and used the place recognition task to evaluate spatial memory. Brains were then analyzed for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme for acetylcholine, in the vertical-diagonal bands (VDB) and the medial septum (MS) of the basal forebrain. Results showed that ChAT cell counts in the VDB were marginally higher with dietary phytoestrogen treatment. Further, VDB ChAT cell counts positively correlated with place recognition performance, indicating that animals with more VDB ChAT neurons exhibited better spatial memory performance. These results suggest that phytoestrogens might act similarly to natural, endogenously circulating estrogens, and identify phytoestrogens as a direction for investigation as a HT.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Clonal Analysis of a Human Breast Cancer

Description

Breast and other solid tumors exhibit high and varying degrees of intra-tumor heterogeneity resulting in targeted therapy resistance and other challenges that make the management and treatment of these diseases

Breast and other solid tumors exhibit high and varying degrees of intra-tumor heterogeneity resulting in targeted therapy resistance and other challenges that make the management and treatment of these diseases rather difficult. Due to the presence of admixtures of non-neoplastic cells with polyclonal cell populations, it is difficult to define cancer genomes in patient samples. By isolating tumor cells from normal cells, and enriching distinct clonal populations, clinically relevant genomic aberrations that drive disease can be identified in patients in vivo. An in-depth analysis of clonal architecture and tumor heterogeneity was performed in a stage II chemoradiation-naïve breast cancer from a sixty-five year old patient. DAPI-based DNA content measurements and DNA content-based flow sorting was used to to isolate nuclei from distinct clonal populations of diploid and aneuploid tumor cells in surgical tumor samples. We combined DNA content-based flow cytometry and ploidy analysis with high-definition array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing technologies to interrogate the genomes of multiple biopsies from the breast cancer. The detailed profiles of ploidy, copy number aberrations and mutations were used to recreate and map the lineages present within the tumor. The clonal analysis revealed driver events for tumor progression (a heterozygous germline BRCA2 mutation converted to homozygosity within the tumor by a copy number event and the constitutive activation of Notch and Akt signaling pathways. The highlighted approach has broad implications in the study of tumor heterogeneity by providing a unique ultra-high resolution of polyclonal tumors that can advance effective therapies and clinical management of patients with this disease.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Clinical Decision Aids: An Investigation of the Necessity of Patient Education Platforms that Incorporate Health Literacy

Description

Considering the overwhelming prevalence of BPH, how can it best be managed in light of the aging population? The purpose of this investigation is to illustrate that BPH and LUTS

Considering the overwhelming prevalence of BPH, how can it best be managed in light of the aging population? The purpose of this investigation is to illustrate that BPH and LUTS are conditions that are highly conducive to health literacy technology interventions. This objective will be met by: a) Providing an overview of the clinically relevant information regarding BPH, including anatomy, physiology, epidemiology, symptoms, and medical treatment for the disease; b) Establishing the necessity for novel health care delivery solutions by identifying past successes and challenges associated with technologic advances in related fields; c) Providing evidence of a lack of a systematic approach to BPH education, especially as it relates to health literacy. The relative successes and failures of previously established clinical decision aids will be discussed, leading to recommendations on how to improve upon these standards. Finally, the procedures and results of a pilot study will be analyzed in an effort to further highlight the necessity of engaging patients in the clinical decision making process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Conflict of Interest and Medical Devices: Investigating the Relationship between Physicians and the Medical Device Industry

Description

In a world in which technologies proliferate at a rapid rate, it is no surprise that the medical device industry has grown in leaps and bounds. This surge in medical

In a world in which technologies proliferate at a rapid rate, it is no surprise that the medical device industry has grown in leaps and bounds. This surge in medical technology, especially implantable medical technology, has altered the modern operating room, transforming surgery from a technique-driven activity into a technology-driven profession. This reliance upon technologies has fostered close ties between physicians and the medical device industry and within this relationship, medical device representatives play an integral role. This paper will investigate the relationship that exists between physicians and the medical device industry along with the potential conflicts of interest that may result due to this relationship. I will focus in particular on orthopedic medical devices due to media attention as a result of a 2007 Department of Justice settlement involving the leading orthopedic companies. This case proved instrumental in highlighting previously unknown instances in which conflicts of interest were occurring in the medical device industry.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) and Voluntary Cycling (VC) on Sleep and Leisure Physical Activity in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Previous research has found improvements in motor and cognitive measures following Assisted Cycle Therapy (AC) in adolescence with Down syndrome (DS). Our study investigated whether we would find improvements in

Previous research has found improvements in motor and cognitive measures following Assisted Cycle Therapy (AC) in adolescence with Down syndrome (DS). Our study investigated whether we would find improvements in older adults with DS on measures of leisure physical activity (GLTEQ) and sleep, which are early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in persons with Down syndrome. This study consisted of eight participants with Down syndrome between 31 and 51 years old that cycled for 30 minutes 3 x/week for eight weeks either at their voluntary cycling rate (VC) or approximately 35% faster with the help of a mechanical motor (AC). We predicted that, based on pilot data (Gomez, 2015), GLTEQ would either maintain or improve after AC, but would decrease after VC and would stay the same after NC. We predicted that the sleep score may improve after both VC or AC or it may improve more after VC than AC based on pilot data related to leisure activity. Our results were consistent with our prediction that GLTEQ will either maintain or improve after AC but will decrease after VC. Our results were not consistent with our prediction that sleep may improve after both VC or AC or it may improve more after VC than AC, possibly because we did not pre-screen for sleep disorders. Future research should focus on recruiting more participants and using both objective and subjective measures of sleep and physical activity to improve the efficacy of the study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Does high intensity interval treadmill walking improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors?

Description

This study examined upper extremity function, including manual dexterity, in chronic stroke survivors following a 10-week high intensity interval treadmill walking intervention. Six stroke survivors completed two 35-minute high intensity

This study examined upper extremity function, including manual dexterity, in chronic stroke survivors following a 10-week high intensity interval treadmill walking intervention. Six stroke survivors completed two 35-minute high intensity interval treadmill walking sessions based on ventilatory threshold per week. In addition, each participant completed one 30-minute low-intensity walking session at home. Participants completed upper extremity and manual dexterity testing at baseline, acutely, and after the 10-week intervention. Contrary to the prediction made, significant improvements in both paretic and non-paretic upper-extremity function including manual dexterity were not found. While time to complete the Nine Hole Peg Test (9HPB) somewhat decreased and the number of blocks transferred in the Box and Blocks Test (BBT) slightly increased, results were not found to be statistically significant. The results do suggest, nonetheless, that high intensity interval treadmill training may lead to improvements in upper extremity function and potentially daily living in chronic stroke survivors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Contributing Factors to the Patient Burden of Work

Description

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and caregiver, in turn affecting the health outcomes of the patient, resulting in higher health care costs, less than desirable outcomes, and a large strain on the patient and caregiver's daily lives. There are several ways that people have tried to create a comprehensive theoretical framework to understand the system from multiple perspectives. This work will expand existing theoretical frameworks that observes the relationship between the patient, their social networks, and health care services such as the Burden of Treatment Theory. Consisting of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary literature review, research was derived from the disciplines of medicine, informatics, management, and ethics. In this paper, I attempt to identify key contributing factors and then develop and categorize these stressors into a typology. Since there are many contributing factors that affect the burden of work at multiple levels, a nested typology will be used which will link micro- and macro-leveled pressures to a single system while also showcasing how each level interacts and is influenced by the others. For the categorization of the contributing factors, they will be sorted into individual actors, organizational level, and macro-level factors. The implications of this work suggest that a combination of historical shifts, structural design, and secondary effects of policy contribute to patients' burden of work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Acute Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy on Lower Extremity Motor Functions in Stroke Survivors

Description

Lower extremity function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors. An innovative way to improve lower extremity function may be Assisted Cycle Therapy. This is among

Lower extremity function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors. An innovative way to improve lower extremity function may be Assisted Cycle Therapy. This is among the first studies to examine ACT in stroke survivors. Twenty-three participants post-stroke performed ACT, VC and NC and pre and post measures of lower extremity function were conducted with the Lower Extremity Motor Coordination Test (LEMOCOT). The results showed that the non-paretic lower extremity improved its function after ACT, but not after VC or NC. Lower extremity function in the paretic leg improved after ACT and VC, but not after NC. These results suggest that ACT resulted in increased production of BDNF in the motor cortex which resulted in improvements in global motor function.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Upper Extremity Function and Dexterity in Stroke Survivors

Description

Upper extremity function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors. An innovative way to improve upper extremity function has been shown with Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT).

Upper extremity function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors. An innovative way to improve upper extremity function has been shown with Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT). This is among the first study to examine ACT in stroke survivors. 13 stroke survivors performed ACT, VC, and NC and pre and post measures of upper extremity function were conducted with the box and blocks test (BBT). The results showed that non-paretic upper extremity improved its function after ACT and VC, but not after NC. For the paretic arm, while the results did not reach conventional levels of significance, improvements in upper extremity function following ACT more so than VC or NC. These results were interpreted to suggest that ACT resulted in increased production of BDNF in the motor cortex, which resulted in improvements in global motor function.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy on Inhibition in Stroke Survivors

Description

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive function may be Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT). This is among the first studies to use a Stroop task to measure inhibition, selective attention, and information processing speed following ACT in stroke survivors. Twenty-three participants post-stroke performed ACT, voluntary cycling (VC) and no cycling (NC). The results showed that there were improvements in the Stroop task following an acute session of ACT but not following VC or NC. These results suggest that ACT resulted in increased afferent information which may have resulted in increased arousal and excitability in regions of the prefrontal cortex. These factors have been shown to improve executive function.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05