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The History and Importance of the Double-Slit Experiment: From Classical to Quantum Physics

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This paper analyzes the history and impact of the double-slit experiment on the world of physics. The experiment was initially created by Thomas Young in the early nineteenth century to prove that light behaved as a wave, and the experiment’s

This paper analyzes the history and impact of the double-slit experiment on the world of physics. The experiment was initially created by Thomas Young in the early nineteenth century to prove that light behaved as a wave, and the experiment’s findings ended up being foundational to the classical wave theory of light. Decades later, the experiment was replicated once more with electrons instead of light and shockingly demonstrated that electrons possessed a dual nature of behavior in that they acted in some instances as particles and in others as waves. Despite numerous modifications and replications, the dual behavior of electrons has never been definitively explained. Numerous interpretations of quantum mechanics all offer their own explanations of the double-slit experiment’s results. Notably, the Copenhagen Interpretation states that an observer measuring a quantum system, such as the double-slit experiment, causes the electrons to behave classically (i.e. as a particle.) The Many Worlds Interpretation offers that multiple branching worlds come into existence to represent the physical occurrence of all probable outcomes of the double-slit experiment. In these and other interpretations, explanations of the double-slit experiment are key to proving their respective dogmas. The double-slit experiment has historically been very important to the worlds of both classical and quantum physics and is still being modified and replicated to this day. It is clear that it will continue to remain relevant even in the future of physics.

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2021-05

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An Exploration of One-Way Functions and their Cryptographic Implications

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A one-way function (OWF) is a function that is computationally feasible to compute in one direction, but infeasible to invert. Many current cryptosystems make use of properties of OWFs to provide ways to send secure messages. This paper reviews some

A one-way function (OWF) is a function that is computationally feasible to compute in one direction, but infeasible to invert. Many current cryptosystems make use of properties of OWFs to provide ways to send secure messages. This paper reviews some simple OWFs and examines their use in contemporary cryptosystems and other cryptographic applications. This paper also discusses the broader implications of OWF-based cryptography, including its relevance to fields such as complexity theory and quantum computing, and considers the importance of OWFs in future cryptographic development

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2020-05

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Branching Worlds: Quantum Mechanics and Hugh Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation

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This thesis attempts to explain Everettian quantum mechanics from the ground up, such that those with little to no experience in quantum physics can understand it. First, we introduce the history of quantum theory, and some concepts that make u

This thesis attempts to explain Everettian quantum mechanics from the ground up, such that those with little to no experience in quantum physics can understand it. First, we introduce the history of quantum theory, and some concepts that make up the framework of quantum physics. Through these concepts, we reveal why interpretations are necessary to map the quantum world onto our classical world. We then introduce the Copenhagen interpretation, and how many-worlds differs from it. From there, we dive into the concepts of entanglement and decoherence, explaining how worlds branch in an Everettian universe, and how an Everettian universe can appear as our classical observed world. From there, we attempt to answer common questions about many-worlds and discuss whether there are philosophical ramifications to believing such a theory. Finally, we look at whether the many-worlds interpretation can be proven, and why one might choose to believe it.

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2021-05

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Entanglement, Locality, and Hidden Variables

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The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of entanglement and the particular problems it poses for some physicists. In addition to looking at the history of entanglement and non-locality, this paper will use the Bell Test as

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of entanglement and the particular problems it poses for some physicists. In addition to looking at the history of entanglement and non-locality, this paper will use the Bell Test as a means for demonstrating how entanglement works, which measures the behavior of electrons whose combined internal angular momentum is zero. This paper will go over Dr. Bell's famous inequality, which shows why the process of entanglement cannot be explained by traditional means of local processes. Entanglement will be viewed initially through the Copenhagen Interpretation, but this paper will also look at two particular models of quantum mechanics, de-Broglie Bohm theory and Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation, and observe how they explain the behavior of spin and entangled particles compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation.

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2021-05

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Applied Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Computing

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This work describes the fundamentals of quantum mechanics in relation to quantum computing, as well as the architecture of quantum computing.

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2021-05

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Should Activists Seek to Change Individual Behavior?

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Activists seeking to create social change must decide whether to expend more resources trying to change the behavior of individuals or institutions. For example, a climate activist could spend their days urging people to stop flying in airplanes, or they

Activists seeking to create social change must decide whether to expend more resources trying to change the behavior of individuals or institutions. For example, a climate activist could spend their days urging people to stop flying in airplanes, or they could spend their days urging the government to outlaw excessive flying. Some social change theorists argue that the second tactic is more effective than the first. Are they correct? I use the environmental movement and the animal liberation movement as case studies to examine this question from an empirical perspective. I conclude that while attempts to change individual behavior should not be entirely abandoned, they should be used with caution because of their tendency to distract the public from the need for institutional reform and their tendency to alienate potential allies. Seeing that, for decades, the animal movement’s main strategy has been to urge individuals to change their dietary behavior, this movement would greatly benefit from this knowledge.

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2021-05

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Examining the Mathematical Formalism of Quantum Mechanics

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This is a primer on the mathematic foundation of quantum mechanics. It seeks to introduce the topic in such a way that it is useful to both mathematicians and physicists by providing an extended example of abstract math concepts to

This is a primer on the mathematic foundation of quantum mechanics. It seeks to introduce the topic in such a way that it is useful to both mathematicians and physicists by providing an extended example of abstract math concepts to work through and by going more in-depth in the math formalism than would normally be covered in a quantum mechanics class. The thesis begins by investigating functional analysis topics such as the Hilbert space and operators acting on them. Then it goes on to the postulates of quantum mechanics which extends the math formalism covered before to physics and works as the foundation for the rest of quantum mechanics.

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2022-05

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Capitalism and Mental Health: An Analysis of Mental Illness, Alienation, and Death in Late Capitalist Society

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The sociological model of mental illness (Weitz, 2020, pp. 146-148) offers a much needed contrast to the disproportionate dominance of the medical model in research, public policy, and popular discourse (Weitz, 2020, pp. 145-146 & 158-160). Unfortunately, the sociological model

The sociological model of mental illness (Weitz, 2020, pp. 146-148) offers a much needed contrast to the disproportionate dominance of the medical model in research, public policy, and popular discourse (Weitz, 2020, pp. 145-146 & 158-160). Unfortunately, the sociological model receives little attention in comparison (Mulvaney, 2001), although there has been a slight revival in recent years. However, the bulk of research on mental illness within the sociological model is predominantly quantitative, relying heavily on statistics and reducing complex systemic processes to various separated variables (Chandler, 2019; Mullaney, 2016; Spates & Slatton, 2021). Both sociological and psychological research on mental illness tend to be dominated by a highly quantitative focus on ‘social factors’, and generally shy away from examining the role of macro-level social structures and institutions. Consequently, even the sociological model of mental illness tends to fall short of implicating the underlying socio-economic system as a potential contributor to psychological harm and distress. This paper offers critiques of the medical model of mental illness and highlights both the strengths and shortcomings of work in the sociological model. I will also attempt to address these issues by providing a sociological and philosophical analysis of how the capitalist socio-economic system, and systems of oppression in general, shapes social constructions of mental illness and inflicts chronic stress and stigma, leading to much of the psychological distress that many people currently experience.

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2022-05

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Votes that Count: Building a Tool to Facilitate Understanding of the Effects of Voting Procedure on Electoral Outcomes

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The goal of this project was to develop a prototype for an educational tool that will help users understand how the voting system deployed by a government can affect the outcomes of elections. This tool was developed in Java SE,

The goal of this project was to develop a prototype for an educational tool that will help users understand how the voting system deployed by a government can affect the outcomes of elections. This tool was developed in Java SE, consisting of a model for the simulation of elections capable of supporting various voting systems, along with a variety of fairness measures, and educational and explanatory material. While a completed version of this tool would ideally be fully self-contained, easily accessible in-browser, and provide detailed visualizations of the simulated elections, the current prototype version consists of a GitHub repository containing the code, with the educational material and explanations contained within the thesis paper. Ultimately, the goal of this project was to be a stepping stone on the path to create a tool that will instill a measure of systemic skepticism in the user; to give them cause to question why our systems are built the way they are, and reasons to believe that they could be changed for the better. In undertaking this project, I hope to help in providing people with the political education needed to make informed decisions about how they want the government to function. The GitHub repository containing all the code can be found at, https://github.com/SpencerDiamond/Votes_that_Count

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2022-05

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The Administration and Domination of Time in a Capitalist Economy

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This paper explores the idea that time is physically and mentally stolen from employees by their employers. Employees are exploited by employers for monetary gain. By using the works of critical theorists such as EP Thompson, Herbert Marcuse and Karl

This paper explores the idea that time is physically and mentally stolen from employees by their employers. Employees are exploited by employers for monetary gain. By using the works of critical theorists such as EP Thompson, Herbert Marcuse and Karl Marx, this paper synthesizes how their theories applied to contemporary society. Overall, this paper works to understand the progression of the exploitation of employees as well as the contemporary issues surrounding a 40 hour work week and the thievery of physical and mental time.

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2022-05