Matching Items (21)

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Characterizing Diurnal Density and Temperature Variations in the Martian Atmosphere Using Data/Model Comparisons

Description

This project focuses on using Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) density data for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen during deep dip campaigns 5, 6, and 8.

This project focuses on using Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) density data for carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen during deep dip campaigns 5, 6, and 8. Density profiles obtained from NGIMS were plotted against simulated density profiles from the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (MGITM). Averaged temperature profiles were also plotted for the three deep dip campaigns, using NGIMS data and MGITM output. MGITM was also used as a tool to uncover potential heat balance terms needed to reproduce the mean density and temperature profiles measured by NGIMS.

This method of using NGIMS data as a validation tool for MGITM simulations has been tested previously using dayside data from deep dip campaigns 2 and 8. In those cases, MGITM was able to accurately reproduce the measured density and temperature profiles; however, in the deep dip 5 and 6 campaigns, the results are not quite the same, due to the highly variable nature of the nightside thermosphere. MGITM was able to fairly accurately reproduce the density and temperature profiles for deep dip 5, but the deep dip 6 model output showed unexpected significant variation. The deep dip 6 results reveal possible changes to be made to MGITM to more accurately reflect the observed structure of the nighttime thermosphere. In particular, upgrading the model to incorporate a suitable gravity wave parameterization should better capture the role of global winds in maintaining the nighttime thermospheric structure.

This project reveals that there still exist many unknowns about the structure and dynamics of the night side of the Martian atmosphere, as well as significant diurnal variations in density. Further study is needed to uncover these unknowns and their role in atmospheric mass loss.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Modeling the mantle genesis of basalts from the Lassen Volcanic Center

Description

There are many outstanding questions regarding the petrologic processes that give rise to andesitic and basaltic magmas in subduction zones, including the specifics that govern their geographical distribution in a

There are many outstanding questions regarding the petrologic processes that give rise to andesitic and basaltic magmas in subduction zones, including the specifics that govern their geographical distribution in a given arc segment. Here I investigate the genesis of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic basalts from the Lassen Volcanic Center in order to determine the pressure, temperature, source composition, and method of melting that lead to the production of melt in the mantle below Lassen. To this aim, a suite of primitive basalts (i.e. SiO2<52 and Mg#>65) are corrected for fractional crystallization by adding minerals back to the bulk rock composition with the goal of returning them to a primary composition in equilibrium with the mantle. Thermobarometry of the primary melt compositions is conducted to determine temperature and pressure of melting, in addition to a forward mantle modeling technique to simulate mantle melting at varying pressures to constrain source composition and method of melting (batch vs. fractional). The results from the two techniques agree on an average depth of melt extraction of 36 km and a source composition similar to that of depleted mantle melted by batch melting. Although attempted for both calc-alkaline and tholeiitic basalts, the fractional crystallization correction and thus the pressure-temperature calculations were only successful for tholeiitic basalts due to the hydrous nature of the calc-alkaline samples. This leaves an opportunity to repeat this study with parameters appropriate for hydrous basalts, allowing for the comparison of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic melting conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Solubility of Nitrogen in Stishovite: A Possible Storage Mechanism for Nitrogen in Earth's Deep Interior

Description

Though large amounts of nitrogen are allocated to the Earth's mantle, not much is known concerning how it is stored and transported. In this study, stishovite is proposed as a

Though large amounts of nitrogen are allocated to the Earth's mantle, not much is known concerning how it is stored and transported. In this study, stishovite is proposed as a host for nitrogen within the Earth's deep interior. Stishovite was synthesized and heated under nitrogen rich conditions using diamond-anvil cell equipment and double-sided laser heating. Synthesis pressures ranged from 16 to 44 GPa and temperatures centered at ~1800 K. Experimental products were removed from diamond anvil cells and analyzed for nitrogen content via SIMS and SEM/EDX analysis. Unit cell parameters were obtained through XRD analysis. N solubility in stishovite was calculated to be up to 1.54 wt % from SIMS data through the use of an ion implant and a relative sensitivity factor. XRD data indicated a decrease in unit cell volume at higher pressures, with the c-axis length showing larger compressibility than the a-axis length. Through SEM and EDX analysis, a uniformly low level of N was observed throughout the sample indicating that N was uniformly incorporated into the crystal structure of stishovite. The data suggests that, rather than existing separately from stishovite as a silicon or carbon nitride, N has substituted into the crystal structure of stishovite. Both O and N have largely similar atomic radii, with N being slightly smaller, indicating that N can substitute for O. With the levels of N observed in the experiment, it is implicated that the mantle has an extremely large storage capacity for N. Further experimentation, with the addition of TEM analysis, should be conducted in order to determine the effects of pressure and temperature on the solubility of N in stishovite. Additionally, substitution of N as HN into stishovite should be investigated as HN accounts for the charge imbalance seen when substituting N for O.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Assessing martian bedrock mineralogy through "windows" in the dust using near- and thermal infrared remote sensing

Description

Much of Mars' surface is mantled by bright dust, which masks the spectral features used to interpret the mineralogy of the underlying bedrock. Despite the wealth of near-infrared (NIR) and

Much of Mars' surface is mantled by bright dust, which masks the spectral features used to interpret the mineralogy of the underlying bedrock. Despite the wealth of near-infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared data returned from orbiting spacecraft in recent decades, the detailed bedrock composition of approximately half of the martian surface remains relatively unknown due to dust cover. To address this issue, and to help gain a better understanding of the bedrock mineralogy in dusty regions, data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Dust Cover Index (DCI) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) were used to identify 63 small localized areas within the classical bright dusty regions of Arabia Terra, Elysium Planitia, and Tharsis as potential "windows" through the dust; that is, areas where the dust cover is thin enough to permit infrared remote sensing of the underlying bedrock. The bedrock mineralogy of each candidate "window" was inferred using processed spectra from the Mars Express (MEx) Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) NIR spectrometer and, where possible, TES. 12 areas of interest returned spectra that are consistent with mineral species expected to be present at the regional scale, such as high- and low-calcium pyroxene, olivine, and iron-bearing glass. Distribution maps were created using previously defined index parameters for each species present within an area. High-quality TES spectra, if present within an area of interest, were deconvolved to estimate modal mineralogy and support NIR results. OMEGA data from Arabia Terra and Elysium Planitia are largely similar and indicate the presence of high-calcium pyroxene with significant contributions of glass and olivine, while TES data suggest an intermediate between the established southern highlands and Syrtis Major compositions. Limited data from Tharsis indicate low-calcium pyroxene mixed with lesser amounts of high-calcium pyroxene and perhaps glass. TES data from southern Tharsis correlate well with the previously inferred compositions of the Aonium and Mare Sirenum highlands immediately to the south.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Hydrogen isotopic systematics of nominally anhydrous phases in martian meteorites

Description

Hydrogen isotope compositions of the martian atmosphere and crustal materials can provide unique insights into the hydrological and geological evolution of Mars. While the present-day deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) of the

Hydrogen isotope compositions of the martian atmosphere and crustal materials can provide unique insights into the hydrological and geological evolution of Mars. While the present-day deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) of the Mars atmosphere is well constrained (~6 times that of terrestrial ocean water), that of its deep silicate interior (specifically, the mantle) is less so. In fact, the hydrogen isotope composition of the primordial martian mantle is of great interest since it has implications for the origin and abundance of water on that planet. Martian meteorites could provide key constraints in this regard, since they crystallized from melts originating from the martian mantle and contain phases that potentially record the evolution of the H2O content and isotopic composition of the interior of the planet over time. Examined here are the hydrogen isotopic compositions of Nominally Anhydrous Phases (NAPs) in eight martian meteorites (five shergottites and three nakhlites) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS).

This study presents a total of 113 individual analyses of H2O contents and hydrogen isotopic compositions of NAPs in the shergottites Zagami, Los Angeles, QUE 94201, SaU 005, and Tissint, and the nakhlites Nakhla, Lafayette, and Yamato 000593. The hydrogen isotopic variation between and within meteorites may be due to one or more processes including: interaction with the martian atmosphere, magmatic degassing, subsolidus alteration (including shock), and/or terrestrial contamination. Taking into consideration the effects of these processes, the hydrogen isotope composition of the martian mantle may be similar to that of the Earth. Additionally, this study calculated upper limits on the H2O contents of the shergottite and nakhlite parent melts based on the measured minimum H2O abundances in their maskelynites and pyroxenes, respectively. These calculations, along with some petrogenetic assumptions based on previous studies, were subsequently used to infer the H2O contents of the mantle source reservoirs of the depleted shergottites (200-700 ppm) and the nakhlites (10-100 ppm). This suggests that mantle source of the nakhlites is systematically drier than that of the depleted shergottites, and the upper mantle of Mars may have preserved significant heterogeneity in its H2O content. Additionally, this range of H2O contents is not dissimilar to the range observed for the Earth’s upper mantle.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015