Matching Items (10)

132344-Thumbnail Image.png

You Gotta Eat the Lettuce: An Examination of the Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Contrast Sensitivity

Description

Lutein and zeaxanthin are two important carotenoid vitamins related to ocular health and human visual processing. These vitamins can be ingested through supplementation and in regular diet. They concentrate in

Lutein and zeaxanthin are two important carotenoid vitamins related to ocular health and human visual processing. These vitamins can be ingested through supplementation and in regular diet. They concentrate in the central retina where they form a filter of macular pigment and protect the eye from high energy blue and yellow light. We examined participants who had a natural diet of high vs low lutein and zeaxanthin intake on tests of contrast sensitivity and glare disability. We also examined participant performance while wearing blue light blocking glasses in order to determine whether these glasses serve a similar protective function as macular pigment in benefiting participants on contrast sensitivity and glare disability tasks. Most of our data did not show statistically significant differences between the high and low lutein and zeaxanthin groups. An unexpected result that the blue blocker glasses hindered the ability of low lutein participants on their glare disability test was observed. We hypothesize that this is due to light scatter produced by the by glasses resulting in an impoverish retinal image reaching the primary visual cortex. Further research is required to examine this new finding.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

134114-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of In Utero Androgen Exposure on Juror Decision-Making

Description

Factors affecting juror decision-making have been studied extensively to determine what drives juror's decisions (Skorinko, Laurent, Bountress, Nyein, and Kuckuck, 2014). In utero androgen exposure measured using the 4D:2D ratio

Factors affecting juror decision-making have been studied extensively to determine what drives juror's decisions (Skorinko, Laurent, Bountress, Nyein, and Kuckuck, 2014). In utero androgen exposure measured using the 4D:2D ratio has been studied to understand how the amount of in utero androgen individuals are exposed to affects their personality and emotional development (Manning et. al., 2010; Kempe and Heffernan, 2011; Hampson, Ellis and Tenk, 2008; Fink, Manning and Neave, 2004; Knickmeyer, Baron-Cohen, Raggatt, Taylor and Hackett, 2006; Knickmeyer and Baron-Cohen, 2006; Wakabayashi and Nakazawa, 2010). Using 106 undergraduate students, the current study sought to understand how the 4D:2D ratio affects juror decision-making in civil cases by having participants assign a proportion of liability to a defendant. Participants reviewed jury instructions, as well as three case vignettes. One of these case vignettes was removed due to a description error that led almost all of the participants to find the plaintiff at fault. This study had three different experimental groups where age of the plaintiff was counterbalanced to control age as a factor in the amount of liability assigned. It was hypothesized that a higher 4D:2D ratio would result in lower defendant liability. Here we show that there was a significantly lower proportion of defendant liability assigned by the high 4D:2D ratio group as compared to the low 4D:2D ratio group; t(210) = 2.89, p < 0.01, d = 0.36. Interestingly, despite the difference between the group means, variability was such that the 4D:2D ratio was not predictive of the proportion of defendant liability assigned for experimental conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

133312-Thumbnail Image.png

Implicit Racial Bias as a Function of In-Utero Androgen Exposure

Description

Androgen has been shown to affect functioning of the central nervous system by modulating neural circuitry during in-utero development subsequently affecting parts of the brain implicated in the evaluation of

Androgen has been shown to affect functioning of the central nervous system by modulating neural circuitry during in-utero development subsequently affecting parts of the brain implicated in the evaluation of socially relevant stimuli. This can suggest an examination of underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may influence androgen in the brain and likewise human cognition and behavior. Since the index and ring finger ratio is associated with androgen related outcomes, this study sought to identify a relationship between a participant's implicit race association test score and left-handed ring (4D) and index (2D) finger ratio. Specifically, we found that higher androgen exposure in our female subjects equated to a stronger bias for European American faces over African American faces.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

131669-Thumbnail Image.png

Female Attorneys vs Male Attorneys Longitudinally Depicted in West and East Coast Law Magazines

Description

This study evaluated the differences in male and female representation in six different United States law magazines issued from 2005-2017. The initial prediction was that women would appear less

This study evaluated the differences in male and female representation in six different United States law magazines issued from 2005-2017. The initial prediction was that women would appear less often than men in these journals. Four periodicals came from Republican-dominated states, including the Arizona Attorney, Duke Law (NC), S.J. Quinney’s Res Gestae (UT), and the Notre Dame Lawyer (IN) (no issues published in 2014 through 2016). Two of these magazines were from Democratic regions: Berkeley’s Boalt Hall Transcript (now known as Transcript) (CA) and Richmond Law (VA). Photographic depictions of people within the magazines were recorded, only if text directly referenced the individual(s) as being a lawyer (i.e., attorney, public defender, counselor, associate, and lawyer). The number of male and female depictions in each journal were totaled, and means were compared. The data showed that women were underrepresented in all six of the journals, with effect sizes varying from medium to large. It was also found that although the unequal representation was evident in both red and blue states, the inequity gap was much larger in the red states. Overall, this data supports the notion that depictions of women are underrepresented in law magazines in a profession where they make up half of law school graduates as well as students preparing to enter the legal workforce. However, the gender percentages of those who pass the Bar exam would need to be examined to know more. This lack of parity in gender representations is likely due to society’s stereotypical views of women’s and men’s roles in the context of male-dominated professions, but it also seems to be exacerbated, in part, by a state’s political affiliation. This potential equality issue may have gone unnoticed if it weren’t for research that looks into gender differences, such as this study, which should be taken further by others to gather more data on possible discrimination and produce necessary solutions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

148403-Thumbnail Image.png

Fetal Androgen & Childhood Adversity: Relations with Self-Compassion, Compassion for Others, Empathy, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Susceptibility

Description

Fetal androgen exposure and childhood experiences are believed to contribute to the development and organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, which are responsible for the regulation and

Fetal androgen exposure and childhood experiences are believed to contribute to the development and organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, which are responsible for the regulation and release of stress and sex hormones, respectively. Evidence suggests the HPA and HPG axes can couple in response to childhood adversity, and that hormonal dysregulation contributes to psychopathological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Recent research also suggests self-compassion interventions could reduce PTSD symptoms, and that the experience of childhood trauma is related to increased empathy. Still, little is known regarding the impact of fetal androgen exposure on PTSD susceptibility and the relationships between self-compassion, compassion for others, and empathy. The current study aims to determine whether fetal androgen exposure mitigates PTSD susceptibility, and to clarify the relationships between empathy, compassion for others, self-compassion, and PTSD symptoms. A sample of 208 adults completed an online survey designed to measure fetal androgen exposure, childhood maltreatment, self-compassion, compassion for others, empathy, and PTSD symptoms. Findings show a significant difference in PTSD symptoms between individuals in high and low fetal androgen exposure groups, and significant correlations were discovered between empathy and compassion for others, empathy and self-compassion, but not compassion for others and self-compassion. Future studies could explore the extent to which fetal androgen exposure influences PTSD symptom susceptibility and the clinical implications therein.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

141473-Thumbnail Image.png

Two Visual Training Paradigms Associated with Enhanced Critical Flicker Fusion Threshold

Description

Critical flicker fusion thresholds (CFFTs) describe when quick amplitude modulations of a light source become undetectable as the frequency of the modulation increases and are thought to underlie a number

Critical flicker fusion thresholds (CFFTs) describe when quick amplitude modulations of a light source become undetectable as the frequency of the modulation increases and are thought to underlie a number of visual processing skills, including reading. Here, we compare the impact of two vision-training approaches, one involving contrast sensitivity training and the other directional dot-motion training, compared to an active control group trained on Sudoku. The three training paradigms were compared on their effectiveness for altering CFFT. Directional dot-motion and contrast sensitivity training resulted in significant improvement in CFFT, while the Sudoku group did not yield significant improvement. This finding indicates that dot-motion and contrast sensitivity training similarly transfer to effect changes in CFFT. The results, combined with prior research linking CFFT to high-order cognitive processes such as reading ability, and studies showing positive impact of both dot-motion and contrast sensitivity training in reading, provide a possible mechanistic link of how these different training approaches impact reading abilities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-10-26

141480-Thumbnail Image.png

Word-Decoding as a Function of Temporal Processing in the Visual System

Description

This study explored the relation between visual processing and word-decoding ability in a normal reading population. Forty participants were recruited at Arizona State University. Flicker fusion thresholds were assessed with

This study explored the relation between visual processing and word-decoding ability in a normal reading population. Forty participants were recruited at Arizona State University. Flicker fusion thresholds were assessed with an optical chopper using the method of limits by a 1-deg diameter green (543 nm) test field. Word decoding was measured using reading-word and nonsense-word decoding tests. A non-linguistic decoding measure was obtained using a computer program that consisted of Landolt C targets randomly presented in four cardinal orientations, at 3-radial distances from a focus point, for eight compass points, in a circular pattern. Participants responded by pressing the arrow key on the keyboard that matched the direction the target was facing. The results show a strong correlation between critical flicker fusion thresholds and scores on the reading-word, nonsense-word, and non-linguistic decoding measures. The data suggests that the functional elements of the visual system involved with temporal modulation and spatial processing may affect the ease with which people read.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12-20

147672-Thumbnail Image.png

Gaydar application to female actors: A cross-sectional study of the accuracy of judgments of sexual orientation

Description

This study looked at the accuracy in sexual orientation judgment in college-age students from Arizona State University’s West Campus while viewing female actors. One actor was straight and the other

This study looked at the accuracy in sexual orientation judgment in college-age students from Arizona State University’s West Campus while viewing female actors. One actor was straight and the other bisexual. Participants viewed a 3-minute-long video with audio and visual of a mock forensic interview between Taylor Addams (played by one of the actors) and Officer Carter (played by Kiersten Carter), and were not told this was a test of their gaydar. It was found that though each group was biased toward straight responses, the straight actor group scored significantly higher on the straightness measure than the bisexual actor group. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in their confidence in their answers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

157867-Thumbnail Image.png

The effect of bilingualism on perceptual processing in adults

Description

The experience of language can, as any other experience, change the way that the human brain is organized and connected. Fluency in more than one language should, in turn, change

The experience of language can, as any other experience, change the way that the human brain is organized and connected. Fluency in more than one language should, in turn, change the brain in the same way. Recent research has focused on the differences in processing between bilinguals and monolinguals, and has even ventured into using different neuroimaging techniques to study why these differences exist. What previous research has failed to identify is the mechanism that is responsible for the difference in processing. In an attempt to gather information about these effects, this study explores the possibility that bilingual individuals utilize lower signal strength (and by comparison less biological energy) to complete the same tasks that monolingual individuals do. Using an electroencephalograph (EEG), signal strength is retrieved during two perceptual tasks, the Landolt C and the critical flicker fusion threshold, as well as one executive task (the Stroop task). Most likely due to small sample size, bilingual participants did not perform better than monolingual participants on any of the tasks they were given, but they did show a lower EEG signal strength during the Landolt C task than monolingual participants. Monolingual participants showed a lower EEG signal strength during the Stroop task, which stands to support the idea that a linguistic processing task adds complexity to the bilingual brain. Likewise, analysis revealed a significantly lower signal strength during the critical flicker fusion task for monolingual participants than for bilingual participants. Monolingual participants also had a significantly different variability during the critical flicker fusion threshold task, suggesting that becoming bilingual creates an entirely separate population of individuals. Future research should perform analysis with the addition of a prefrontal cortex electrode to determine if less collaboration during processing is present for bilinguals, and if signal complexity in the prefrontal cortex is lower than other electrodes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

161598-Thumbnail Image.png

Phoneme Discrimination Between Native Mandarin and Native English Speakers

Description

Anecdotally, native Mandarin speakers have difficulty distinguishing between the “s” (as in sink) and the “th” (as in think) sounds as well as between the “a” (as in dad) and

Anecdotally, native Mandarin speakers have difficulty distinguishing between the “s” (as in sink) and the “th” (as in think) sounds as well as between the “a” (as in dad) and “ea” (as in dead) sounds. Here, 29 native English speakers, 52 native Mandarin speakers who live in China, and 34 native Mandarin speakers who have been living in an English language dominant environment were recruited to serve as participants. To assess the phoneme contrasts that may occur in native Mandarin speakers in China, and possible improvement in native Mandarin speakers living in an English environment, relative to Native English speakers living in America, a phoneme discrimination test was administered, three paired phonemes were used in the current study: /b/ paired with /p/ as a control pair, /æ/ paired with /ɛ/, and /θ/ paired with /s/. The results showed that native English speakers have significantly higher accuracy rates for the three paired phoneme discrimination tasks than the native Mandarin speakers who live in China. But there was no significant difference between the native English speakers and native Mandarin speakers who have lived in an English environment on the phonemes or words discriminations tasks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021