Matching Items (38)

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Accuracy of Commercially-Available Accelerometers For Measuring Steps

Description

Over the last decade, the ability to track daily activity through step counting devices has undergone major changes. Advanced technologies have brought about new step counting devices and new

Over the last decade, the ability to track daily activity through step counting devices has undergone major changes. Advanced technologies have brought about new step counting devices and new form factors. The validity of these new devices is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to validate and compare the step counting accuracy of commercially available hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers. A total of 185 participants (18-64 years of age) were analyzed for this study, with the sample composed nearly evenly of each gender (53.5% female) and BMI classification (33% overweight, 31.9% obese). Each participant wore five devices including hip-worn Omron HJ-112 and Fitbit One, and wrist-worn Fitbit Flex, Nike Fuelband, and Jawbone UP. A range of activities (some constant among all participants, some randomly assigned) were then used to accumulate steps including walking on a hard surface for 400m, treadmill walking/running at 2mph, 3mph, and ≥5mph, walking up five flights of stairs, and walking down five flights of stairs. To validate the accuracy of each device, steps were also counted by direct observation. Results showed high concordance with directly observed steps for all devices (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.86 to 0.99), with hip-worn devices more accurate than wrist-worn devices. Absolute percent error values were lower among hip-worn devices and at faster walking/running speeds. Nike Fuelband consistently was the worst performing of all test devices. These results are important because as pedometers become more complex, it is important that they remain accurate throughout a variety of activities. Future directions for this research are to explore the validity of these devices in free-living settings and among younger and older populations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Rural Students' Physical Activity Patterns: An Analysis of Active Transportation, After-School Sports Participation, and Steps Taken in 24 Hours

Description

Physical activity patterns among youth has become an issue throughout the world in recent decades. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have established daily physical activity guidelines for youth;

Physical activity patterns among youth has become an issue throughout the world in recent decades. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have established daily physical activity guidelines for youth; however, not all children follow these recommendations. Factors leading to this include limited opportunities for active transportation and after-school activity programs. In this study, 3rd through 9th grade students from a rural community were evaluated based on their transportation method to and from school, participation in after-school sports programs, and overall how active they were in a 24-hour period based on step count. Students completed questionnaires regarding their transportation and sports participation and wore pedometers to determine their daily step counts. The results found that only 4.5% of the students used active transportation to and from school. About one-third participated in after-school programs, and of this amount, approximately one-third took part in those offered at school. Elementary and middle school males met the recommended amount of daily steps at the first time of data collection, but not at the second or third. Elementary and middle school females did not meet the recommended amount of steps at time 1, but did at time 2 and time 3. Ninth-grade females did not meet the recommended step count at either time data was collected. The amount of students who used active transport limited the ability to determine significant differences between those who used active transport and those who did not. At time 3, there were significant differences with students who participated in after-school sports achieving more daily steps than those who did not participate. There was also a trend toward this same outcome in time 1. From these results, it was determined that more opportunities for active transportation and after-school sports should be implemented into this community. With this, the activity levels among students may increase and more students would reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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DIFFERENCES IN UNILATERAL CHEST PRESS KINEMATICS ON A STABLE VERSUS UNSTABLE SURFACE WHILE HOLDING 1 VERSUS 2 DUMBBELLS

Description

The following study evaluated the effectiveness of the COR Bench, to determine if its unstable surface allows for both greater range of motion and greater tendency towards co-contraction, in comparison

The following study evaluated the effectiveness of the COR Bench, to determine if its unstable surface allows for both greater range of motion and greater tendency towards co-contraction, in comparison to a traditional flat bench. An initial session assessed the 19 participants’ (age, 22.364 ± 2.480 years; mass, 77.850 ± 18.328 kg; height, 1.787 ± 0.0923 m) current one- repetition maximum strength levels for the unilateral chest press. Four different conditions were used to test the kinematic variables such that each participant completed 5 repetitions of unilateral chest presses at 70% of their max with one and two dumbbells on both the COR Bench and traditional flat bench. Differences in ROM were evaluated by measuring an angular representation of the shoulder complex. Levels of co-contraction were determined by analyzing the middle trapezius EMG. The results indicate a significant difference in ROM between the conditions (p = .00); specifically, a greater ROM during the one dumbbell condition versus the two dumbbell condition on the COR and the flat benches (p = .002, 0.001 respectively); greater ROM with two dumbbells on the COR bench compared to the flat bench (p = .022). The middle trapezius EMG data showed a significant difference in co-contraction levels between conditions (p = .00); specifically, a greater co-contraction during the one dumbbell condition versus the two dumbbell condition on the COR and the flat benches (p = .001, 0.008 respectively); greater co- contraction with one dumbbell on the COR bench compared to the flat bench (p = .010). This lends support for the future use of the COR bench as a means for more efficient exercise through a full range of motion; however, it also suggests that more practice is necessary to master the movement on the bench to decrease co-contraction activity.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Influence of goal climate on student motivation in an elementary school physical education class: an evaluation of gender differences, individual goal orientations, climate perceptions, and satisfaction.

Description

The study was based on research done on the achievement goal theory. The purpose of the study was to discover if goal orientation would change after manipulation of the motivational

The study was based on research done on the achievement goal theory. The purpose of the study was to discover if goal orientation would change after manipulation of the motivational climate. The study also was conducted to find if there was evidence of gender differences in motivational climate preference and satisfaction. These findings may help to provide a fun and motivating environment for all children in a physical activity setting. Investigators manipulated the climate to present lessons that were more task orientated in nature (mastery climate), and lessons that were more ego oriented in nature (performance climate). Participants consisted of girls and boys ages eight to ten years old (M = 9.5) recruited from a fourth grade P.E. class (n=42, females=20, males=22). The children participated in activities in a mastery and performance climate. The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), the Athlete in Sport Questionnaire (ASQ), and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire 2 (PMSQ-2) were administered. From the data it was concluded that there were no gender differences between baseline task and ego orientation scores. The children also did not perceive a performance climate after the performance climate intervention There were no gender differences in satisfaction following the mastery climate and the performance climate. The children's task and ego personal goal orientation scores on the PMCSQ-2 did not change following the mastery climate or the performance climate. There may be an absence of a gender difference in satisfaction and possessing either a task or ego orientation due to the factor of age. The student's regular PE coach enforces a mastery climate in their class, which may explain why the participants did not perceive a performance climate during the performance climate intervention. There were some methodological hurdles and problems in conducting the present study, which may account for the results.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Creating a Health Guide Book for Arizona State University Students

Description

This guide book was written for Arizona State University students, and focuses on teaching the importance of balanced, holistic, and preventative approaches to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The main purpose

This guide book was written for Arizona State University students, and focuses on teaching the importance of balanced, holistic, and preventative approaches to maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The main purpose of formulating this guide was to help students achieve a realistic balance between academics, health, and various responsibilities beyond school. The project itself consists of a complete manuscript of the author's guide book, entitled Be Well: A Briefish Guide to Thriving at ASU, framed within a book proposal. There are five main chapters, including information and tips for various aspects of physical and emotional health. Included at the end of the manuscript is a list of referenced material. The information contained in the guide is evidence based, and reflects the research the author has done into each topic covered.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

The Use of Sports Psychology for the Mental Recovery of Athletes Post-Injury

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed to uncover different features of an athletic injury as well as possible intervention methods. Findings suggested that effective intervention techniques structured around the Self Determination Theory (SDT), more specifically the concept of strengthening the satisfaction of an individual's three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness. Following the collection of past research, a series of interviews were conducted with four practicing sports psychologists. Interview questions focused on determining possible distinctions between acute, chronic and career-ending injuries as well as intervention techniques employed. Utilizing data collected from past research as well as the interviews, an applied brochure was developed for the potential benefit of an injured athlete. The established techniques, if utilized properly, should strengthen the satisfaction of an athlete's psychological needs according to the SDT, which may ultimately foster a positive and successful return-to-sport experience.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

The Use of Sports Psychology for the Mental Recovery of Athletes Post-Injury

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed

The purpose of this thesis was to identity various sports psychology techniques utilized during the injury recovery process of an NCAA athlete. Using a qualitative approach, past research was analyzed to uncover different features of an athletic injury as well as possible intervention methods. Findings suggested that effective intervention techniques structured around the Self Determination Theory (SDT), more specifically the concept of strengthening the satisfaction of an individual's three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy and relatedness. Following the collection of past research, a series of interviews were conducted with four practicing sports psychologists. Interview questions focused on determining possible distinctions between acute, chronic and career-ending injuries as well as intervention techniques employed. Utilizing data collected from past research as well as the interviews, an applied brochure was developed for the potential benefit of an injured athlete. The established techniques, if utilized properly, should strengthen the satisfaction of an athlete's psychological needs according to the SDT, which may ultimately foster a positive and successful return-to-sport experience.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Transtheoretical Model in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

Description

Childhood obesity is a growing public health concern in the United States. For several years, many interventions have been established to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity. However, these interventions

Childhood obesity is a growing public health concern in the United States. For several years, many interventions have been established to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity. However, these interventions have not adequately utilized existing models of behavior change, and as a result, have been unsuccessful in increasing levels of physical activity and healthy dietary intake. One such model of change, the Transtheoretical Model, views behavior change as occurring through a series of stages with progression through the stages being facilitated by cognitive and behavioral processes. Within these processes the constructs of consciousness-raising, helping relationships, and self-efficacy have been shown to be most influential in changing behaviors. Thus, the objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of such constructs and establish a multi-faceted approach to combat this epidemic.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Effect of Causal Attributions by Physical Therapy Patients for Recovery on Rehabilitation Adherence and Outcome Success

Description

The purpose of the present study was to determine if a relationship exists between adaptive patterns of causal attributions, adherence, and outcome success in physical therapy behavior. Adaptive casual attributions

The purpose of the present study was to determine if a relationship exists between adaptive patterns of causal attributions, adherence, and outcome success in physical therapy behavior. Adaptive casual attributions were defined as internal, controllable, and stable attributions as per Weiner's Attribution Theory of Motivation. Participants were seeking physical therapy for a post-surgical knee injury, with (n=3). Attributions were measured using the CDSII questionnaire, and outcome success was measured by the KOOS questionnaire to assess various dimensions of knee functionality. The respective physical therapist for the patient also completed the RAdMAT questionnaire to measure adherence. The data collected for all participants was analyzed qualitatively, with some emphasis on quantitative findings. Results showed mixed evidence for a relationship between adaptive attributions and adherence across the three participants. A trend toward a relationship between adaptive attributions and outcome success was observed in one participant. In addition, it was observed that adherence does play an indirect role in relating adaptive attributions and outcome success for physical therapy. Conclusions drawn from this pilot study should be used to further educate physical therapists and respective patients in how to improve adherence and experience positive outcomes for rehabilitation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement: The Mind-Body Connection

Description

Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a

Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a healthier and more academically successful youth, the relationship between the two warrants investigation. Specifically, the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance (i.e. grades) in 4th grade students was assessed. A cross-sectional design was used to assess physical fitness of children (M=9.39 years) by means of the FITNESSGRAM assessment tool. Third-quarter grades were used to measure academic performance. Relationships between the variables were determined through bivariate plots, Pearson product moment correlation analysis, independent t-tests, and a three-step regression analysis. The results show a significant relationship between students' aerobic fitness and academic performance. Furthermore, the findings of this study suggest incremental validity between aerobic fitness and academic performance, thus implying predictive value associated with increased physical fitness and academic achievement.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12