Matching Items (25)

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Analysis of Learning Retention throughout Aging

Description

In this paper, it is determined that learning retention decreases with age and there is a linear rate of decrease. In this study, four male Long-Evans Rats were used. The rats were each trained in 4 different tasks throughout their

In this paper, it is determined that learning retention decreases with age and there is a linear rate of decrease. In this study, four male Long-Evans Rats were used. The rats were each trained in 4 different tasks throughout their lifetime, using a food reward as motivation to work. Rats were said to have learned a task at the age when they received the highest accuracy during a task. A regression of learning retention was created for the set of studied rats: Learning Retention = 112.9 \u2014 0.085919 x (Age at End of Task), indicating that learning retention decreases at a linear rate, although rats have different rates of decrease of learning retention. The presence of behavioral training was determined not to have a positive impact on this rate. In behavioral studies, there were statistically significant differences between timid/outgoing and large ball ability between W12 and Z12. Rat W12 had overall better learning retention and also was more compliant, did not resist being picked up and traveled more frequently at high speeds (in the large ball) than Z12. Further potential studies include implanting an electrode into the frontal cortex in order to compare neuro feedback with learning retention, and using human subjects to find the rate of decrease in learning retention. The implication of this study, if also true for human subjects, is that older persons may need enhanced training or additional refresher training in order to retain information that is learned at a later age.

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2014-05

An Empirical Study of View Construction for Multi-View Learning

Description

Multi-view learning, a subfield of machine learning that aims to improve model performance by training on multiple views of the data, has been studied extensively in the past decades. It is typically applied in contexts where the input features naturally

Multi-view learning, a subfield of machine learning that aims to improve model performance by training on multiple views of the data, has been studied extensively in the past decades. It is typically applied in contexts where the input features naturally form multiple groups or views. An example of a naturally multi-view context is a data set of websites, where each website is described not only by the text on the page, but also by the text of hyperlinks pointing to the page. More recently, various studies have demonstrated the initial success of applying multi-view learning on single-view data with multiple artificially constructed views. However, there lacks a systematic study regarding the effectiveness of such artificially constructed views. To bridge this gap, this thesis begins by providing a high-level overview of multi-view learning with the co-training algorithm. Co-training is a classic semi-supervised learning algorithm that takes advantage of both labelled and unlabelled examples in the data set for training. Then, the thesis presents a web-based tool developed in Python allowing users to experiment with and compare the performance of multiple view construction approaches on various data sets. The supported view construction approaches in the web-based tool include subsampling, Optimal Feature Set Partitioning, and the genetic algorithm. Finally, the thesis presents an empirical comparison of the performance of these approaches, not only against one another, but also against traditional single-view models. The findings show that a simple subsampling approach combined with co-training often outperforms both the other view construction approaches, as well as traditional single-view methods.

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2019-12

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Simultaneous variable and feature group selection in heterogeneous learning: optimization and applications

Description

Advances in data collection technologies have made it cost-effective to obtain heterogeneous data from multiple data sources. Very often, the data are of very high dimension and feature selection is preferred in order to reduce noise, save computational cost and

Advances in data collection technologies have made it cost-effective to obtain heterogeneous data from multiple data sources. Very often, the data are of very high dimension and feature selection is preferred in order to reduce noise, save computational cost and learn interpretable models. Due to the multi-modality nature of heterogeneous data, it is interesting to design efficient machine learning models that are capable of performing variable selection and feature group (data source) selection simultaneously (a.k.a bi-level selection). In this thesis, I carry out research along this direction with a particular focus on designing efficient optimization algorithms. I start with a unified bi-level learning model that contains several existing feature selection models as special cases. Then the proposed model is further extended to tackle the block-wise missing data, one of the major challenges in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Moreover, I propose a novel interpretable sparse group feature selection model that greatly facilitates the procedure of parameter tuning and model selection. Last but not least, I show that by solving the sparse group hard thresholding problem directly, the sparse group feature selection model can be further improved in terms of both algorithmic complexity and efficiency. Promising results are demonstrated in the extensive evaluation on multiple real-world data sets.

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2014

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Directional prediction of stock prices using breaking news on Twitter

Description

Stock market news and investing tips are popular topics in Twitter. In this dissertation, first I utilize a 5-year financial news corpus comprising over 50,000 articles collected from the NASDAQ website matching the 30 stock symbols in Dow Jones Index

Stock market news and investing tips are popular topics in Twitter. In this dissertation, first I utilize a 5-year financial news corpus comprising over 50,000 articles collected from the NASDAQ website matching the 30 stock symbols in Dow Jones Index (DJI) to train a directional stock price prediction system based on news content. Next, I proceed to show that information in articles indicated by breaking Tweet volumes leads to a statistically significant boost in the hourly directional prediction accuracies for the DJI stock prices mentioned in these articles. Secondly, I show that using document-level sentiment extraction does not yield a statistically significant boost in the directional predictive accuracies in the presence of other 1-gram keyword features. Thirdly I test the performance of the system on several time-frames and identify the 4 hour time-frame for both the price charts and for Tweet breakout detection as the best time-frame combination. Finally, I develop a set of price momentum based trade exit rules to cut losing trades early and to allow the winning trades run longer. I show that the Tweet volume breakout based trading system with the price momentum based exit rules not only improves the winning accuracy and the return on investment, but it also lowers the maximum drawdown and achieves the highest overall return over maximum drawdown.

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2016

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Learning from the Data Heterogeneity for Data Imputation

Description

Data mining, also known as big data analysis, has been identified as a critical and challenging process for a variety of applications in real-world problems. Numerous datasets are collected and generated every day to store the information. The rise in

Data mining, also known as big data analysis, has been identified as a critical and challenging process for a variety of applications in real-world problems. Numerous datasets are collected and generated every day to store the information. The rise in the number of data volumes and data modality has resulted in the increased demand for data mining methods and strategies of finding anomalies, patterns, and correlations within large data sets to predict outcomes. Effective machine learning methods are widely adapted to build the data mining pipeline for various purposes like business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modeling, evaluation, and deployment. The major challenges for effectively and efficiently mining big data include (1) data heterogeneity and (2) missing data. Heterogeneity is the natural characteristic of big data, as the data is typically collected from different sources with diverse formats. The missing value is the most common issue faced by the heterogeneous data analysis, which resulted from variety of factors including the data collecting processing, user initiatives, erroneous data entries, and so on. In response to these challenges, in this thesis, three main research directions with application scenarios have been investigated: (1) Mining and Formulating Heterogeneous Data, (2) missing value imputation strategy in various application scenarios in both offline and online manner, and (3) missing value imputation for multi-modality data. Multiple strategies with theoretical analysis are presented, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms compared with state-of-the-art methods is discussed.

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2021

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Mason: Real-time NBA Matches Outcome Prediction

Description

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the most popular basketball league in the world. The world-wide mighty high popularity to the league leads to large amount of interesting and challenging research problems. Among them, predicting the outcome of an upcoming

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the most popular basketball league in the world. The world-wide mighty high popularity to the league leads to large amount of interesting and challenging research problems. Among them, predicting the outcome of an upcoming NBA match between two specific teams according to their historical data is especially attractive. With rapid development of machine learning techniques, it opens the door to examine the correlation between statistical data and outcome of matches. However, existing methods typically make predictions before game starts. In-game prediction, or real-time prediction, has not yet been sufficiently studied. During a match, data are cumulatively generated, and with the accumulation, data become more comprehensive and potentially embrace more predictive power, so that prediction accuracy may dynamically increase with a match goes on. In this study, I design game-level and player-level features based on realtime data of NBA matches and apply a machine learning model to investigate the possibility and characteristics of using real-time prediction in NBA matches.

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2017

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Diffusion in Networks: Source Localization, History Reconstruction and Real-Time Network Robustification

Description

Diffusion processes in networks can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the propagation of a rumor on social networks and cascading failures on power networks. Analysis of diffusion processes in networks can help us answer important questions

Diffusion processes in networks can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the propagation of a rumor on social networks and cascading failures on power networks. Analysis of diffusion processes in networks can help us answer important questions such as the role and the importance of each node in the network for spreading the diffusion and how to top or contain a cascading failure in the network. This dissertation consists of three parts.

In the first part, we study the problem of locating multiple diffusion sources in networks under the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model. Given a complete snapshot of the network, we developed a sample-path-based algorithm, named clustering and localization, and proved that for regular trees, the estimators produced by the proposed algorithm are within a constant distance from the real sources with a high probability. Then, we considered the case in which only a partial snapshot is observed and proposed a new algorithm, named Optimal-Jordan-Cover (OJC). The algorithm first extracts a subgraph using a candidate selection algorithm that selects source candidates based on the number of observed infected nodes in their neighborhoods. Then, in the extracted subgraph, OJC finds a set of nodes that "cover" all observed infected nodes with the minimum radius. The set of nodes is called the Jordan cover, and is regarded as the set of diffusion sources. We proved that OJC can locate all sources with probability one asymptotically with partial observations in the Erdos-Renyi (ER) random graph. Multiple experiments on different networks were done, which show our algorithms outperform others.

In the second part, we tackle the problem of reconstructing the diffusion history from partial observations. We formulated the diffusion history reconstruction problem as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) problem and proved the problem is NP hard. Then we proposed a step-by- step reconstruction algorithm, which can always produce a diffusion history that is consistent with the partial observations. Our experimental results based on synthetic and real networks show that the algorithm significantly outperforms some existing methods.

In the third part, we consider the problem of improving the robustness of an interdependent network by rewiring a small number of links during a cascading attack. We formulated the problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) problem. While the problem is NP-hard, we developed an effective and efficient algorithm, RealWire, to robustify the network and to mitigate the damage during the attack. Extensive experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms other algorithms on most of the robustness metrics.

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2018

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Adaptive sampling and learning in recommendation systems

Description

This thesis studies recommendation systems and considers joint sampling and learning. Sampling in recommendation systems is to obtain users' ratings on specific items chosen by the recommendation platform, and learning is to infer the unknown ratings of users to items

This thesis studies recommendation systems and considers joint sampling and learning. Sampling in recommendation systems is to obtain users' ratings on specific items chosen by the recommendation platform, and learning is to infer the unknown ratings of users to items given the existing data. In this thesis, the problem is formulated as an adaptive matrix completion problem in which sampling is to reveal the unknown entries of a $U\times M$ matrix where $U$ is the number of users, $M$ is the number of items, and each entry of the $U\times M$ matrix represents the rating of a user to an item. In the literature, this matrix completion problem has been studied under a static setting, i.e., recovering the matrix based on a set of partial ratings. This thesis considers both sampling and learning, and proposes an adaptive algorithm. The algorithm adapts its sampling and learning based on the existing data. The idea is to sample items that reveal more information based on the previous sampling results and then learn based on clustering. Performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated using simulations.

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Date Created
2015

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Crossing the chasm: deploying machine learning analytics in dynamic real-world scenarios

Description

The dawn of Internet of Things (IoT) has opened the opportunity for mainstream adoption of machine learning analytics. However, most research in machine learning has focused on discovery of new algorithms or fine-tuning the performance of existing algorithms. Little exists

The dawn of Internet of Things (IoT) has opened the opportunity for mainstream adoption of machine learning analytics. However, most research in machine learning has focused on discovery of new algorithms or fine-tuning the performance of existing algorithms. Little exists on the process of taking an algorithm from the lab-environment into the real-world, culminating in sustained value. Real-world applications are typically characterized by dynamic non-stationary systems with requirements around feasibility, stability and maintainability. Not much has been done to establish standards around the unique analytics demands of real-world scenarios.

This research explores the problem of the why so few of the published algorithms enter production and furthermore, fewer end up generating sustained value. The dissertation proposes a ‘Design for Deployment’ (DFD) framework to successfully build machine learning analytics so they can be deployed to generate sustained value. The framework emphasizes and elaborates the often neglected but immensely important latter steps of an analytics process: ‘Evaluation’ and ‘Deployment’. A representative evaluation framework is proposed that incorporates the temporal-shifts and dynamism of real-world scenarios. Additionally, the recommended infrastructure allows analytics projects to pivot rapidly when a particular venture does not materialize. Deployment needs and apprehensions of the industry are identified and gaps addressed through a 4-step process for sustainable deployment. Lastly, the need for analytics as a functional area (like finance and IT) is identified to maximize the return on machine-learning deployment.

The framework and process is demonstrated in semiconductor manufacturing – it is highly complex process involving hundreds of optical, electrical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, electrochemical and software processes which makes it a highly dynamic non-stationary system. Due to the 24/7 uptime requirements in manufacturing, high-reliability and fail-safe are a must. Moreover, the ever growing volumes mean that the system must be highly scalable. Lastly, due to the high cost of change, sustained value proposition is a must for any proposed changes. Hence the context is ideal to explore the issues involved. The enterprise use-cases are used to demonstrate the robustness of the framework in addressing challenges encountered in the end-to-end process of productizing machine learning analytics in dynamic read-world scenarios.

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Date Created
2016

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TiCTak: target-specific centrality manipulation on large networks

Description

Measuring node centrality is a critical common denominator behind many important graph mining tasks. While the existing literature offers a wealth of different node centrality measures, it remains a daunting task on how to intervene the node centrality in a

Measuring node centrality is a critical common denominator behind many important graph mining tasks. While the existing literature offers a wealth of different node centrality measures, it remains a daunting task on how to intervene the node centrality in a desired way. In this thesis, we study the problem of minimizing the centrality of one or more target nodes by edge operation. The heart of the proposed method is an accurate and efficient algorithm to estimate the impact of edge deletion on the spectrum of the underlying network, based on the observation that the edge deletion is essentially a local, sparse perturbation to the original network. Extensive experiments are conducted on a diverse set of real networks to demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency and scalability of our approach. In particular, it is average of 260.95%, in terms of minimizing eigen-centrality, better than the standard matrix-perturbation based algorithm, with lower time complexity.

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2016