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Coaching Efficacy and Stakeholders' Perceptions of Coaches: Relationships with National Coaching Standards
Research on coaching behaviors as well as how these behaviors relate to national standard is limited. Utilizing the conceptual framework of the National Association for Sports and Physical Education (NASPE) National Coaching Standards and the body of literature on coaching behaviors, the current study examined: (a) coaching behaviors, coach's self- efficacy and stakeholders' (i.e., athlete, parents'/guardians') perceptions of their coaches' effectiveness, and (b) an in-depth review of coaching effectiveness with a subsample of coaches (observations) as well as comparing coaching behaviors to the National Coaching Standards (NASPE, 2006). Coaches completed the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES), while athletes and parents'/guardians' used a modified version of the CES measuring perceptions of coaching effectiveness. Observations [using the Arizona State University Observation Instrument (ASUIO)], formal and informal interviews, and document analyses [field notes, artifacts, and interviews] were used to explore coaching behaviors and perceptions of coaching experiences as they relate to the NASPE Coaching Standards. Coaches had the post positive perceptions (efficacy) of the stakeholder groups. Consistent with previous research on effective coaches, it was found that this cohort of coaches frequently used instruction (38.5%) and non-instructional (51.07%) behaviors (Becker & Wrisberg, 2008; Bloom, Crumpton, & Anderson, 1999; Kahan, 1999; Lacy & Darst, 1985; Segrave & Ciancio, 1990). Qualitative data revealed three themes related to coaching effectiveness and relationships with the NASPE Coaching Standards: (a) the structure of the program and environment, (b) pedagogical content knowledge, and (c) past athletic experiences. Findings suggest that observed coaching behaviors do not enact many of the NASPE Coaching Standards and that coaches are not be aware of the national standards.
Recently, much of the Physical Education literature has focused on confronting the challenges associated with the rising number of overweight children in America's schools. Physical Education programs are often looked to as intervention sites to remedy the current obesity epidemic. Teachers are often also not held accountable for curriculum adherence and student outcomes in Physical Education due to the lack of a common curriculum. Therefore, measuring teacher fidelity to specific Physical Education curricula is imperative to determine student outcomes when teachers follow the model as intended. In response to these issues, it has become increasingly important to measure student physical activity levels in Physical Education programs to determine moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels and to learn about teachers' fidelity to curricular models. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate teacher fidelity to the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model after having completed DPE methods courses at the university level, when teaching in a DPE supported or non-supported districts. A secondary purpose of this study was to measure students' physical activity (PA) outcomes in classes where the curricular model was used with various levels of district support. Data were collected using mixed methods including an observation instrument, field notes, informal interviews, document analysis, and direct observation of physical activity. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were run to investigate differences between teacher support groups and by teacher fidelity groups. Teachers from both teacher support groups were teaching the curricular model with moderate to high fidelity. Findings suggest that fidelity levels were related to preparation on the DPE curricular model, ongoing professional development, and administrative support. Although the students were often standing (i.e., 40% of the lesson) and 30% of class time was spent in MVPA; teachers were frequently promoting physical activity both within (51%) and outside (50%) of Physical Education and the school day.