Matching Items (20)

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Concentrations of trace elements in human milk: Comparisons among women in Argentina, Namibia, Poland, and the United States

Description

Human milk contains essential micronutrients for growth and development during early life. Environmental pollutants, such as potentially toxic metals, can also be transferred to the infant through human milk. These

Human milk contains essential micronutrients for growth and development during early life. Environmental pollutants, such as potentially toxic metals, can also be transferred to the infant through human milk. These elements have been well-studied, but changing diets and environments and advances in laboratory technology require re-examining these elements in a variety of settings. The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations of essential and toxic metals in human milk from four diverse populations. Human milk samples (n = 70) were collected in Argentina (n = 21), Namibia (n = 6), Poland (n = 23), and the United States (n = 20) using a standardized mid-feed collection procedure. Milk concentrations of calcium, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, lead, arsenic, and cadmium were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We used standard multiple linear regression models to evaluate differences among populations, while including infant age, infant sex, and maternal parity status (multiparous or primiparous) as covariates. Concentrations of all elements, except zinc, varied across populations after controlling for infant age, infant sex, and maternal parity. Calcium and magnesium showed more differences across populations than iron or copper. There were no significant differences among population in zinc concentrations. Mean concentrations of lead, but not arsenic, were low compared to recently published values from other populations. The concentrations of trace elements in human milk are variable among populations. Limitations due to small sample sizes and environmental contamination of some samples prevent us from drawing robust conclusions about the causes of these differences.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08-17

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Challenges to the Pair Bond: Neural and Hormonal Effects of Separation and Reunion in a Monogamous Primate

Description

Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known

Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), a socially monogamous New World primate. Males underwent a baseline scan, a short separation (48 h), a long separation (approximately 2 weeks), a reunion with the female pair mate and an encounter with a female stranger (with nine males completing all five conditions). Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and region of interest (ROI) analysis was carried out. In addition, plasma was collected and assayed for cortisol, oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (AVP), glucose and insulin concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected and assayed for OT and AVP. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine significant changes from baseline. Short separations were characterized by decreases in FDG uptake, in comparison to baseline, in the lateral septum (LS), ventral pallidum (VP), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and cerebellum, as well as increases in CSF OT, and plasma cortisol and insulin. Long separations differed from baseline in reduced FDG uptake in the central amygdala (CeA), reduced whole brain FDG uptake, increased CSF OT and increased plasma insulin. The response on encounter with a stranger female depended on whether or not the male had previously reproduced with his pair mate, suggesting that transitions to fatherhood contribute to the neurobiology underlying response to a novel female. Reunion with the partner appeared to stimulate coordinated release of central and peripheral OT. The observed changes suggest the involvement of OT and AVP systems, as well as limbic and striatal areas, during separation and reunion from the pair mate.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-11-14

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Handling stress may confound murine gut microbiota studies

Description

Background
Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human

Background
Accumulating evidence indicates interactions between human milk composition, particularly sugars (human milk oligosaccharides or HMO), the gut microbiota of human infants, and behavioral effects. Some HMO secreted in human milk are unable to be endogenously digested by the human infant but are able to be metabolized by certain species of gut microbiota, including Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), a species sensitive to host stress (Bailey & Coe, 2004). Exposure to gut bacteria like B. infantisduring critical neurodevelopment windows in early life appears to have behavioral consequences; however, environmental, physical, and social stress during this period can also have behavioral and microbial consequences. While rodent models are a useful method for determining causal relationships between HMO, gut microbiota, and behavior, murine studies of gut microbiota usually employ oral gavage, a technique stressful to the mouse. Our aim was to develop a less-invasive technique for HMO administration to remove the potential confound of gavage stress. Under the hypothesis that stress affects gut microbiota, particularly B. infantis, we predicted the pups receiving a prebiotic solution in a less-invasive manner would have the highest amount of Bifidobacteria in their gut.
Methods
This study was designed to test two methods, active and passive, of solution administration to mice and the effects on their gut microbiome. Neonatal C57BL/6J mice housed in a specific-pathogen free facility received increasing doses of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) solution or deionized, distilled water. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were collected from five dams, six sires, and 41 pups over four time points. Seven fecal pellets from unhandled pups and two pellets from unhandled dams were also collected. Qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify and compare the amount of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes.
Results
Our results demonstrate a significant difference between the amount of Firmicutes in pups receiving water passively and those receiving FOS actively (p-value = 0.009). Additionally, we found significant differences between the fecal microbiota from handled and non-handled mouse pups.
Discussion
From our results, we conclude even handling pups for experimental purposes, without gavage, may induce enough stress to alter the murine gut microbiota profile. We suggest further studies to examine potential stress effects on gut microbiota caused by experimental techniques. Stress from experimental techniques may need to be accounted for in future gut microbiota studies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-01-11

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Uncovering system-specific stress signatures in primate teeth with multimodal imaging

Description

Early life stress can disrupt development and negatively impact long-term health trajectories. Reconstructing histories of early life exposure to external stressors is hampered by the absence of retrospective time-specific biomarkers.

Early life stress can disrupt development and negatively impact long-term health trajectories. Reconstructing histories of early life exposure to external stressors is hampered by the absence of retrospective time-specific biomarkers. Defects in tooth enamel have been used to reconstruct stress but the methods used are subjective and do not identify the specific biological systems impacted by external stressors. Here we show that external physical and social stressors impart biochemical signatures in primate teeth that can be retrieved to objectively reconstruct the timing of early life developmental disruptions. Using teeth from captive macaques, we uncovered elemental imprints specific to disruptions of skeletal growth, including major disruptions in body weight trajectory and moderate to severe illnesses. Discrete increases in heat shock protein-70 expression in dentine coincided with elemental signatures, confirming that elemental signals were associated with activation of stress-related pathways. To overcome limitations of conventional light-microscopic analysis, we used high resolution Raman microspectral imaging to identify structural and compositional alterations in enamel and dentine that coincided with elemental signatures and with detailed medical and behavioural data. Integrating these objective biochemical markers with temporal mapping of teeth enables the retrospective study of early life developmental disruptions and their ensuing health sequelae.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-01-04

Example Play by Plays for the March Mammal Madness Tournament

Description

Selected narrations, or Play by Plays, to illustrate how matches in the annual March Mammal Madness Tournament are conducted and communicated. Referenced in “March Mammal Madness and the Power of

Selected narrations, or Play by Plays, to illustrate how matches in the annual March Mammal Madness Tournament are conducted and communicated. Referenced in “March Mammal Madness and the Power of Narrative in Science Outreach” (full citation coming and will link to KEEP record once created).

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Education and Outreach: March Mammal Madness and the power of narrative in science outreach

March Mammal Madness and the power of narrative in science outreach

Description

March Mammal Madness is a science outreach project that, over the course of several weeks in March, reaches hundreds of thousands of people in the United States every year. We

March Mammal Madness is a science outreach project that, over the course of several weeks in March, reaches hundreds of thousands of people in the United States every year. We combine four approaches to science outreach – gamification, social media platforms, community event(s), and creative products – to run a simulated tournament in which 64 animals compete to become the tournament champion. While the encounters between the animals are hypothetical, the outcomes rely on empirical evidence from the scientific literature. Players select their favored combatants beforehand, and during the tournament scientists translate the academic literature into gripping “play-by-play” narration on social media. To date ~1100 scholarly works, covering almost 400 taxa, have been transformed into science stories. March Mammal Madness is most typically used by high-school educators teaching life sciences, and we estimate that our materials reached ~1% of high-school students in the United States in 2019. Here we document the intentional design, public engagement, and magnitude of reach of the project. We further explain how human psychological and cognitive adaptations for shared experiences, social learning, narrative, and imagery contribute to the widespread use of March Mammal Madness.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-02-22

2021 March Mammal Madness Educational Materials

2021 March Mammal Madness Educational Materials

Description

This packet includes:

 2021 Bracket Common Name 

2021 Bracket Latin Binomial 

Bracket FAQ (English) 

Pre-Tournament Research Lesson Plan (English) 

Tournament Lesson Plan & Worksheets (English) 

Visual Arts Lesson Plan (English) 

Language Arts Lesson Plan (English) 

Guide for Youngest

This packet includes:

 2021 Bracket Common Name 

2021 Bracket Latin Binomial 

Bracket FAQ (English) 

Pre-Tournament Research Lesson Plan (English) 

Tournament Lesson Plan & Worksheets (English) 

Visual Arts Lesson Plan (English) 

Language Arts Lesson Plan (English) 

Guide for Youngest Players (English)

JUMBO Bracket for Youngest Players (English)

2021 Bracket Common Name (Spanish) 

Pre-Tournament Research Lesson Plan (Spanish) 

Tournament Lesson Plan & Worksheets (Spanish) 

Visual Arts Lesson Plan (Spanish)

Language Arts Lesson Plan (Spanish) 

JUMBO Bracket for Youngest Players (Spanish) 

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-02