Matching Items (14)

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An Examination of the Impact of Support Design on 316 Stainless Steel Supports

Description

The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining techniques. Sacrificial supports are necessary in PBF printing to relieve

The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining techniques. Sacrificial supports are necessary in PBF printing to relieve thermal stresses and support overhanging parts often resulting in the inclusion of supports in regions of the part that are not easily accessed by mechanical removal methods. Recent innovations in PBF support removal include dissolvable metal supports through an electrochemical etching process. Dissolvable PBF supports have the potential to significantly reduce the costs and time associated with traditional support removal. However, the speed and effectiveness of this approach is inhibited by numerous factors such as support geometry and metal powder entrapment within supports. To fully realize this innovative approach, it is necessary to model and understand the design parameters necessary to optimize support structures applicable to an electrochemical etching process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of block additive manufacturing support parameters on key process outcomes of the dissolution of 316 stainless steel support structures. The parameters investigated included hatch spacing and perforation, and the outcomes of interests included time required for completion, surface roughness, and effectiveness of the etching process. Electrical current was also evaluated as an indicator of process completion. Analysis of the electrical current throughout the etching process showed that the dissolution is diffusion limited to varying degrees, and is dependent on support structure parameters. Activation and passivation behavior was observed during current leveling, and appeared to be more pronounced in non-perforated samples with less dense hatch spacing. The correlation between electrical current and completion of the etching process was unclear, as the support structures became mechanically removable well before the current leveled. The etching process was shown to improve surface finish on unsupported surfaces, but support was shown to negatively impact surface finish. Tighter hatch spacing was shown to correlate to larger variation in surface finish, due to ridges left behind by the support structures. In future studies, it is recommended current be more closely correlated to process completion and more roughness data be collected to identify a trend between hatch spacing and surface roughness.

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Date Created
2018-05

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A Modelling Approach to Determine Gas and Temperature Profiles during Catalytic Reactions in Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy

Description

A scheme has been developed for finding the gas and temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM), using COMSOL Multiphysics and the finite element method (FEM). This model should permit better correlation between catalyst structure and activity, by

A scheme has been developed for finding the gas and temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM), using COMSOL Multiphysics and the finite element method (FEM). This model should permit better correlation between catalyst structure and activity, by providing a more accurate understanding of gas composition than the assumption of homogeneity typically used. While more data is needed to complete the model, current progress has identified several details about the system and its ideal modeling approach.
It is found that at the low pressures and flowrates of catalysis in ETEM, natural and forced convection are negligible forms of heat transfer. Up to 250 °C, radiation is also negligible. Gas conduction, being enhanced at low pressures, dominates.
Similarly, mass transport is dominated by diffusion, which is most accurately described by the Maxwell-Stefan model. Bulk fluid flow is highly laminar, and in fact borders the line between continuum and molecular flow. The no-slip boundary condition does not apply here, and both viscous slip and thermal creep must be considered. In the porous catalyst pellet considered in this work, Knudsen diffusion dominates, with bulk flow being best described by the Darcy-Brinkman equation.
With these physics modelled, it appears as though the gas homogeneity assumption is not completely accurate, breaking down in the porous pellet where reactions occur. While these results are not yet quantitative, this trend is likely to remain in future model iterations. It is not yet clear how significant this deviation is, though methods are proposed to minimize it if necessary.
Some model-experiment mismatch has been found which must be further explored. Experimental data shows a pressure dependence on the furnace temperature at constant power, a trend as-yet unresolvable by the model. It is proposed that this relates to the breakdown of the assumption of fluid continuity at low pressures and small dimensions, though no compelling mathematical formulation has been found. This issue may have significant ramifications on ETEM and ETEM experiment design.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Porous Liquid Metal Matrix Embedded in Elastic Substrate

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Research on incorporating liquid metal into flexible substrates has resulted in a new avenue for research. Currently, the most promising technique performed was coating a cotton fiber in liquid metal and then using high heat to remove the fiber from

Research on incorporating liquid metal into flexible substrates has resulted in a new avenue for research. Currently, the most promising technique performed was coating a cotton fiber in liquid metal and then using high heat to remove the fiber from the liquid metal without the use of flames or solvents. This is promising in that thin fibers could be coated to create the circuitry, then removed from the liquid metal. The remaining liquid metal could then be encased in a flexible polymer. This then sparked the idea of using a mortar and pestle to manually mix the liquid metal into the elastic substrate, in this case PDMS. Other materials can also be mixed in, such as graphite or alumina to create thermal interface materials (TIMs). These compounds are then poured into molds to cure, then are taken to be tested for thermal conductivity. The results have not yet returned, but this research will continue by changing the ratios of the materials in the TIMs as well as moving forward with encasing the remaining Galistan in elastomer once the fabric was removed through oxidation.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Dissolvable Metal Supports - Simplifying Metals Printing

Description

Additive Manufacturing and 3D printing are becoming important technologies in the manufacturing sector. The benefits of this technology include complex part geometry, short lead-times, low waste, and simple user interface. However, the technology does not come without its drawbacks: mainly

Additive Manufacturing and 3D printing are becoming important technologies in the manufacturing sector. The benefits of this technology include complex part geometry, short lead-times, low waste, and simple user interface. However, the technology does not come without its drawbacks: mainly the removal of support structures from the component. Traditional techniques that involve sawing and cutting can be expensive and take a long time, increasing the overall price of 3D printed metal components. This paper discusses two approaches taken for dissolvable support structures in 3D printed stainless steel (17-4 PH). For the first time in powder bed fusion components, with the help of Christopher Lefky and Dr. Owen Hildreth, dissolvable support capabilities are achieved in metal prints. The first approach, direct dissolution, involves direct corrosion of the entire part, leading to support removal. This approach is not self-terminating, and leads to changes in final component geometry. The second approach involves a post-build sensitization step, which physically alters the microstructure and chemical stability of the first 100-200 microns of the metal. The component is then etched at an electric potential that will readily corrode this sensitized surface, but not the underlying base metal. An electrolytic solution of HNO3/KCl/HCl paired with an anodic bias was used for the direct dissolution approach, resulting in a loss of about 120 microns of material from the components surface. For the self-limiting approach, surface sensitization was achieve through a post build annealing step (800 C for 6 hours, air cooled) with exposure to a sodium hexacynoferrate slurry. When the slurry decomposes in the furnace, carbon atoms diffuse into the surface and precipitate a chromium-carbide, which reduces the chemical stability of the stainless steel. Etching is demonstrated in an anodic bias of HNO3/KCl. To determine proper etching potentials, open circuit potential and cyclic voltammetry experiments were run to create Potentiodynamic Polarization Curves. Further testing of the self-terminating approach was performed on a 316 stainless steel interlocking ring structure with a complex geometry. In this case, 32.5 hours of etching at anodic potentials replaced days of mechanical sawing and cutting.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Conformable skin electronics based on spiral pattern

Description

Skin electronics is one of the most promising applications of stretchable electronics. The versatility of skin electronics can only be guaranteed when it has conformal contact with human skin. While both analytical and numerical solutions for contact between serpentine interconnects

Skin electronics is one of the most promising applications of stretchable electronics. The versatility of skin electronics can only be guaranteed when it has conformal contact with human skin. While both analytical and numerical solutions for contact between serpentine interconnects and soft substrate remain unreported, the motivation of this thesis is to render a novel method to numerically study the conformability of the serpentine interconnects. This thesis explained thoroughly how to conduct finite element analysis for the conformability of skin electronics, including modeling, meshing method and step setup etc.. User-defined elements were implemented to the finite element commercial package ABAQUS for the analysis of conformability. With thorough investigation into the conformability of Fermat’s spiral, it has been found that the kirigami based pattern exhibits high conformability. Since thickness is a key factor to design skin electronics, the thesis also talked about how the change of thickness of the skin electronics impacts on the conformability.

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Date Created
2015

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Gallium-based room temperature liquid metals and its application to single channel two-liquid hyperelastic capacitive strain sensors

Description

Gallium-based liquid metals are of interest for a variety of applications including flexible electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. Still, nano- to microscale device fabrication with these materials is challenging because of their strong adhesion to a majority of substrates.

Gallium-based liquid metals are of interest for a variety of applications including flexible electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. Still, nano- to microscale device fabrication with these materials is challenging because of their strong adhesion to a majority of substrates. This unusual high adhesion is attributed to the formation of a thin oxide shell; however, its role in the adhesion process has not yet been established. In the first part of the thesis, we described a multiscale study aiming at understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing wetting and adhesion of gallium-based liquid metals. In particular, macroscale dynamic contact angle measurements were coupled with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging to relate macroscopic drop adhesion to morphology of the liquid metal-surface interface. In addition, room temperature liquid-metal microfluidic devices are also attractive systems for hyperelastic strain sensing. Currently two types of liquid metal-based strain sensors exist for inplane measurements: single-microchannel resistive and two-microchannel capacitive devices. However, with a winding serpentine channel geometry, these sensors typically have a footprint of about a square centimeter, limiting the number of sensors that can be embedded into. In the second part of the thesis, firstly, simulations and an experimental setup consisting of two GaInSn filled tubes submerged within a dielectric liquid bath are used to quantify the effects of the cylindrical electrode geometry including diameter, spacing, and meniscus shape as well as dielectric constant of the insulating liquid and the presence of tubing on the overall system's capacitance. Furthermore, a procedure for fabricating the two-liquid capacitor within a single straight polydiemethylsiloxane channel is developed. Lastly, capacitance and response of this compact device to strain and operational issues arising from complex hydrodynamics near liquid-liquid and liquid-elastomer interfaces are described.

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Date Created
2015

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Theoretical and finite element analysis of origami and kirigami based structures

Description

Origami and kirigami, the technique of generating three-dimensional (3D) structures from two-dimensional (2D) flat sheets, are now more and more involved in scientific and engineering fields. Therefore, the development of tools for their theoretical analysis becomes more and more important.

Origami and kirigami, the technique of generating three-dimensional (3D) structures from two-dimensional (2D) flat sheets, are now more and more involved in scientific and engineering fields. Therefore, the development of tools for their theoretical analysis becomes more and more important. Since much effort was paid on calculations based on pure mathematical consideration and only limited effort has been paid to include mechanical properties, the goal of my research is developing a method to analyze the mechanical behavior of origami and kirigami based structures. Mechanical characteristics, including nonlocal effect and fracture of the structures, as well as elasticity and plasticity of materials are studied. For calculation of relative simple structures and building of structures’ constitutive relations, analytical approaches were used. For more complex structures, finite element analysis (FEA), which is commonly applied as a numerical method for the analysis of solid structures, was utilized. The general study approach is not necessarily related to characteristic size of model. I believe the scale-independent method described here will pave a new way to understand the mechanical response of a variety of origami and kirigami based structures under given mechanical loading.

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Date Created
2016

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Printed passive microfluidic devices using TEOS reactive inks

Description

This paper details ink chemistries and processes to fabricate passive microfluidic devices using drop-on-demand printing of tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) inks. Parameters space investigation of the relationship between printed morphology and ink chemistries and printing parameters was conducted to demonstrate that

This paper details ink chemistries and processes to fabricate passive microfluidic devices using drop-on-demand printing of tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) inks. Parameters space investigation of the relationship between printed morphology and ink chemistries and printing parameters was conducted to demonstrate that morphology can be controlled by adjusting solvents selection, TEOS concentration, substrate temperature, and hydrolysis time. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope images were gathered to observe printed morphology and optical videos were taken to quantify the impact of morphology on fluid flow rates. The microscopy images show that by controlling the hydrolysis time of TEOS, dilution solvents and the printing temperature, dense or fracture structure can be obtained. Fracture structures are used as passive fluidic device due to strong capillary action in cracks. At last, flow rate of passive fluidic devices with different thickness printed at different temperatures are measured and compared. The result shows the flow rate increases with the increase of device width and thickness. By controlling the morphology and dimensions of printed structure, passive microfluidic devices with designed flow rate and low fluorescence background are able to be printed.

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Date Created
2016

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Radiative heat transfer with nanowire/nanohole metamaterials for thermal energy harvesting applications

Description

Recently, nanostructured metamaterials have attracted lots of attentions due to its tunable artificial properties. In particular, nanowire
anohole based metamaterials which are known of the capability of large area fabrication were intensively studied. Most of the studies are only based

Recently, nanostructured metamaterials have attracted lots of attentions due to its tunable artificial properties. In particular, nanowire
anohole based metamaterials which are known of the capability of large area fabrication were intensively studied. Most of the studies are only based on the electrical responses of the metamaterials; however, magnetic response, is usually neglected since magnetic material does not exist naturally within the visible or infrared range. For the past few years, artificial magnetic response from nanostructure based metamaterials has been proposed. This reveals the possibility of exciting resonance modes based on magnetic responses in nanowire
anohole metamaterials which can potentially provide additional enhancement on radiative transport. On the other hand, beyond classical far-field radiative heat transfer, near-field radiation which is known of exceeding the Planck’s blackbody limit has also become a hot topic in the field.

This PhD dissertation aims to obtain a deep fundamental understanding of nanowire
anohole based metamaterials in both far-field and near-field in terms of both electrical and magnetic responses. The underlying mechanisms that can be excited by nanowire
anohole metamaterials such as electrical surface plasmon polariton, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic polariton, etc., will be theoretically studied in both far-field and near-field. Furthermore, other than conventional effective medium theory which only considers the electrical response of metamaterials, the artificial magnetic response of metamaterials will also be studied through parameter retrieval of far-field optical and radiative properties for studying near-field radiative transport. Moreover, a custom-made AFM tip based metrology will be employed to experimentally study near-field radiative transfer between a plate and a sphere separated by nanometer vacuum gaps in vacuum. This transformative research will break new ground in nanoscale radiative heat transfer for various applications in energy systems, thermal management, and thermal imaging and sensing.

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Date Created
2017

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Formulating a Particle-Free and Low Temperature Nickel Reactive Ink for Inkjet Printing Conductive Features

Description

Reactive inkjet printing (RIJP) is a direct-write deposition technique that synthesizes and patterns functional materials simultaneously. It is a route to cheap fabrication of highly conductive features on a versatile range of substrates. Silver reactive inks have become a staple

Reactive inkjet printing (RIJP) is a direct-write deposition technique that synthesizes and patterns functional materials simultaneously. It is a route to cheap fabrication of highly conductive features on a versatile range of substrates. Silver reactive inks have become a staple of conductive inkjet printing for application in printed and flexible electronics, photovoltaic metallization, and more. However, the high cost of silver makes these less effective for disposable and low-cost applications.

This work aimed to develop a particle-free formulation for a nickel reactive ink capable of metallizing highly pure nickel at temperatures under 100 °C to facilitate printing on substrates like paper or plastic. Nickel offers a significantly cheaper alternative to silver at slightly reduced bulk conductivity.

To meet these aims, three archetypes of inks were formulated. First were a set of glycerol-based inks temperature ink containing nickel acetate, hydrazine, and ammonia in a mixture of water and glycerol. This ink reduced between 115 – 200 °C to produce slightly oxidized deposits of nickel with carbon content around 10 wt %.

The high temperature was addressed in a second series, which replaced glycerol with lower boiling glycols and added sodium hydroxide as a strong base to enhance thermodynamics and kinetics of reduction. These inks reduced between 60 and 100 °C but sodium salts contaminated the final deposits.

In a third set of inks, sodium hydroxide was replaced with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), a strong organic base, to address contamination. These inks also reduced between 60 and 100 °C. Pipetting or printing onto gold coated substrates produce metallic flakes coated in a clear, thick residue. EDS measured carbon and oxygen content up to 70 wt % of deposits. The residue was hypothesized to be a non-volatile byproduct of TMAH and acetate.

Recommendations are provided to address the residue. Ultimately the formulated reactive inks did not meet design targets. However, this thesis sets the framework to design an optimal nickel reactive ink in future work.

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Date Created
2019