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Using Graphene as a Flex Resistor to Detect Biodynamics

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Over the past 30 years the use of graphene has been increasing at a rapid rate. The reason why graphene has become more popular is because it is starting to be understood better, and researchers are starting to recognize graphene’s

Over the past 30 years the use of graphene has been increasing at a rapid rate. The reason why graphene has become more popular is because it is starting to be understood better, and researchers are starting to recognize graphene’s unique properties. Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite, and graphite is a three-dimensional cube base structure of carbon. Graphite has a high conductivity rate, and graphene has an even higher conductivity, meaning that graphene makes for an excellent resistor in any hardware system. Graphene is flexible, has high durability, and can vary in resistance based on its shape (Sharon 2015). With graphene being able to change its resistivity, it can act as different types of sensors. These sensors include measuring pressure, resistance, force, strain, and angle. One problem across the globe is that patients have arthritis, decaying bone density, and injuries which can easily go mistreated or not treated at all. It can be hard to determine the severity of injuries in joints by observation of the patient. There are tools and equipment that will allow a doctor to track the force and degrees of motion of certain joints, but they are mostly limited to hospitals. With graphene acting as a sensor it can be embedded into casts, braces, and even clothing. With a mobile sensor that relays accurate and continuous data to a doctor they can more precisely determine a therapy or recovery time that will better suit the patients’ needs. In this project the graphene was used to measure the angle of a patient’s wrist while they were wearing a wrist brace. From the data collected, the graphene was able to track the user’s movement of their wrist as they moved it in a single direction. The data showed the angle of the wrist ranging from zero degrees to 90 degrees. This proves that graphene can shape the way biosensing is accomplished. Biodynamics is a growing field, and with more injuries everyday it is important to study graphene and how it can be used to diagnose and prevent injuries related to joints. Graphene can be used as a biosensor which can then be implemented into a brace to allow for accurate biodynamic tracking.

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2020-05

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The Development of Marketing with Respect to Retro-Acculturation

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With the United States' diverse group of people, diverse set of beliefs and diverse cultural backgrounds, it’s no wonder that over the last few decades there has been a 51 percent increase in second-generation Americans in the United States (Child

With the United States' diverse group of people, diverse set of beliefs and diverse cultural backgrounds, it’s no wonder that over the last few decades there has been a 51 percent increase in second-generation Americans in the United States (Child Trends, 2018). Though each of these second- and third-generation Americans experience life in the U.S. vastly different, the common steps of self-identity, acculturation and assimilation persist. However, what is often missed with this seemingly linear process is the delineating step: retro acculturation. Their sense of disconnect sparks a feeling of blurred identity, introducing the phenomenon of retro- acculturation, or an individual’s conscious efforts to connect to their heritage in new ways. Understanding the “why” behind this revelation is essential in understanding the “how”- or the actions taken by the individual to connect with their withdrawn culture. A deeper understanding of retro-acculturation and its processes is essential to leveraging a successful marketing effort in order to reach this demographic. As this population steadily reaches a larger population and quickly gains consumer buying power, it is important to be taking note of new and innovative ways of making lasting impressions on this demographic. This study focuses on exploring and discovering why individuals experience retro-acculturation and their triggers, as well as what approaches they use to connect to their heritage culture. Additionally, the insights gained were leveraged to provide recommendations as to how business can more effectively market to reach this demographic.

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2020-05

Obscenity: The Quick and Dirty

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Zines have made space for queer, intersectional feminists to bring together academic and artistic knowledge in order to produce a message and inspire readers. In order to criticize the legal definition and practical execution of obscenity in the US, a

Zines have made space for queer, intersectional feminists to bring together academic and artistic knowledge in order to produce a message and inspire readers. In order to criticize the legal definition and practical execution of obscenity in the US, a visual component was a necessity. The use of a Zine allowed for a critical and humorous exploration of obscenity in US law and media. The Zine provides a visual analysis while the companion essay provides a critique of the zine and additional analysis. The Zine brings awareness to ways in which the legal historical objectification of black and native bodies contributed to the creation of modern obscenity laws. These laws are based on racist and sexist ideals of morality and create inherently flawed definitions of obscenity through personal bias. The flaws within the laws allow for exceptions in the legal definition of obscenity which normalizes the commodification of women's bodies. These laws and the exceptions present contribute to the dehumanization of and violence towards women as usefulness is deemed the most important factor when considering the use of women’s bodies in potentially obscene images and films.

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2020-05

A Reflection on Translating a Thesis on Soil Pollution in Jiangsu

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This project took thesis written in Mandarin researching heavy metal pollution in the Jiangsu region of province and translated it to English. Then the reflection process was discussed, considering the translation challenges between Mandarin and English and how the scientific nature of the piece played into that process.

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2020-12

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Automation in a Progressive Economy: The Race between Humans and Technology

Description

For as long as humans have been working, they have been looking for ways to get that work done better, faster, and more efficient. Over the course of human history, mankind has created innumerable spectacular inventions, all with the goal

For as long as humans have been working, they have been looking for ways to get that work done better, faster, and more efficient. Over the course of human history, mankind has created innumerable spectacular inventions, all with the goal of making the economy and daily life more efficient. Today, innovations and technological advancements are happening at a pace like never seen before, and technology like automation and artificial intelligence are poised to once again fundamentally alter the way people live and work in society. Whether society is prepared or not, robots are coming to replace human labor, and they are coming fast. In many areas artificial intelligence has disrupted entire industries of the economy. As people continue to make advancements in artificial intelligence, more industries will be disturbed, more jobs will be lost, and entirely new industries and professions will be created in their wake. The future of the economy and society will be determined by how humans adapt to the rapid innovations that are taking place every single day. In this paper I will examine the extent to which automation will take the place of human labor in the future, project the potential effect of automation to future unemployment, and what individuals and society will need to do to adapt to keep pace with rapidly advancing technology. I will also look at the history of automation in the economy. For centuries humans have been advancing technology to make their everyday work more productive and efficient, and for centuries this has forced humans to adapt to the modern technology through things like training and education. The thesis will additionally examine the ways in which the U.S. education system will have to adapt to meet the demands of the advancing economy, and how job retraining programs must be modernized to prepare workers for the changing economy.

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2018-05

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Running a Charitable Organization While Navigating Regulations Within an Academic Institution

Description

In this creative project, our goal was to establish a student lead service organization dedicated to raising money and awareness for a selected medical issue through an interactive carnival event. In doing so, we were able to identify the potential

In this creative project, our goal was to establish a student lead service organization dedicated to raising money and awareness for a selected medical issue through an interactive carnival event. In doing so, we were able to identify the potential obstacles and pathways that are required for service organizations within Arizona State University. Our experience provides a guideline for future students looking to organize charitable events on campus. This paper discusses several essential skills for running a charitable student organization, including establishing a brand, managing finances, cultivating business relationships, and marketing the cause. It is our hope that future students can learn from our experience and find success in similar endeavors.

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2018-05

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Understanding and Predicting Persistence in First Year Engineering Students

Description

Based on James Marcia's theory, identity development in youth is the degree to which one has explored and committed to a vocation [1], [2]. During the path to an engineering identity, students will experience a crisis, when one's values and

Based on James Marcia's theory, identity development in youth is the degree to which one has explored and committed to a vocation [1], [2]. During the path to an engineering identity, students will experience a crisis, when one's values and choices are examined and reevaluated, and a commitment, when the outcome of the crisis leads the student to commit to becoming an engineer. During the crisis phase, students are offered a multitude of experiences to shape their values and choices to influence commitment to becoming an engineering student. Student's identities in engineering are fostered through mentoring from industry, alumni, and peer coaching [3], [4]; experiences that emphasize awareness of the importance of professional interactions [5]; and experiences that show creativity, collaboration, and communication as crucial components to engineering. Further strategies to increase students' persistence include support in their transition to becoming an engineering student, education about professional engineers and the workplace [6], and engagement in engineering activities beyond the classroom. Though these strategies are applied to all students, there are challenges students face in confronting their current identity and beliefs before they can understand their value to society and achieve personal satisfaction. To understand student's progression in developing their engineering identity, first year engineering students were surveyed at the beginning and end of their first semester. Students were asked to rate their level of agreement with 22 statements about their engineering experience. Data included 840 cases. Items with factor loading less than 0.6 suggesting no sufficient explanation were removed in successive factor analysis to identify the four factors. Factor analysis indicated that 60.69% of the total variance was explained by the successive factors. Survey questions were categorized into three factors: engineering identity as defined by sense of belonging and self-efficacy, doubts about becoming an engineer, and exploring engineering. Statements in exploring engineering indicated student awareness, interest and enjoyment within engineering. Students were asked to think about whether they spent time learning what engineers do and participating in engineering activities. Statements about doubts about engineering to engineering indicated whether students had formed opinions about their engineering experience and had understanding about their environment. Engineering identity required thought in belonging and self-efficacy. Belonging statements called for thought about one's opinion in the importance of being an engineer, the meaning of engineering, an attachment to engineering, and self-identification as an engineer. Statements about self-efficacy required students to contemplate their personal judgement of whether they would be able to succeed and their ability to become an engineer. Effort in engineering indicated student willingness to invest time and effort and their choices and effort in their engineering discipline.

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2018-05

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Engineering a Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC)-Based Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Description

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) affects over 5 million individuals in the U.S. and has a direct cost estimated in excess of $200 billion per year. Broadly speaking, there are two forms of AD—early-onset, familial AD (FAD) and late-onset-sporadic AD (SAD). Animal

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) affects over 5 million individuals in the U.S. and has a direct cost estimated in excess of $200 billion per year. Broadly speaking, there are two forms of AD—early-onset, familial AD (FAD) and late-onset-sporadic AD (SAD). Animal models of AD, which rely on the overexpression of FAD-related mutations, have provided important insights into the disease. However, these models do not display important disease-related pathologies and have been limited in their ability to model the complex genetics associated with SAD.

Advances in cellular reprogramming, have enabled the generation of in vitro disease models that can be used to dissect disease mechanisms and evaluate potential therapeutics. To that end, efforts by many groups, including the Brafman laboratory, to generated patient-specific hiPSCs have demonstrated the promise of studying AD in a simplified and accessible system. However, neurons generated from these hiPSCs have shown some, but not all, of the early molecular and cellular hallmarks associated with the disease. Additionally, phenotypes and pathological hallmarks associated with later stages of the human disease have not been observed with current hiPSC-based systems. Further, disease relevant phenotypes in neurons generated from SAD hiPSCs have been highly variable or largely absent. Finally, the reprogramming process erases phenotypes associated with cellular aging and, as a result, iPSC-derived neurons more closely resemble fetal brain rather than adult brain.

It is well-established that in vivo cells reside within a complex 3-D microenvironment that plays a significant role in regulating cell behavior. Signaling and other cellular functions, such as gene expression and differentiation potential, differ in 3-D cultures compared with 2-D substrates. Nonetheless, previous studies using AD hiPSCs have relied on 2-D neuronal culture models that do not reflect the 3-D complexity of native brain tissue, and therefore, are unable to replicate all aspects of AD pathogenesis. Further, the reprogramming process erases cellular aging phenotypes. To address these limitations, this project aimed to develop bioengineering methods for the generation of 3-D organoid-based cultures that mimic in vivo cortical tissue, and to generate an inducible gene repression system to recapitulate cellular aging hallmarks.

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2018-05

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The Effects of Sleep Efficiency on Serum Osteocalcin in College-Aged Individuals

Description

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is most affected by osteoporosis, adolescents are the most proactive population in terms of prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and serum osteocalcin in college-aged individuals as a means of osteoporosis prevention. Thirty participants ages 18-25 years (22 females, 8 males) at Arizona State University were involved in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during one week via self-recorded sleep diaries, quantitative ActiWatch, DEXA imaging, and serum blood draws to measure the bone biomarker osteocalcin. Three participants were excluded from the study as outliers. The median (IQR) for osteocalcin measured by ELISA was 11.6 (9.7, 14.5) ng/mL. The average sleep efficiency measured by actigraphy was 88.3% ± 3.0%. Regression models of sleep efficiency and osteocalcin concentration were not statistically significant. While the addition of covariates helped explain more of the variation in serum osteocalcin concentration, the results remained insignificant. There was a trend between osteocalcin and age, suggesting that as age increases, osteocalcin decreases. This was a limited study, and further investigation regarding the relationship between sleep efficiency and osteocalcin is warranted.

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2018-05

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Bariatric Surgery: The Good, Bad, & Questionable

Description

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal long-term weight loss, which has led to the prevalence of bariatric surgery as an answer to long-term weight loss for Class III obesity. Gastric bypass surgery has become especially popular for its numerous benefits including successful weight loss, improvements in obesity-related diseases, and increased lifespan. Bariatric surgery is still not a perfect solution. Negative effects after surgery range from surgical complications and vitamin deficiencies to altered hormonal levels and metabolic rates. Many questions regarding bariatric surgery still remain including the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery, long-term bone effects, and long-term psychosocial and lifestyle components of bariatric patients. Understanding the good, the bad, and several of the remaining questions regarding bariatric surgery, will help health professionals be more appreciative of the complexity of treating their obese patients.

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2018-05