Matching Items (22)

A Pilot, Longitudinal Study of the Effect of a High Fat Diet Compared to a Chow Diet on the Energy Gap Between Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure

Description

This is a pilot study testing a new indirect calorimeter device. This project was designed to determine the effect of a high fat versus a standard chow diet and age

This is a pilot study testing a new indirect calorimeter device. This project was designed to determine the effect of a high fat versus a standard chow diet and age on the energy gap (the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure). Measurements of energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were obtained over a 23-hour period from a group of rats fed a high fat diet and a group of rats fed standard chow diet. The experiments were repeated during an experimental phase for 12 weeks, a phase of caloric restriction for 4 weeks, and a phase of weight regain for 4 weeks. We found energy expenditure and oxygen consumption to decrease in the caloric restriction phase and increase with excessive weight gain. Rats fed a high fat diet and obesity prone rats had a wider energy gap than rats fed a standard chow diet and obesity resistant rats. The caloric restriction phase closed the energy gap between energy expenditure and energy intake for all of the rats. The weight regain phase shifted the rats back into positive energy balance so that the energy intake was greater than the energy expenditure. The rats showed greater weight gain in the weight regain phase than in the experimental phase for all groups of rats. The indirect calorimeter device would require further testing to improve the accuracy of the measurements of respiratory quotient and carbon dioxide production before being used in future clinical research applications. The indirect calorimeter device has the potential to record respiratory quotient and carbon dioxide production.

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  • 2019-05

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The Effects of Norepinephrine on Diet Induced Thermogenesis.

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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the activation of BAT in rats that were fed a high fat diet (HFD). A dose of 0.25 mg/kg NE was used to elicit a temperature response that was measured using transponders inserted subcutaneously over the BAT and lower back and intraperitoneally to measure the core temperature. The results found that the thermic effect of the BAT increased after the transition from low fat diet to a high fat diet (LFD) yet, after prolonged exposure to the HFD, the effects resembled levels found with the LFD. This suggests that while a HFD may stimulate the effect of BAT, long term exposure may have adverse effects on BAT activity. This may be due to internal factors that will need to be examined further.

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  • 2017-05

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The Effects of a High-Fat Diet on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis in Cold-Stressed Rats: A Pilot Study

Description

Obesity is a rising problem in the country today, and countless efforts have been made to achieve long-term weight loss. Recent research indicates that through the manipulation of Brown Adipose

Obesity is a rising problem in the country today, and countless efforts have been made to achieve long-term weight loss. Recent research indicates that through the manipulation of Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) activity within the body, weight loss can be achieved. The goal of this experiment was to understand the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on BAT activity and diet-induced thermogenesis in cold-stressed rats. It was predicted that the HFD would stimulate BAT activity and this would then drive up thermogenic activity to promote weight loss. Diet-induced thermogenesis was predicted to increase during the HFD phase of this experiment as the body would require more energy to digest the more calorically dense food. Upon arrival at six weeks of age, the rats were started on a low-fat diet (LFD) ad libitum for three weeks. They were then transitioned into a HFD ad libitum for the next 8 weeks. Throughout the experiment, the rats were maintained in a cold-stressed environment at 22°C. It was determined that one of the rats was identified as obesity prone, while the other three rats were obesity resistant based on the rate of weight gain and caloric intake. Obesity can decrease metabolism in the body for many reasons, yet it was not seen in this experiment that the obesity prone rat demonstrated decreased metabolism in comparison to the others. Based on the differences seen in the reference temperatures and the BAT temperatures, it was determined that the BAT was active throughout both the LFD and HFD phases. However, the BAT did not rise significantly during the HFD period as expected. More research is indicated with a larger sample size to determine if BAT activity does continue to increase during a HFD as a result of diet-induced thermogenesis.

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  • 2016-12

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Insulin Resistance in Rats Exposed to a High Fat Diet

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Type II diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disease that has serious impacts on both the health and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the disease. Type II diabetes

Type II diabetes is a serious, chronic metabolic disease that has serious impacts on both the health and quality of life in patients diagnosed with the disease. Type II diabetes is also a very prevalent disease both in the United States and around the world. There is still a lot that is unknown about Type II diabetes, and this study will aim to answer some of these questions. The question posed in this study is whether insulin resistance changes as a function of time after the start of a high fat diet. We hypothesized that peripheral insulin resistance would be observed in animals placed on a high fat diet; and peripheral insulin resistance would have a positive correlation with time. In order to test the hypotheses, four Sprague-Dawley male rats were placed on a high fat diet for 8 weeks, during which time they were subjected to three intraperitonal insulin tolerance tests ((NovoLogTM 1 U/kg). These three tests were conducted at baseline (week 1), week 4, and week 8 of the high fat diet. The test consisted of serially determining plasma glucose levels via a pin prick methodology, and exposing a droplet of blood to the test strip of a glucometer (ACCUCHEKTM, Roche Diagnostics). Two plasma glucose baselines were taken, and then every 15 minutes following insulin injection for one hour. Glucose disposal rates were then calculated by simply dividing the glucose levels at each time point by the baseline value, and multiplying by 100. Area under the curve data was calculated via definite integral. The area under the curve data was then subjected to a single analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a statistical significance threshold of p<0.05. The results of the study did not indicate the development of peripheral insulin resistance in the animals placed on a high fat diet. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal was about 50% at 30 minutes in all four animals, during all three testing periods. Furthermore, the ANOVA resulted in p=0.92, meaning that the data was not statistically significant. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance was not observed in the animals, meaning no determination could be made on the relation between time and insulin resistance.

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  • 2017-05

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Blood Flow as a Biomarker for Diet Induced Thermogenesis

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Adaptive thermogenesis is an innate mechanism that assists the body in controlling its core temperature that can be stimulated in two ways: cold and diet. When adaptive thermogenesis is stimulated

Adaptive thermogenesis is an innate mechanism that assists the body in controlling its core temperature that can be stimulated in two ways: cold and diet. When adaptive thermogenesis is stimulated through diet, the metabolic rate of the body should increase and the metabolic efficiency of the body should decrease. This activation should, theoretically, help to control weight gain. A protocol was developed to study four male Sprague-Dawley rats throughout a fourteen week period through the measurement of brown adipose tissue blood flow and brown adipose tissue, back, and abdomen temperatures to determine if diet induced thermogenesis existed and could be activated through norepinephrine. The sedative used to obtain blood flow measurements, ketamine, was discovered to induce a thermal response prior to the norepinephrine injection by mimicking the norepinephrine response in the sympathetic nervous system. This discovery altered the original protocol to exclude an injection of norepinephrine, as this injection would have no further thermal effect. It was found that ketamine sedation excited diet induced thermogenesis in periods of youth, low fat diet, and early high fat diet. The thermogenic capacity was found to be at a peak of 2.1 degrees Celsius during this time period. The data also suggested that the activation of diet induced thermogenesis decreased as the period of high fat diet increased, and by week 4 of the high fat diet, almost all evidence of diet induced thermogenesis was suppressed. This indicated that diet induced thermogenesis is time and diet dependent. Further investigation will need to be made to determine if prolonged high fat diet or age suppress diet induced thermogenesis.

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  • 2016-12

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The Effects of Caloric Restriction on Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

Description

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those

For the past couple decades, there has been a continuous rise in obesity and Type II Diabetes which has been attributed to the rise in calorically dense diets, especially those heavy in fats. Because of its rising prevalence, accompanied health concerns, and high healthcare costs, detection and therapies for these metabolic diseases are in high demand. Insulin resistance is a typical hallmark of Type II Diabetes and the metabolic deficiencies in obesity and is the main focus of this project. The primary purpose of this study is (1) detect the presence of two types of insulin resistance (peripheral and hepatic) as a function of age, (2) distinguish if diet impacted the presence of insulin resistance, and (3) determine both the short-term and long-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic health. The following study longitudinally observed the changes in insulin resistance in high-fat fed and low-fat fed rodents under ad libitum and caloric restriction conditions over the course of 23 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, body weight, and sensitivity of insulin on tissue were monitored in order to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. A high fat diet resulted in higher body weights and higher hepatic insulin resistance with no notable effect on peripheral insulin resistance. Caloric restriction was found to alleviate insulin resistance both during caloric restriction and four weeks after caloric restriction ended. Due to sample size, the generalizability of the findings in this study are limited. However, the current study did provide considerable results and can be viewed as a pilot study for a larger-scale study.

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  • 2018-05

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Characterization of Food Intake and Weight Gain Responses in Rats on a High Fat Diet

Description

With the influence of the Western Diet, obesity has become a rising problem in the country today. Western Diet is characterized by the overconsumption of processed food that is low

With the influence of the Western Diet, obesity has become a rising problem in the country today. Western Diet is characterized by the overconsumption of processed food that is low in nutritional values and high in saturated fats. Study showed that every two out of three adults in the United States are either overweight or obese. Being obese increase the risk of many other disease such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Besides being a great health concern, obesity is also cause a great financial burden. Many efforts have been made to understand the defense against obesity and weight loss. The goal of this study was to understand the characterization of food intake and weight gain responses when imposed on a high-fat diet (HFD) using rats. It was predicted that weight gain would be dependent on energy intake and it would have a significant effect on adiposity compared to energy intake. Data showed that energy intake had high significance with adiposity whereas weight gain showed no significance. Also for the rats that were on HFD, the obesity-prone (OP) rats exhibited a great amount of weight gain and energy intake while the obesity-resistance (OR) rats showed a similar weight gain to the controlled group on low-fat diet (LFD) despite being hyperphagic. This suggests that OR is characterized by equal weight gain despite hyperphagia but this alone cannot explain the boy defense against obesity. More research is needed with a larger sample size to understand weight gain responses in order to fight against the epidemic of obesity.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain Through the Induction of Mild-Hyperthermia in Rodents: A Pilot Study

Description

Preliminary studies indicate that the use of dietary menthol may prevent excessive weight gain through the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) ion channel. It

Preliminary studies indicate that the use of dietary menthol may prevent excessive weight gain through the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 (TRPM8) ion channel. It has also been expressed that elevation of the core temperature (Tc) inducing mild hyperthermia via an increase in ambient temperature aids in a marked reduction of the drive to eat and weight gain. While caloric restriction (CR) aims to treat obesity and secondary sicknesses, weight regain is a common result during long term weight maintenance. The goal of these studies was to evaluate and identify if the menthol and mild hyperthermia mechanisms could couple synergistically to reduce or abrogate weight gain. Ambient temperature (Ta) was increased incrementally to identify the threshold in which rodents display mild hyperthermia. Our initial attempts at hyperthermia induction failed because of limitations in the environmental chamber. These trials fail to note a threshold at which elevated Tc is sustained for any period of time. The data suggests an ambient temperature of 36-38 °C would be appropriate to induce a mild hyperthermia. A mild hyperthermia is described as the elevation of Tc 2-3 ° above the hypothalamic set point. To facilitate future hyperthermia studies, an environmental chamber was designed. A wine cooler was converted to withstand the desired temperatures, through the use of heat tape, a proportional controller, and a translucent Plexiglas custom fit door. Beyond leveraging temperature to regulate weight gain, dietary changes including a comparison between standard chow food, high fat diet, and menthol supplemented chow food treatment illustrate a strong likelihood of weight gain variability. In this pilot study, weight gain expression when given a diet supplemented with menthol (1%) showed no statistical significance relative to a high fat diet nor chow food, however, it revealed a trend of reduced weight gain. It is assumed the combination of supplemental menthol and mild hyperthermia induction will exacerbate their effects.

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  • 2020-05

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The Effect of Dietary Menthol on Weight Regain after Caloric Restriction

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This study was conducted to observe the effects of varying diets on weight regain after caloric restriction. Touted as a potentially effective non-invasive treatment to obesity, caloric restriction uses the

This study was conducted to observe the effects of varying diets on weight regain after caloric restriction. Touted as a potentially effective non-invasive treatment to obesity, caloric restriction uses the gradual decrease in caloric intake to aid in weight loss. However, once a patient is taken off caloric restriction, a marked regain of weight regain occurs, nullifying the weight loss from caloric restriction. To find ways to suppress this weight regain, this study observed the effects of four different diets: low-fat diet (chow), high-fat diet (HFD), 0.5% concentration menthol infused chow, and 1% concentration menthol infused chow. Over a span of 3 years, 43 male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed through a strict feeding protocol: 3 weeks of chow food (3.1 kcal/gram), 8 or 12 weeks of HFD (5.42 kcal/gram), and caloric restriction for 4 weeks. Separate data analysis was conducted for the year 2017-2018, due to a slightly different protocol when compared to 2018-2019 and 2019-2020.

In 2017-2018, the results showed that 0.5% menthol (n=4) suppressed weight gain more effectively than both the baseline chow diet (n=4, p=0.022) and the HFD (n=4, p=0.027). Again in 2018-2020, the 0.5% menthol (n=6) showed promising results, showing significant suppression of weight gain when compared to chow (n=13, p=0.022). Unfortunately, the difference in weight gain in 1% menthol (n=6) was inconclusive when comparing to both chow and HFD. Although 1% menthol was inconclusive in its efficacy in suppressing weight regain, the promising results on 0.5% menthol show that menthol has the potential to be an effective treatment to both prevent rapid weight gain and maintain weight loss from caloric restriction.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Hyperinsulinemia

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Concurrent with the epidemic of childhood obesity (17% of adolescents), an unprecedented world-wide increase in the prevalence of several adiposity-related complications (including fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), type 2 diabetes

Concurrent with the epidemic of childhood obesity (17% of adolescents), an unprecedented world-wide increase in the prevalence of several adiposity-related complications (including fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), type 2 diabetes and early cardiovascular disorders) in this age group, has emerged. Two principle environmental variables play an essential role in the development and maintenance of obesity and in disturbing glucose homeostasis: a lack of physical exercise and overnutrition, i.e., high carbohydrate and high fat diets (HFD). It was our laboratory's intention to develop a rodent model to examine whether the metabolic instability observed in human pubertal children is also present in maturing rats and whether a HFD during this maturational period enhances adipose-related complications with or without an increase in body weight. We hypothesized that maturing Sprague-Dawley rats would reveal a profile of metabolic disturbances and that a disruption of the hyperbolic arrangement between insulin sensitivity and insulin release would be evident (statistically significant changes in fasting hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and insulin release) indicating a high risk environment for future cardiometabolic diseases. It was observed that pubertal rats are metabolically impaired and that a HFD substantially enhances metabolic deficits with marked disturbance in insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemia). Additionally, substantial lipogenesis was observed in visceral and liver tissue, potentially as a result of hyperinsulinemia. Both phenotypes of maturing rats exposed to a HFD (obesity prone and obesity resistant) demonstrated "metabolic obesity" regardless of physical phenotype. These outcomes have relevance in the context of public health, particularly if lipocentricity is viewed as an essential element in the challenge of preventing and/or treating perturbations to the metabolic health of pubertal children.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05