Matching Items (29)

128833-Thumbnail Image.png

Korarchaeota Diversity, Biogeography, and Abundance in Yellowstone and Great Basin Hot Springs and Ecological Niche Modeling Based on Machine Learning

Description

Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen

Over 100 hot spring sediment samples were collected from 28 sites in 12 areas/regions, while recording as many coincident geochemical properties as feasible (>60 analytes). PCR was used to screen samples for Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Over 500 Korarchaeota 16S rRNA genes were screened by RFLP analysis and 90 were sequenced, resulting in identification of novel Korarchaeota phylotypes and exclusive geographical variants. Korarchaeota diversity was low, as in other terrestrial geothermal systems, suggesting a marine origin for Korarchaeota with subsequent niche-invasion into terrestrial systems. Korarchaeota endemism is consistent with endemism of other terrestrial thermophiles and supports the existence of dispersal barriers. Korarchaeota were found predominantly in >55°C springs at pH 4.7–8.5 at concentrations up to 6.6×10[superscript 6] 16S rRNA gene copies g[superscript −1] wet sediment. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Korarchaeota were most abundant in springs with a pH range of 5.7 to 7.0. High sulfate concentrations suggest these fluids are influenced by contributions from hydrothermal vapors that may be neutralized to some extent by mixing with water from deep geothermal sources or meteoric water. In the Great Basin (GB), Korarchaeota were most abundant at spring sources of pH<7.2 with high particulate C content and high alkalinity, which are likely to be buffered by the carbonic acid system. It is therefore likely that at least two different geological mechanisms in YNP and GB springs create the neutral to mildly acidic pH that is optimal for Korarchaeota. A classification support vector machine (C-SVM) trained on single analytes, two analyte combinations, or vectors from non-metric multidimensional scaling models was able to predict springs as Korarchaeota-optimal or sub-optimal habitats with accuracies up to 95%. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive analysis of the geochemical habitat of any high-level microbial taxon and the first application of a C-SVM to microbial ecology.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-05-04

128449-Thumbnail Image.png

Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga sp. Strain BSC39, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah

Description

Microvirga sp. BSC39 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC39 genome

Microvirga sp. BSC39 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC39 genome contains iron siderophore uptake and hydrolysis enzymes; however, it lacks siderophore synthesis pathways, suggesting the uptake of siderophores produced by neighboring microbes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-13

128451-Thumbnail Image.png

Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain BSC154, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah

Description

Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore

Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-13

131264-Thumbnail Image.png

Aquatic Primary Productivity and Ecosystem Metabolism: Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetlands

Description

Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic eutrophication (Kolzau et al., 2014) and require mitigation efforts to prevent oxygen depletion and subsequent biodiversity loss. Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland (CTW)

Freshwater ecosystems are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic eutrophication (Kolzau et al., 2014) and require mitigation efforts to prevent oxygen depletion and subsequent biodiversity loss. Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland (CTW) relies on wetland ecosystem functioning to reduce nutrient concentrations in order to meet regulatory guidelines. I investigated the impact of solar irradiance, temperature, and nutrient availability on aquatic net primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, and nutrient cycling using statistical analysis and quantitative modeling informed by field data generated by ASU’s Wetland Ecosystem Ecology Lab (WEEL) in partnership with the City of Phoenix Water Services Department. I found that the extent of daily solar insolation controls Aquatic Net Primary Productivity (ANPP) rates and the seasonal aquatic nutrient processing capacity of Tres Rios, resulting in the following approximate relationship: ANPP = 0.001344(W/m²) - 0.32634 (r² = 0.259; p = 0.005).

This formula was used to estimate the nutrient uptake performance of aquatic primary producers from sampling observations; ANPP accounted for 16.26 metric tons of system wide N uptake, while aquatic ER contributed 6.07 metric tons N of nighttime remineralization and 5.7 metric tons of N throughout the water column during the day. The estimated yearly net aquatic N flux is 4.49 metric tons uptake, compared to about 12 metric tons yearly N uptake by the vegetated marsh (Treese, 2019). However, not accounting for animal respiration results in an underestimation of system-wide N remineralization, and not accounting for soil processes results in an underestimation of N uptake.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131058-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparative Analysis between Lab and Novel dataSONDE Measurements in Tempe Town Lake

Description

Tempe Town Lake is the site of fifteen years’ worth of chemical data collection by ASU researchers. In 2018 the dataSONDE, an instrument capable of measuring different water quality parameters

Tempe Town Lake is the site of fifteen years’ worth of chemical data collection by ASU researchers. In 2018 the dataSONDE, an instrument capable of measuring different water quality parameters every thirty minutes for a month at a time was installed in the lake. The SONDE has the potential to completely reduce the need for sampling by hand. Before the SONDE becomes the sole means of gathering data, it is important to verify its accuracy. In this study, the measurements gathered by the SONDE (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, conductivity and colored dissolved organic matter) were compared to measurements gathered using the verified methods from the past fifteen years.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

133545-Thumbnail Image.png

Biotic vs. Abiotic Processes in Hyperarid Exoplanetary Atmospheres

Description

Exoplanetary research is a key component in the search for life outside of Earth and the Solar System. It provides people with a sense of wonder about their role in

Exoplanetary research is a key component in the search for life outside of Earth and the Solar System. It provides people with a sense of wonder about their role in the evolution of the Universe and helps scientists understand life's potential throughout a seemingly infinite number of unique exoplanetary environments. The purpose of this research project is to identify the most plausible biosignature gases that would indicate life's existence in the context of hyperarid exoplanetary atmospheres. This analysis first defines hyperarid environments based on known analogues for Earth and Mars and discusses the methods that researchers use to determine whether or not an exoplanet is hyperarid. It then identifies the most relevant biosignatures to focus on based on the scientific literature on analogous hyperarid environments and ranks them in order from greatest to least biological plausibility within extreme hyperarid conditions. The research found that methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most helpful biosignature gases for these particular exoplanetary scenarios based on reviews of the literature. The research also found that oxygen (O2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) are the biosignatures with the least likely biological origin and the highest likelihood of false positive detection. This analysis also found that carbon dioxide (CO2) is a useful companion biosignature within these environments when paired with either CH4 or the pairing of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). This information will provide a useful road map for dealing with the detection of biosignatures within hyperarid exoplanetary atmospheres during future astrobiology research missions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

135614-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterization of DOC in "Accidental" Urban Wetlands in Phoenix, AZ

Description

Accidental wetlands have been created on the bed of the Salt River and are fed by storm-water outfalls discharging at various sections of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Water discharges from

Accidental wetlands have been created on the bed of the Salt River and are fed by storm-water outfalls discharging at various sections of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. Water discharges from these outfalls throughout the year, during both dry conditions (base flow) and during rain events (storm flow). In this study, DOC content and composition was studied during these two flow conditions, in the outfalls and along the wetland flow path. The importance of DOC lies in its role in transporting carbon via water movement, between different parts of a landscape, and therefore between pools in the ecosystem. Urbanization has influenced content and composition of DOC entering the accidental urban wetland via outfalls as they represent watersheds from different areas in Phoenix. First, DOC load exhibited higher quantities during stormflow compared to baseflow conditions. Second, DOC load and fluorescence analysis outcomes concluded the outfalls are different from each other. The inputs of water on the north side of the channel represent City of Phoenix watersheds were similar to each other and had high DOC load. The northern outfalls are both different in load and composition from the outfall pipe on the southern bank of the wetland as it represents South Mountain watershed. Fluorescence analysis results also concluded compositional changes occurred along the wetland flow path during both stormflow and baseflow conditions. In this study, it was explored how urbanization and the associated changes in hydrology and geomorphology have affected a desert wetland's carbon content.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

128916-Thumbnail Image.png

Coordinating Environmental Genomics and Geochemistry Reveals Metabolic Transitions in a Hot Spring Ecosystem

Description

We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the “Bison Pool” (BP) Environmental Genome

We have constructed a conceptual model of biogeochemical cycles and metabolic and microbial community shifts within a hot spring ecosystem via coordinated analysis of the “Bison Pool” (BP) Environmental Genome and a complementary contextual geochemical dataset of ∼75 geochemical parameters. 2,321 16S rRNA clones and 470 megabases of environmental sequence data were produced from biofilms at five sites along the outflow of BP, an alkaline hot spring in Sentinel Meadow (Lower Geyser Basin) of Yellowstone National Park. This channel acts as a >22 m gradient of decreasing temperature, increasing dissolved oxygen, and changing availability of biologically important chemical species, such as those containing nitrogen and sulfur. Microbial life at BP transitions from a 92°C chemotrophic streamer biofilm community in the BP source pool to a 56°C phototrophic mat community. We improved automated annotation of the BP environmental genomes using BLAST-based Markov clustering. We have also assigned environmental genome sequences to individual microbial community members by complementing traditional homology-based assignment with nucleotide word-usage algorithms, allowing more than 70% of all reads to be assigned to source organisms. This assignment yields high genome coverage in dominant community members, facilitating reconstruction of nearly complete metabolic profiles and in-depth analysis of the relation between geochemical and metabolic changes along the outflow. We show that changes in environmental conditions and energy availability are associated with dramatic shifts in microbial communities and metabolic function. We have also identified an organism constituting a novel phylum in a metabolic “transition” community, located physically between the chemotroph- and phototroph-dominated sites. The complementary analysis of biogeochemical and environmental genomic data from BP has allowed us to build ecosystem-based conceptual models for this hot spring, reconstructing whole metabolic networks in order to illuminate community roles in shaping and responding to geochemical variability.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-06-04

128917-Thumbnail Image.png

A Comprehensive Census of Microbial Diversity in Hot Springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China Using 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

Description

The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census

The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21–123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5–2.6), high temperature (85.1–89.1°C), and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6–4.8) and cooler temperature (55.1–64.5°C) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2–9.4) and high temperature (>80°C) with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii”, and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current understanding of the microbiology in Tengchong hot springs and provide a basis for comparison with other geothermal systems around the world.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-01-09

132353-Thumbnail Image.png

Monitoring Changes in Dissolved Organic Matter in Enriched Artificial Hot Spring Fluids Using Spectroscopic Methods

Description

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can have numerous effects on the water chemistry and the biological life within an aquatic system with its wide variety of chemical structures and properties. The

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can have numerous effects on the water chemistry and the biological life within an aquatic system with its wide variety of chemical structures and properties. The composition of the dissolved carbon can be estimated by utilizing the fluorescent properties of some DOM such as aromatic amino acids and humic material. This experiment was used to observe how organic matter could influence hydrothermal systems, such as Sylvan Springs in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Using optical density at 600 nm (OD 600), excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMS), and Illumina sequencing methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing), changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) were observed based on long term incubation at 84ºC and microbial influence. Four media conditions were tested over a two-month duration to assess these changes: inoculated pine needle media, uninoculated pine needle media, inoculated yeast extract media, and uninoculated yeast extract media. The inoculated samples contained microbes from a fluid and sediment sample of Sylvan Spring collected July 23, 2018. Absorbance indicated that media containing pine needle broth poorly support life, whereas media containing yeast extract revealed a positive increase in growth. Excitation-Emission Matrix Spectra of the all media conditions indicated changes in DOM composition throughout the trial. There were limited differences between the inoculated and uninoculated samples suggesting that the DOM composition change in this study was dominated by the two-month incubation at 84ºC more than biotic processes. Sequencing performed on a sediment sample collected from Sylvan Spring indicated five main order of prokaryotic phyla: Aquificales, Desulfurococcales, Thermoproteales, Thermodesulfobacteriales, and Crenarchaeota. These organisms are not regarded as heterotrophic microbes, so the lack of significant biotic changes in DOM could be a result of these microorganisms not being able to utilize these enrichments as their main metabolic energy supply.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05