Matching Items (30)

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Detection of cyber attacks in power distribution energy management systems

Description

The objective of this thesis is to detect certain cyber attacks in a power distribution ener-gy management system in a Smart Grid infrastructure. In the Smart Grid, signals are sent

The objective of this thesis is to detect certain cyber attacks in a power distribution ener-gy management system in a Smart Grid infrastructure. In the Smart Grid, signals are sent be-tween the distribution operator and the customer on a real-time basis. Signals are used for auto-mated energy management, protection and energy metering. This thesis aims at making use of various signals in the system to detect cyber attacks. The focus of the thesis is on a cyber attack that changes the parameters of the energy management system. The attacks considered change the set points, thresholds for energy management decisions, signal multipliers, and other digitally stored parameters that ultimately determine the transfer functions of the components. Since the distribution energy management system is assumed to be in a Smart Grid infrastructure, customer demand is elastic to the price of energy. The energy pricing is represented by a distribution loca-tional marginal price. A closed loop control system is utilized as representative of the energy management system. Each element of the system is represented by a linear transfer function. Studies are done via simulations and these simulations are performed in Matlab SimuLink. The analytical calculations are done using Matlab.

Signals from the system are used to obtain the frequency response of the component transfer functions. The magnitude and phase angle of the transfer functions are obtained using the fast Fourier transform. The transfer function phase angles of base cases (no attack) are stored and are compared with the phase angles calculated at regular time intervals. If the difference in the phase characteristics is greater than a set threshold, an alarm is issued indicating the detection of a cyber attack.

The developed algorithm is designed for use in the envisioned Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Examples are shown for the noise free and noisy cases.

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  • 2014

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Improved convex optimal decision-making processes in distribution systems: enable grid integration of photovoltaic resources and distributed energy storage

Description

This research mainly focuses on improving the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) re-sources in distribution systems by reducing their variability and uncertainty through the integration of distributed energy storage (DES) devices,

This research mainly focuses on improving the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) re-sources in distribution systems by reducing their variability and uncertainty through the integration of distributed energy storage (DES) devices, like batteries, and smart PV in-verters. The adopted theoretical tools include statistical analysis and convex optimization. Operational issues have been widely reported in distribution systems as the penetration of PV resources has increased. Decision-making processes for determining the optimal allo-cation and scheduling of DES, and the optimal placement of smart PV inverters are con-sidered. The alternating current (AC) power flow constraints are used in these optimiza-tion models. The first two optimization problems are formulated as quadratically-constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problems while the third problem is formu-lated as a mixed-integer QCQP (MIQCQP) problem. In order to obtain a globally opti-mum solution to these non-convex optimization problems, convex relaxation techniques are introduced. Considering that the costs of the DES are still very high, a procedure for DES sizing based on OpenDSS is proposed in this research to avoid over-sizing.

Some existing convex relaxations, e.g. the second order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation and semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation, which have been well studied for the optimal power flow (OPF) problem work unsatisfactorily for the DES and smart inverter optimization problems. Several convex constraints that can approximate the rank-1 constraint X = xxT are introduced to construct a tighter SDP relaxation which is referred to as the enhanced SDP (ESDP) relaxation using a non-iterative computing framework. Obtaining the convex hull of the AC power flow equations is beneficial for mitigating the non-convexity of the decision-making processes in power systems, since the AC power flow constraints exist in many of these problems. The quasi-convex hull of the quadratic equalities in the AC power bus injection model (BIM) and the exact convex hull of the quadratic equality in the AC power branch flow model (BFM) are proposed respectively in this thesis. Based on the convex hull of BFM, a novel convex relaxation of the DES optimizations is proposed. The proposed approaches are tested on a real world feeder in Arizona and several benchmark IEEE radial feeders.

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  • 2016

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Insulation Coordination of Solid State Devices Connected Directly to the Electric Power Distribution System

Description

With the penetration of distributed renewable energy and the development of

semiconductor technology, power electronic devices could be utilized to interface re-

newable energy generation and the distribution power grid. However, when

With the penetration of distributed renewable energy and the development of

semiconductor technology, power electronic devices could be utilized to interface re-

newable energy generation and the distribution power grid. However, when directly

connected to the power grid, the semiconductors inside the power electronic devices

could be vulnerable to the power system transient, especially to lightning strikes.

The work of this research focuses on the insulation coordination of power elec-

tronic devices connected directly to the power distribution system. The Solid State

Transformer (SST) in Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management

(FREEDM) system could be a good example for grid connected power electronic

devices. Simulations were conducted in Power Systems Computer Aided Design

(PSCAD) software. A simulation done to the FREEDM SST showed primary re-

sults which were then compare to simulation done to the grid-connected operating

Voltage Source Converter (VSC) to get more objective results.

Based on the simulation results, voltage surges caused by lightning strikes could

result in damage on the grid-connected electronic devices. Placing Metal Oxide Surge

Arresers (MOSA, also known as Metal Oxide Surge Varistor, MOV) at the front lter

could provide eective protection for those devices from power transient. Part of this

research work was published as a conference paper and was presented at CIGRE US

National Conference: Grid of the Future Symposium [1] and North American Power

Symposium [2].

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Dispatch of bulk energy storage in power systems with wind generation

Description

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting peak loads, providing spinning reserve. Economic dispatch is performed with bulk energy storage with wind energy penetration in power systems allocating the generation levels to the units in the mix, so that the system load is served and most economically. The results obtained in previous research to solve for economic dispatch uses a linear cost function for a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF). This thesis uses quadratic cost function for a DCOPF implementing quadratic programming (QP) to minimize the function. A Matlab program was created to simulate different test systems including an equivalent section of the WECC system, namely for Arizo-na, summer peak 2009. A mathematical formulation of a strategy of when to charge or discharge the storage is incorporated in the algorithm. In this thesis various test cases are shown in a small three bus test bed and also for the state of Arizona test bed. The main conclusions drawn from the two test beds is that the use of energy storage minimizes the generation dispatch cost of the system and benefits the power sys-tem by serving the peak partially from stored energy. It is also found that use of energy storage systems may alleviate the loading on transmission lines which can defer the upgrade and expansion of the transmission system.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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A power system reliability evaluation technique and education tool for wind energy integration

Description

This thesis is focused on the study of wind energy integration and is divided into two segments. The first part of the thesis deals with developing a reliability evaluation technique

This thesis is focused on the study of wind energy integration and is divided into two segments. The first part of the thesis deals with developing a reliability evaluation technique for a wind integrated power system. A multiple-partial outage model is utilized to accurately calculate the wind generation availability. A methodology is presented to estimate the outage probability of wind generators while incorporating their reduced power output levels at low wind speeds. Subsequently, power system reliability is assessed by calculating the loss of load probability (LOLP) and the effect of wind integration on the overall system is analyzed. Actual generation and load data of the Texas power system in 2008 are used to construct a test case. To demonstrate the robustness of the method, relia-bility studies have been conducted for a fairly constant as well as for a largely varying wind generation profile. Further, the case of increased wind generation penetration level has been simulated and comments made about the usability of the proposed method to aid in power system planning in scenarios of future expansion of wind energy infrastructure. The second part of this thesis explains the development of a graphic user interface (GUI) to demonstrate the operation of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). The theory of DFIG and its back-to-back power converter is described. The GUI illustrates the power flow, behavior of the electrical circuit and the maximum power point tracking of the machine for a variable wind speed input provided by the user. The tool, although developed on MATLAB software platform, has been constructed to work as a standalone application on Windows operating system based computer and enables even the non-engineering students to access it. Results of both the segments of the thesis are discussed. Remarks are presented about the validity of the reliability technique and GUI interface for variable wind speed conditions. Improvements have been suggested to enable the use of the reliability technique for a more elaborate system. Recommendations have been made about expanding the features of the GUI tool and to use it to promote educational interest about renewable power engineering.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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State Estimation for Enhanced Monitoring, Reliability, Restoration and Control of Smart Distribution Systems

Description

The Smart Grid initiative describes the collaborative effort to modernize the U.S. electric power infrastructure. Modernization efforts incorporate digital data and information technology to effectuate control, enhance reliability, encourage small

The Smart Grid initiative describes the collaborative effort to modernize the U.S. electric power infrastructure. Modernization efforts incorporate digital data and information technology to effectuate control, enhance reliability, encourage small customer sited distributed generation (DG), and better utilize assets. The Smart Grid environment is envisioned to include distributed generation, flexible and controllable loads, bidirectional communications using smart meters and other technologies. Sensory technology may be utilized as a tool that enhances operation including operation of the distribution system. Addressing this point, a distribution system state estimation algorithm is developed in this thesis. The state estimation algorithm developed here utilizes distribution system modeling techniques to calculate a vector of state variables for a given set of measurements. Measurements include active and reactive power flows, voltage and current magnitudes, phasor voltages with magnitude and angle information. The state estimator is envisioned as a tool embedded in distribution substation computers as part of distribution management systems (DMS); the estimator acts as a supervisory layer for a number of applications including automation (DA), energy management, control and switching. The distribution system state estimator is developed in full three-phase detail, and the effect of mutual coupling and single-phase laterals and loads on the solution is calculated. The network model comprises a full three-phase admittance matrix and a subset of equations that relates measurements to system states. Network equations and variables are represented in rectangular form. Thus a linear calculation procedure may be employed. When initialized to the vector of measured quantities and approximated non-metered load values, the calculation procedure is non-iterative. This dissertation presents background information used to develop the state estimation algorithm, considerations for distribution system modeling, and the formulation of the state estimator. Estimator performance for various power system test beds is investigated. Sample applications of the estimator to Smart Grid systems are presented. Applications include monitoring, enabling demand response (DR), voltage unbalance mitigation, and enhancing voltage control. Illustrations of these applications are shown. Also, examples of enhanced reliability and restoration using a sensory based automation infrastructure are shown.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Ranking of bulk transmission assets for maintenance decisions

Description

Reliable and secure operation of bulk power transmission system components is an important aspect of electric power engineering. Component failures in a transmission network can lead to serious consequences and

Reliable and secure operation of bulk power transmission system components is an important aspect of electric power engineering. Component failures in a transmission network can lead to serious consequences and impact system reliability. The operational health of the transmission assets plays a crucial role in determining the reliability of an electric grid. To achieve this goal, scheduled maintenance of bulk power system components is an important activity to secure the transmission system against unanticipated events. This thesis identifies critical transmission elements in a 500 kV transmission network utilizing a ranking strategy.

The impact of the failure of transmission assets operated by a major utility company in the Southwest United States on its power system network is studied. A methodology is used to quantify the impact and subsequently rank transmission assets in decreasing order of their criticality. The analysis is carried out on the power system network using a node breaker model and steady state analysis. The light load case of spring 2019, peak load case of summer 2023 and two intermediate load cases have been considered for the ranking. The contingency simulations and power flow studies have been carried out using a commercial power flow study software package, Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF). The results obtained from PSLF are analyzed using Matlab to obtain the desired ranking. The ranked list of transmission assets will enable asset managers to identify the assets that have the most significant impact on the overall power system network performance. Therefore, investment and maintenance decisions can be made effectively. A conclusion along with a recommendation for future work is also provided in the thesis.

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  • 2019

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A probabilistic cost to benefit assessment of a next generation electric power distribution system

Description

This thesis provides a cost to benefit assessment of the proposed next generation distribution system, the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. In this thesis, a probabilistic study

This thesis provides a cost to benefit assessment of the proposed next generation distribution system, the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. In this thesis, a probabilistic study is conducted to determine the payback period for an investment made in the FREEDM distribution system. The stochastic study will help in performing a detailed analysis in estimating the probability density function and statistics associated with the payback period.

This thesis also identifies several parameters associated with the FREEDM system, which are used in the cost benefit study to evaluate the investment and several direct and indirect benefits. Different topologies are selected to represent the FREEDM test bed. Considering the cost of high speed fault isolation devices, the topology design is selected based on the minimum number of fault isolation devices constrained by enhanced reliability. A case study is also performed to assess the economic impact of energy storage devices in the solid state transformers so that the fault isolation devices may be replaced by conventional circuit breakers.

A reliability study is conducted on the FREEDM distribution system to examine the customer centric reliability index, System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI). It is observed that the SAIFI was close to 0.125 for the FREEDM distribution system. In addition, a comparison study is performed based on the SAIFI for a representative U.S. distribution system and the FREEDM distribution system.

The payback period is also determined by adopting a theoretical approach and the results are compared with the Monte Carlo simulation outcomes to understand the variation in the payback period. It is observed that the payback period is close to 60 years but if an annual rebate is considered, the payback period reduces to 20 years. This shows that the FREEDM system has a significant potential which cannot be overlooked. Several direct and indirect benefits arising from the FREEDM system have also been discussed in this thesis.

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  • 2016

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Energy market transparency: analyzing the impacts of constraint relaxation and out-of-market correction practices in electric energy markets

Description

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have

This work presents research on practices in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication practices and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the impact these practices have on market outcomes. The practice of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these practices are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these practices have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation practices is demonstrated.

Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation practices and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The practice of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry practices and assess the impact these practices have on market outcomes.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Engineering the implementation of pumped hydro energy storage in the Arizona power grid

Description

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study.

This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies.

For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated.

The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This research illustrates the use of energy storage which helps minimize the system wide generator operating cost by "shaving" energy off of the peak demand.

The thesis builds on the work of another recent researcher with the objectives of strengthening the assumptions used, checking the solutions obtained, utilizing higher level simulation languages to affirm results, and expanding the results and conclusions.

One important point not fully discussed in the present thesis is the impact of efficiency in the pumped hydro cycle. The efficiency of the cycle for modern units is estimated at higher than 90%. Inclusion of pumped hydro losses is relegated to future work.

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Date Created
  • 2014