Fish oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk in individuals of blood type A and blood type O
The omega-3 fatty acids in fatty fish and fish oil, eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), have been associated with a reduction in risk for cardiovascular disease. Blood type is a known contributor to risk for cardiovascular events. This study evaluated the effect of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular risk markers in adults with blood types A or O. An 8-week parallel-arm, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in healthy adult men and women with either blood type A (BTA) or blood type O (BTO). Participants were randomized to receive fish oil supplements (n=10 [3 BTA/7 BTO]; 2 g [containing 1.2 g EPA+DHA]/d) or a coconut oil supplement (n=7 [3 BTA/4 BTO]; 2 g/d). Markers that were examined included total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C). Results indicated that the percent change in LDL cholesterol was significantly greater in the coconut oil group vs the fish oil group (-14.8±12.2% vs +2.8±18.9% respectively, p=0.048). There were no other significant differences between treatment groups, or between blood types A and O, for the other cardiovascular risk markers. Further research with a larger and more diverse sample may yield a more conclusive result.