Matching Items (7)

132690-Thumbnail Image.png

TARGETING ADIPOSE TISSUE INFLAMMATION IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

Description

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with

Diabesity is a global epidemic affecting millions worldwide. Diabesity is the term given to the link between obesity and Type II diabetes. It is estimated that ~90% of patients diagnosed with Type II diabetes are overweight or have struggled with excess body fat in the past. Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance which is an impaired response of the body to insulin that leads to high blood glucose levels. Adipose tissue, previously thought of as an inert tissue, is now recognized as a major endocrine organ with an important role in the body's immune response and the development of chronic inflammation. It is speculated that adipose tissue inflammation is a major contributor to insulin resistance particular to Type II diabetes. This literature review explores the popular therapeutic targets and marketed drugs for the treatment of Type II diabetes and their role in decreasing adipose tissue inflammation. rAGE is currently in pre-clinical studies as a possible target to combat adipose tissue inflammation due to its relation to insulin resistance. Metformin and Pioglitazone are two drugs already being marketed that use unique chemical pathways to increase the production of insulin and/or decrease blood glucose levels. Sulfonylureas is one of the first FDA approved drugs used in the treatment of Type II diabetes, however, it has been discredited due to its life-threatening side effects. Bariatric surgery is a form of invasive surgery to rid the body of excess fat and has shown to normalize blood glucose levels. These treatments are all secondary to lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise which can help halt the progression of Type II diabetes patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

The Ethics of Forced Chemotherapy on Minors with Good Prognoses

Description

Each family approaches a cancer diagnosis differently. While some families pursue traditional treatments to the fullest extent, others attempt to refuse chemotherapy, often in favor of alternative medicines. When the patient is a minor, his or her parents have the

Each family approaches a cancer diagnosis differently. While some families pursue traditional treatments to the fullest extent, others attempt to refuse chemotherapy, often in favor of alternative medicines. When the patient is a minor, his or her parents have the authority to make medical decisions on their behalf, and this authority is constitutionally protected and socially upheld. However, when the decision to forgo chemotherapy does not comply with minimum standard of care and puts the minor's life in danger, legal action can and has been taken to force the minor to undergo chemotherapy. Legal precedent and biomedical ethics principles guide the decision-making process of the physicians and judges involved, although there is no official framework by which to prioritize these principles. Neglect and abuse procedures, as well as capacity determinations, mature minor doctrines, and religious convictions, add complexity to each forced chemotherapy case. These complexities were explored through the context of four case studies: Cassandra Callendar, who was not granted mature minor status and was forced into treatment by the Connecticut Supreme court; Starchild Abraham Cherrix, who was allowed to pursue the alternative Hoxsey therapy with the consent of his parents and the local court; Dennis Lindberg, a 14-year-old Jehovah's Witness who was permitted to refuse blood transfusions under the Mature Minor Doctrine; and Daniel Hauser, a developmentally delayed teen who was forced to undergo therapy against his parents' religious convictions. In the analysis and comprehensive comparison of these cases, it was concluded that an attempt to establish a protocol by which to determine the ethics of forcing chemotherapy, while well-intended, would ultimately be ineffective and extremely complex. Thus, each forced chemotherapy case must be evaluated on an individual basis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

133588-Thumbnail Image.png

Assessing Practices and Perceptions of Supplements Among College Students

Description

With the new independence of adulthood, college students are a group susceptible to adopting unsupported, if not harmful, health practices. A survey of Arizona State University undergraduate students (N=200) was conducted to evaluate supplement use, trust in information sources, and

With the new independence of adulthood, college students are a group susceptible to adopting unsupported, if not harmful, health practices. A survey of Arizona State University undergraduate students (N=200) was conducted to evaluate supplement use, trust in information sources, and beliefs about supplement regulation. Of those who reported using supplements, college students most frequently received information from friends and family. STEM majors in fields unrelated to health who were taking a supplement were found to be less likely to receive information about the supplement from a medical practitioner than those in health fields or those in non-STEM majors (-26.9%, p=0.018). STEM majors in health-related fields were 15.0% more likely to treat colds and/or cold symptoms with research-supported methods identified from reliable sources, while non-health STEM and non-STEM majors were more likely to take unsupported cold treatments (p=0.010). Surveyed students, regardless of major, also stated they would trust a medical practitioner for supplement advice above other sources (88.0%), and the majority expressed a belief that dietary supplements are approved/regulated by the government (59.8%).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

131306-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluating Accuracy in Online Science News Articles

Description

Inaccuracies and omissions in online science news is a major source of misinformation, with a potentially significant negative impact on the general public. With a vast majority of Americans consuming news through online sources, more research is required on the

Inaccuracies and omissions in online science news is a major source of misinformation, with a potentially significant negative impact on the general public. With a vast majority of Americans consuming news through online sources, more research is required on the impact these errors have on the legitimacy of science journalism. This study aims to establish baseline methods and measurements for quantification of the accuracy and completeness of online science news articles with respect to both one another and the primary studies upon which they are based. Eleven total outlets and 84 news articles reporting on 14 primary studies were analyzed using both objective and subjective scoring, then normalized and converted to percentages. Results showed a per-outlet normalized objective score range of 58-85.1%, and a per-outlet normalized subjective score range of 32.5-100%. The two highest overall (combined) scoring outlets were Science Daily and Live Science, and the two lowest overall scoring outlets were the New York Post and The Hill. A frequency distribution of per-article normalized objective scores showed the most common objective score was between 70 and 95%.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-05

133744-Thumbnail Image.png

Understanding the Current State of Vaccination Coverage in Arizona Schools: A Correlational Analysis

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate what correlations exist between the immunization and personal belief exemption (PBE) rates and selected characteristics of Arizona schools. The demographic information of a school's student body, the percentage of student who are

The purpose of this study was to investigate what correlations exist between the immunization and personal belief exemption (PBE) rates and selected characteristics of Arizona schools. The demographic information of a school's student body, the percentage of student who are on free or reduced lunch, the presence of a Title I program at the school, the median household income of the zip code the school resides in, and the presence of a school nurse were all compared with immunization and PBE rates. Using data provided by the Arizona Department of Health Services (AZDHS), the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), and the United States Census Bureau, these factors were investigated for kindergarten and 6th grade students. It was found that a higher percentage of white students in a student body was correlated with an higher rate of PBE and a lower immunization rate for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), polio, and hepatitis B. A higher percentage of Hispanic students in a student body was correlated with a lower rate of PBE and a higher immunization rate for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), polio, and hepatitis B. There was little to no correlation between the percentage of students on free or reduced lunch and immunization or PBE rates. A higher median household income was correlated with a higher rate of PBE in public and private schools. Additionally, the immunization rates at schools with a nurse were significantly higher and the rate of PBE was significantly lower than at schools without a nurse. Finally, schools with a Title I program had mean immunization rates that were significantly higher and a mean PBE rate that was significantly lower than schools that did not have a Title I program.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2018-05

148261-Thumbnail Image.png

Understanding Asthma Disparities Among Black Americans: Analyzing the Causes an Exploring Possible Solutions

Description

There is a higher incidence of asthma, worse outcomes, and a higher burden of disease in Black Americans compared to white Americans. This thesis aims to understand asthma disparities in the Black population by analyzing a variety of social determinants

There is a higher incidence of asthma, worse outcomes, and a higher burden of disease in Black Americans compared to white Americans. This thesis aims to understand asthma disparities in the Black population by analyzing a variety of social determinants of health and genetic factors that may contribute to these racial health disparities. Based on the evidence collected, a variety of interventions are discussed that explore potential solutions to address the critical issue.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05

148277-Thumbnail Image.png

Protection Against Basal Cell Carcinoma: Limitations in Sunscreen, Further Research, and Recommendations

Description

Skin cancer diagnoses and deaths continue to increase every year. With basal cell carcinoma (BCC) being the most common type of skin cancer diagnoses, establishing protective measurements against it are important. Surprisingly, sunscreen may not be as effective at protecting

Skin cancer diagnoses and deaths continue to increase every year. With basal cell carcinoma (BCC) being the most common type of skin cancer diagnoses, establishing protective measurements against it are important. Surprisingly, sunscreen may not be as effective at protecting against basal cell carcinoma as it is for another non-melanoma type of skin cancer: squamous cell carcinoma. This paper aims to identify some differences between the two non-melanoma type cancers to find probable reasons sunscreen may be more effective at protecting against one over the other, as well as to find new solutions to protect against basal cell carcinoma. The results conclude that basal cell carcinoma does have UV-induced pathogenesis, in which case sunscreen is protective; however, it also revealed the need for ingredient studies and more sunscreen efficacy studies to determine other BCC pathogenesis pathways. Lastly, aided by dermatologist interviews, current interventions were established in order to provide greater protection against skin cancer. These include reforming the way commercials portray sunscreen to better educate the public about proper application and re-application, genetic testing for high-risk BCC markers, and an emphasis on sun education to the mothers of children.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05