Matching Items (74)

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Ambivalent Sexism in College Women: Key Beliefs and Outcomes

Description

Gender discrimination and inequality in this day and age points to the existence of ambivalent sexist beliefs. That is, men and women hold outwardly negative or superficially positive sexist beliefs

Gender discrimination and inequality in this day and age points to the existence of ambivalent sexist beliefs. That is, men and women hold outwardly negative or superficially positive sexist beliefs about the innate inferiority of women (Glick & Fiske, 1996; Glick & Fiske, 1997). In the past twenty years, outcomes and effects of women due to these beliefs have been researched extensively. Less common are suggestions or conclusions regarding the underlying existence of these beliefs, though many researchers have related their results to aspects within the Social Identity Theory (1979) and other alike theories involving the self and threats to self. The present study looks at smaller constructs, reporting a relationship between a model of women's identity, including predictors: 1) closeness to women, 2) public regard 3) gender identity centrality, to hostile, benevolent and ambivalent sexist beliefs. A group of N=115 women with ages ranging from 18 to 22 at Arizona State University were administered a survey asking questions about their sexist beliefs and their personal gender values. Results show a significant relationship between predictor variables to hostile sexist beliefs, but not benevolent sexist beliefs. These findings suggest that women's association with their gender-derived identity may parallel with endorsement of sexist beliefs when conceptions of the traditional woman is more salient.

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  • 2014-05

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E-books and Emergent Literacy in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Dialogic Reading on Vocabulary Knowledge and Story Retell

Description

The incorporation of electronic books (e-books) into the classroom and home of young children has been shown to have positive effects on the acquisition of early literacy skills. Dialogic reading

The incorporation of electronic books (e-books) into the classroom and home of young children has been shown to have positive effects on the acquisition of early literacy skills. Dialogic reading methods, which include interactive conversations between caregiver and child about a story as it is being read, additionally are known to improve skills that lead to improved literacy during the school years. No research to date, however, has examined e-books and dialogic reading when used together. This study examines how using dialogic reading with a child reading an e-book will impact the acquisition of emergent literacy skills, particularly vocabulary knowledge and story recall ability. Twenty-three children aged 3 to 5 took part in a matched pairs experiment that included reading a select e-book four times in which half received a dialogic reading intervention. The children who received the intervention scored significantly higher in the story recall measure of the posttest than those in the control group. No differences were found between the experimental and control groups on the vocabulary measure, although mutual gains were found among both groups from the pretest to the posttest. The results suggest that dialogic reading when incorporated with e-books may improve a child's ability to recall a story. Further, the results indicate that repeated reading of the same e-book may increase vocabulary knowledge.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Ways of Thinking for Developing an Understanding of Covariational Reasoning in Undergraduate Calculus Students

Description

Previous research discusses students' difficulties in grasping an operational understanding of covariational reasoning. In this study, I interviewed four undergraduate students in calculus and pre-calculus classes to determine their ways

Previous research discusses students' difficulties in grasping an operational understanding of covariational reasoning. In this study, I interviewed four undergraduate students in calculus and pre-calculus classes to determine their ways of thinking when working on an animated covariation problem. With previous studies in mind and with the use of technology, I devised an interview method, which I structured using multiple phases of pre-planned support. With these interviews, I gathered information about two main aspects about students' thinking: how students think when attempting to reason covariationally and which of the identified ways of thinking are most propitious for the development of an understanding of covariational reasoning. I will discuss how, based on interview data, one of the five identified ways of thinking about covariational reasoning is highly propitious, while the other four are somewhat less propitious.

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  • 2014-05

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Fit Minded College Edition: Pilot test of a magazine-based discussion group on physical activity in female college freshmen

Description

Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot

Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot test a magazine-based discussion group for improving PA, self-worth, and nutrition behaviors in freshmen college females. Method: Thirty-seven women (18-20 years) were randomized to intervention (n=17) and control (n=20) groups. The intervention group participated in an 8-week magazine-based discussion group adapted from a previously tested social cognitive theory based intervention, Fit Minded. Excerpts from a popular women's health magazine were discussed during weekly meetings incorporating PA, self-worth and nutrition education. The control group did not attend meetings, but received the magazines. Outcomes and feasibility measures included: self-reported PA, general self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, and daily fruits, vegetables, junk food, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results: Twelve participants from the intervention group attended more than 75% of meetings. A time effect was observed for PA (p=0.001) and family social support (p=0.002). Time x group effects were observed for PA (p=0.001), general self-worth (p=0.04), knowledge self-worth (p=0.03), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p=0.03), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA, general self-worth and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Although not significant, the intervention group demonstrated positive trends in self-efficacy, friend social support and fruit and veggie consumption as compared to the control group. Conclusion: A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve PA, self-worth and nutrition behaviors in female college freshmen.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Sum sed cogitone? Can children introspect their mental states?

Description

Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand

Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand our access to our mental states. Simulation theory (Harris, 1991) involves imagining yourself in another person’s situation, reading off of your mental state, and attributing that state to the other person. Theory-theory (Gopnik, 1993) involves an interrelated body of knowledge, based on core mental-state constructs, including beliefs and desires, that may be applied to everyone—self and others (Gopnik & Wellman, 1994). Introspection is taken for granted by simulation theory, and explicitly denied by theory-theory. This study is designed to test for evidence of introspection in young children using simple perception and knowledge task. The current evidence is against introspective awareness in children because the data suggest that children cannot report their own false beliefs and they cannot report their on-going thoughts (Flavell, Green & Flavell, 1993; Gopnik & Astington, 1988). The hypothesis in this study states that children will perform better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks, which will be evidence for introspection. The Other-Perception tasks require children to calculate the other’s line of sight and determine if there is something obscuring his or her vision. The Other-Knowledge tasks require children to reason that the other’s previous looking inside a box means that he or she will know what is inside the box when it is closed. The corresponding Self tasks could be answered either by using the same reasoning for the self or by introspection to determine what it is they see and do not see, and know and do not know. Children performing better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks will be an indication of introspection. Tests included Yes/No and Forced Choice questions, which was initially to ensure that the results will not be caused by a feature of a single method of questioning. I realized belatedly, however, that Forced Choice was not a valid measure of introspection as children could introspect in both the Self and Other conditions. I also expect to replicate previous findings that reasoning about Perception is easier for children than reasoning about Knowledge.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Relations among Religiosity, Age of Self-Identification as Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual, and Alcohol Use among College Students

Description

Recent research on alcohol use among LGB young adults indicates that sexual minority youth are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. One possible contributing factor is that religiosity

Recent research on alcohol use among LGB young adults indicates that sexual minority youth are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. One possible contributing factor is that religiosity fails to provide the significant protection for LGB youth that it has been demonstrated to provide in general population samples. Although recent studies provide some support for this hypothesis, there is little research seeking to understand the reasons that religiosity may fail to protect against heavy drinking among LGB youth. The current study attempted to address this gap by examining relations among religiosity, age of self-identification, and alcohol use in a sample of 103 young adults self identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Using multiple regression, we found that religiosity had an indirect effect on alcohol use operating through age of identification as LGB. Higher religiosity was associated with a later age of self-identification, which in turn, predicted greater increases in alcohol use among LGB youth during the transition from high school through college. Exploratory analyses found that gender significantly moderated the influence of age of self-identification on alcohol use such that a later age of self-identification was a risk factor for increased drinking for women, but not for men. The findings have important implications for understanding complex relations between religiosity and alcohol use among LGB youth. In addition, the findings may inform the development of religious support groups for LGB youth that will allow them to experience the benefits of religious involvement that heterosexual youth experience.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Exploring the Relation Between Motivational and Cognitive Systems: The Case of Individual Differences in Religiosity and Working Memory

Description

This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity

This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity questionnaire and engaged in a battery of tasks that were used to assess their Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and overall ability to maintain goal-directed behavior. The Stroop task was used to examine the participants' ability to maintain goals in the face of interference. It was predicted that religiosity and WMC would be inversely related and that when we controlled for religiosity, WMC would be the only significant predictor of Stroop performance. Furthermore, we hypothesized that religiosity and Stoop would be inversely related, whereas WMC and Stroop would be positively correlated with one another. Religiosity and Stroop performance were each divided into three different components. Religiosity was divided into: Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and CARMA. Stroop Performance was measured through Stroop Accuracy, the Stroop Effect, and Post-Error Slowing. The results of our study supported each of our hypotheses. These findings demonstrated that there is a cognitive process underlying motivational systems, such as religion, which affect an individual's ability to sustain goal-directed behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Goal-Setting in the Elementary Education Classroom: A Component of Self-Regulated Learning

Description

The present study was conducted in order to investigate the implementation of the self-regulated learning component of goal-setting in the elementary education classroom. Essential questions posed addressed the reasoning behind

The present study was conducted in order to investigate the implementation of the self-regulated learning component of goal-setting in the elementary education classroom. Essential questions posed addressed the reasoning behind why classrooms may not implement goal-setting despite the proven benefits. Also studied was the application of goal-setting within the classroom and what that may look like for educators. Finally, student preferences were observed and taken into consideration during implementation in order to help the study benefit them as much as possible. Participants included 29 fourth grade students at Rover Elementary School. The study was conducted over a six-week period by a student teacher that was completing their Senior Residency in this particular classroom. During study implementation, students were introduced to the concept of goal-setting. Using a series of goal-setting documents, students practiced goal-setting in, first, a Reader's Workshop period then, secondly, in a Writing Block. It was concluded that goal-setting may not be implemented in the classroom due to the amount of time necessary to complete the practice as well as the possibility that educators may not have the knowledge needed to properly make use of the practice. The application of the practice brings to light the need for students to include the setting of process goals in addition to product goals. Through the use of an exit survey, student preferences revealed that initially, they would rather have pre-written process goals to aim towards achieving rather than having to develop their own. In the future, it is suggested to conduct this study over a longer period of time in order to evaluate if students can develop their own goal-setting strategies.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Are Mate Preferences Shaped by One's Life Stage?

Description

What characteristics do people prefer in potential mates? Previous studies have explored this question, discovering that preferred characteristics vary by people's sex and sexual strategy, but have implied that these

What characteristics do people prefer in potential mates? Previous studies have explored this question, discovering that preferred characteristics vary by people's sex and sexual strategy, but have implied that these preferences remain constant across the lifespan. We suggest, however, that systematic variation exists in individuals' mate preferences across the lifespan, as they shift their investments from mating toward parenting. We suggest that the characteristics of a potential mate can be viewed as affordances that assist or hinder an individual in achieving certain fundamental goals. Incorporating the framework of Life History Theory with this affordance-management approach to social behavior, we propose that an individual's life stage, sex, and life history strategy together serve as the basis for these goals and thereby shape the characteristics people seek in potential mates. Using data collected from participants aged 18-45 recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, we tested a range of hypotheses derived from our approach. In general, results provide mixed support for a role of life stage in shaping mate preferences. For example, nurturance and social competence were viewed as more necessary characteristics in a mate by participants invested in parenting. Moreover, as their investment in mating increased, females expressed a greater preference for ambition in their potential mates, but males did not. Other predictions were not borne out, however, suggesting that there is still much to be learned from investigating the relationship between life stage and mate preferences.

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  • 2014-05

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Genistein-mediated diet tends to increase oxidative stress in the vasculature of female ob/ob mice

Description

Morbid obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. A major contributor to the pathogenesis of these diseases is impaired vasodilation resulting from elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is

Morbid obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. A major contributor to the pathogenesis of these diseases is impaired vasodilation resulting from elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is because certain ROS such as superoxide are raised with obesity and scavenge the endogenous vasorelaxant nitric oxide, resulting in hypertension. The objective of this study was to measure the ability of genistein to quench superoxide in the vasculature of ob/ob mice, an animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Genistein is an isoflavonic phytoestrogen naturally found in soy products. While genistein has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, it is not known whether this protects the vasculature from oxidative stress. Genistein was hypothesized to reduce superoxide in arteries from female ob/ob mice. The superoxide indicator dihydroethidium (DHE) [2µL/mL HEPES buffer] was added to isolated aortae and mesenteric arteries from mice fed either a control (standard rodent chow containing 200-300 mg genistein/kg) or genistein-enriched (600mg genistein/kg rodent chow) diets for 4 weeks. Frozen tissues sections were collected onto glass microscope slides and examined using confocal microscopy. Contrary to the hypothesis, a diet containing twice the amount of genistein found in standard chow did not significantly reduce superoxide concentrations in aortae (p=0.287) or mesenteric arteries (p=0.352). Superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant enzyme that breaks down superoxide, was significantly upregulated in the genistein-enriched diet group (p=0.004), although this elevation did not promote the breakdown of superoxide. In addition, the inflammatory marker iNOS was not downregulated in the genistein-enriched diet group (p>0.05). The results indicate that high amounts of isoflavones, like genistein, may not exhibit the purported antioxidant effects in the vasculature of obese or diabetic subjects. Further studies examining arteries from ob/ob mice fed a genistein-free diet are needed to elucidate the true effects of genistein on oxidative stress.

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  • 2014-05