Matching Items (34)

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Transposition and Voltage Unbalance in High Phase Order Power Transmission Systems

Description

High phase order systems have been proposed at the early inception of power transmission engineering, but few direct applications have been made. High phase order transmission should be considered as

High phase order systems have been proposed at the early inception of power transmission engineering, but few direct applications have been made. High phase order transmission should be considered as an alternative in the case of high power density applications. In this article, an analysis of transposition of high phase order overhead transmission lines is presented and voltage unbalance in high phase order systems is considered. Definitions are presented for “fully transposed” and “roll transposed” along with advantages and disadvantages of each. A generalized voltage unbalance factor is introduced and utilized to determine the benefits of transposition. The generalized voltage unbalance factor is compared with three other possible unbalance factors to determine if the generalized voltage unbalance factor is an appropriate indication of unbalance. Exemplary results are presented for 6-phase and 12-phase designs. Conclusions show that the generalized voltage unbalance factor is a good indication of transmission line voltage unbalance and certain configurations may not need full rotation transposition to minimize the unbalance factor. The transposition analysis and voltage unbalance are considerations in the assessment of high phase order as a high power transmission alternative.

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Date Created
  • 2014-11-18

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High Temperature Low Sag Upgrades and Payback for the Economic Operation Improvement of Power Transmission Systems

Description

The increase of transmission line thermal ratings by reconductoring with high temperature low sag conductors is a comparatively new technology introduced for transmission expansion. A special design permits high temperature

The increase of transmission line thermal ratings by reconductoring with high temperature low sag conductors is a comparatively new technology introduced for transmission expansion. A special design permits high temperature low sag conductors to operate at higher temperatures, therefore allowing passage of higher current and, thus, increasing the thermal rating of the transmission line. The comparatively high cost of high temperature low sag conductors may be an obstacle to its large-scale implementation. This article evaluates the expenditures for transmission line reconductoring using high temperature low sag, the consequent benefits obtained from the potential decrease in operating cost for thermally limited power transmission systems. Estimates of the “payback period” are used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of reconductoring with high temperature low sag. The evaluation is performed using a 225 bus equivalent of the 2012 summer peak Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council. The method is offered for transmission expansion analysis in which an economic benefit is calculated to assist in the transmission expansion decision.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-07

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The Impact of Increased Penetration of Converter Control-Based Generators on Power System Modes of Oscillation

Description

The impact of increasing penetration of converter control-based generators (CCBGs) in a large-scale power system is assessed through a model based small signal stability analysis. Three test bed cases for

The impact of increasing penetration of converter control-based generators (CCBGs) in a large-scale power system is assessed through a model based small signal stability analysis. Three test bed cases for the years 2010, 2020, and 2022 of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) in the United States are used for the analysis. Increasing penetration of wind-based Type 3 and wind-based Type 4 and PV Solar CCBGs is used in the tests. The participation and interaction of CCBGs and synchronous generators in traditional electromechanical interarea modes is analyzed. Two new types of modes dominated by CCBGs are identified. The characteristics of these new modes are described and compared to electromechanical modes in the frequency domain. An examination of the mechanism of the interaction between the CCBG control states and the synchronous generator control states is presented and validated through dynamic simulations. Actual system and forecast load data are used throughout.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-01

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New passive methodology for power cable monitoring and fault location

Description

The utilization of power cables is increasing with the development of renewable energy and the maintenance replacement of old overhead power lines. Therefore, effective monitoring and accurate fault location for

The utilization of power cables is increasing with the development of renewable energy and the maintenance replacement of old overhead power lines. Therefore, effective monitoring and accurate fault location for power cables are very important for the sake of a stable power supply.

The recent technologies for power cable diagnosis and temperature monitoring system are described including their intrinsic limitations for cable health assessment. Power cable fault location methods are reviewed with two main categories: off-line and on-line data based methods.

As a diagnostic and fault location approach, a new passive methodology is introduced. This methodology is based on analyzing the resonant frequencies of the transfer function between the input and output of the power cable system. The equivalent pi model is applied to the resonant frequency calculation for the selected underground power cable transmission system.

The characteristics of the resonant frequencies are studied by analytical derivations and PSCAD simulations. It is found that the variation of load magnitudes and change of positive power factors (i.e., inductive loads) do not affect resonant frequencies significantly, but there is considerable movement of resonant frequencies under change of negative power factors (i.e., capacitive loads).

Power cable fault conditions introduce new resonant frequencies in accordance with fault positions. Similar behaviors of the resonant frequencies are shown in a transformer (TR) connected power cable system with frequency shifts caused by the TR impedance.

The resonant frequencies can be extracted by frequency analysis of power signals and the inherent noise in these signals plays a key role to measure the resonant frequencies. Window functions provide an effective tool for improving resonant frequency discernment. The frequency analysis is implemented on noise laden PSCAD simulation signals and it reveals identical resonant frequency characteristics with theoretical studies.

Finally, the noise levels of real voltage and current signals, which are acquired from an operating power plant, are estimated and the resonant frequencies are extracted by applying window functions, and these results prove that the resonant frequency can be used as an assessment for the internal changes in power cable parameters such as defects and faults.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A single-phase current source solar inverter with constant instantaneous power, improved reliability, and reduced-size DC-link filter

Description

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any electrolytic capacitors. Instead an inductor is used as the DC-link filter and reliable AC film capacitors are utilized for the filter and auxiliary capacitor. The proposed topology has a life expectancy on par with PV panels. The proposed modulation technique can be used for any current source inverter where an unbalanced three-phase operation is desires such as active filters and power controllers. The proposed topology is ready for the next phase of microgrid and power system controllers in that it accepts reactive power commands. This work presents the proposed topology and its working principle supported by with numerical verifications and hardware results. Conclusions and future work are also presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Customer Benefit Analysis and Experimental Study of Residential Rooftop PV and Energy Storage Systems

Description

The government support towards green energy sources for the better future of the planet has changed the perspective of the people towards the usage of green energy. Among renewables, solar

The government support towards green energy sources for the better future of the planet has changed the perspective of the people towards the usage of green energy. Among renewables, solar is one of the important and easily accessible resources to convert energy from the sun directly into electricity and this system has gained fame since the past three decades.

SRP has set up a 6.36 kW PV and 19.4 kWh battery system on the rooftop of Engineering Research Center (ERC). The system is grid-connected and ASU (Arizona State University) has developed two load banks with a minimum step of 72 watts to simulate different residential load profiles and perform other research objectives.

A customer benefit analysis is performed for residential customers with photovoltaic (PV) systems and energy storage particularly in the state of Arizona. By optimizing the use of energy storage device, the algorithm aims at maximizing the profit and minimizing utility bills in accordance with the demand charge algorithm of the local utility. This part of the research has been published as a conference paper in IEEE PES General Meeting 2017.

A transient test is performed on the PV-battery during the on-grid mode and the off-grid mode to study the system behaviour during the transients. An algorithm is developed by the ASU research team to minimize the demand charge tariff for the residential customers. A statistical analysis is performed on the data collected from the system using a MATLAB algorithm.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Network topology optimization with alternating current optimal power flow

Description

The electric transmission grid is conventionally treated as a fixed asset and is operated around a single topology. Though several instances of switching transmission lines for corrective mechaism, congestion management,

The electric transmission grid is conventionally treated as a fixed asset and is operated around a single topology. Though several instances of switching transmission lines for corrective mechaism, congestion management, and minimization of losses can be found in literature, the idea of co-optimizing transmission with generation dispatch has not been widely investigated. Network topology optimization exploits the redundancies that are an integral part of the network to allow for improvement in dispatch efficiency. Although, the concept of a dispatchable network initially appears counterintuitive questioning the wisdom of switching transmission lines on a more regu-lar basis, results obtained in the previous research on transmission switching with a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF) show significant cost reductions. This thesis on network topology optimization with ACOPF emphasizes the need for additional research in this area. It examines the performance of network topology optimization in an Alternating Current (AC) setting and its impact on various parameters like active power loss and voltages that are ignored in the DC setting. An ACOPF model, with binary variables representing the status of transmission lines incorporated into the formulation, is written in AMPL, a mathematical programming language and this optimization problem is solved using the solver KNITRO. ACOPF is a non-convex, nonlinear optimization problem, making it a very hard problem to solve. The introduction of bi-nary variables makes ACOPF a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, further increasing the complexity of the optimization problem. An iterative method of opening each transmission line individually before choosing the best solution has been proposed as a purely investigative approach to studying the impact of transmission switching with ACOPF. Economic savings of up to 6% achieved using this approach indicate the potential of this concept. In addition, a heuristic has been proposed to improve the computational efficiency of network topology optimization. This research also makes a comparative analysis between transmission switching in a DC setting and switching in an AC setting. Results presented in this thesis indicate significant economic savings achieved by controlled topology optimization, thereby reconfirming the need for further examination of this idea.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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A cost to benefit analysis of a next generation electric power distribution system

Description

This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of

This thesis provides a cost to benefit analysis of the proposed next generation of distribution systems- the Future Renewable Electric Energy Distribution Management (FREEDM) system. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources onto the grid, it becomes necessary to have an infrastructure that allows for easy integration of these resources coupled with features like enhanced reliability of the system and fast pro-tection from faults. The Solid State Transformer (SST) and the Fault Isolation Device (FID) make for the core of the FREEDM system and have huge investment costs.

Some key features of the FREEDM system include improved power flow control, compact design and unity power factor operation. Customers may observe a reduction in the electricity bill by a certain fraction for using renewable sources of generation. There is also a possibility of huge subsidies given to encourage use of renewable energy. This thesis is an attempt to quantify the benefits offered by the FREEDM system in monetary terms and to calculate the time in years required to gain a return on investments made. The elevated cost of FIDs needs to be justified by the advantages they offer. The result of different rates of interest and how they influence the payback period is also studied. The payback periods calculated are observed for viability. A comparison is made between the active power losses on a certain distribution feeder that makes use of distribution level magnetic transformers versus one that makes use of SSTs. The reduction in the annual active power losses in the case of the feeder using SSTs is translated onto annual savings in terms of cost when compared to the conventional case with magnetic transformers. Since the FREEDM system encourages operation at unity power factor, the need for installing capacitor banks for improving the power factor is eliminated and this re-flects in savings in terms of cost. The FREEDM system offers enhanced reliability when compared to a conventional system. The payback periods observed support the concept of introducing the FREEDM system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Exploring six-phase transmission lines for increasing power transfer with limited right of way

Description

In the United States, especially in metropolitan areas, transmission infra-structure is congested due to a combination of increasing load demands, declining investment, and aging facilities. It is anticipated that significant

In the United States, especially in metropolitan areas, transmission infra-structure is congested due to a combination of increasing load demands, declining investment, and aging facilities. It is anticipated that significant investments will be required for new construction and upgrades in order to serve load demands. This thesis explores higher phase order systems, specifically, six-phase, as a means of increasing power transfer capability, and provides a comparison with conventional three-phase double circuit transmission lines. In this thesis, the line parameters, electric and magnetic fields, and right of way are the criteria for comparing six-phase and three-phase double circuit lines. The calculations of the criteria were achieved by a program developed using MATLAB. This thesis also presents fault analysis and recommends suitable pro-tection for six-phase transmission lines. This calculation was performed on 4-bus, 9-bus, and 118-bus systems from Powerworld® sample cases. The simulations were performed using Powerworld® and PSCAD®. Line parameters calculations performed in this thesis show that line imped-ances in six-phase lines have a slight difference, compared to three-phase double circuit line. The shunt capacitance of compacted six phase line is twice of the value in the three-phase double circuit line. As a consequence, the compacted six-phase line provides higher surge impedance loadings. The electric and magnetic fields calculations show that, ground level electric fields of the six-phase lines decline more rapidly as the distance from center of the lines increase. The six-phase lines have a better performance on ground level magnetic field. Based on the electric and magnetic field results, right of way re-quirements for the six-phase lines and three-phase double circuit line were calcu-lated. The calculation results of right of way show that six-phase lines provide higher power transfer capability with a given right of way. Results from transmission line fault analysis, and protection study show that, fault types and protection system in six-phase lines are more complicated, com-pared to three-phase double circuit line. To clarify the concern about six-phase line protection, a six-phase line protection system was designed. Appropriate pro-tection settings were determined for a six-phase line in the 4-bus system.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Real-time power system topology monitoring supported by synchrophasor measurements

Description

ABSTRACT

This dissertation introduces a real-time topology monitoring scheme for power systems intended to provide enhanced situational awareness during major system disturbances. The topology monitoring scheme requires accurate real-time topology information

ABSTRACT

This dissertation introduces a real-time topology monitoring scheme for power systems intended to provide enhanced situational awareness during major system disturbances. The topology monitoring scheme requires accurate real-time topology information to be effective. This scheme is supported by advances in transmission line outage detection based on data-mining phasor measurement unit (PMU) measurements.

A network flow analysis scheme is proposed to track changes in user defined minimal cut sets within the system. This work introduces a new algorithm used to update a previous network flow solution after the loss of a single system branch. The proposed new algorithm provides a significantly decreased solution time that is desired in a real- time environment. This method of topology monitoring can provide system operators with visual indications of potential problems in the system caused by changes in topology.

This work also presents a method of determining all singleton cut sets within a given network topology called the one line remaining (OLR) algorithm. During operation, if a singleton cut set exists, then the system cannot withstand the loss of any one line and still remain connected. The OLR algorithm activates after the loss of a transmission line and determines if any singleton cut sets were created. These cut sets are found using properties of power transfer distribution factors and minimal cut sets.

The topology analysis algorithms proposed in this work are supported by line outage detection using PMU measurements aimed at providing accurate real-time topology information. This process uses a decision tree (DT) based data-mining approach to characterize a lost tie line in simulation. The trained DT is then used to analyze PMU measurements to detect line outages. The trained decision tree was applied to real PMU measurements to detect the loss of a 500 kV line and had no misclassifications.

The work presented has the objective of enhancing situational awareness during significant system disturbances in real time. This dissertation presents all parts of the proposed topology monitoring scheme and justifies and validates the methodology using a real system event.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015