Matching Items (13)

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Dengue Vaccines: Strongly Sought But Not a Reality Just Yet

Description

Dengue virus (DV) infections cause undisputedly the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in terms of worldwide prevalence, human suffering, and cost. Worldwide DV infection prevalence in 2010 was between 284 to 528 million cases. Approximately 84% of these cases come

Dengue virus (DV) infections cause undisputedly the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in terms of worldwide prevalence, human suffering, and cost. Worldwide DV infection prevalence in 2010 was between 284 to 528 million cases. Approximately 84% of these cases come from Asia and the Americas, where the cost for emerging economies can be as high as 580 million dollars per year. Thus, the need for an efficient vaccine against DV is extreme.

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Date Created
2013-10-03

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Immunogenic Subviral Particles Displaying Domain III of Dengue 2 Envelope Protein Vectored by Measles Virus

Description

Vaccines against dengue virus (DV) are commercially nonexistent. A subunit vaccination strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as biologically active adjuvant. In this paper, we focus on an immunoglobulin-like, independently folded domain III (DIII)

Vaccines against dengue virus (DV) are commercially nonexistent. A subunit vaccination strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as biologically active adjuvant. In this paper, we focus on an immunoglobulin-like, independently folded domain III (DIII) from DV 2 envelope protein (E), which contains epitopes that elicits highly specific neutralizing antibodies. We modified the hepatitis B small surface antigen (HBsAg, S) in order to display DV 2 DIII on a virus-like particle (VLP), thus generating the hybrid antigen DIII-S. Two varieties of measles virus (MV) vectors were developed to express DIII-S. The first expresses the hybrid antigen from an additional transcription unit (ATU) and the second additionally expresses HBsAg from a separate ATU. We found that this second MV vectoring the hybrid VLPs displaying DIII-S on an unmodified HBsAg scaffold were immunogenic in MV-susceptible mice (HuCD46Ge-IFNar[superscript ko]), eliciting robust neutralizing responses (averages) against MV (1:1280 NT90), hepatitis B virus (787 mIU/mL), and DV2 (1:160 NT50) in all of the tested animals. Conversely, the MV vector expressing only DIII-S induced immunity against MV alone. In summary, DV2 neutralizing responses can be generated by displaying E DIII on a scaffold of HBsAg-based VLPs, vectored by MV.

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Created

Date Created
2015-07-03

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Measles Virus Vectoring Hepatitis C Non-structural Protein 3: Towards a Hepatitis C Vaccine

Description

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infection which is a main contributor to the global burden of liver disease. Due to its ability to establish a chronic infection, and the lack of usefulness of traditional neutralizing antibody vaccine

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infection which is a main contributor to the global burden of liver disease. Due to its ability to establish a chronic infection, and the lack of usefulness of traditional neutralizing antibody vaccine design in producing a protective immune response, a preventative vaccine has been notoriously difficult to produce. To overcome this, a vaccine using non-structural protein 3 (NS3) as a target to elicit a T cell specific immune response is thought to be a possible strategy for eliciting a protective immune response against hepatitis C infection. In this paper, a recombinant strain of measles virus (MV) that expresses HCV NS3 protein was analyzed. The replication fitness of this recombinant virus also indicates that this construct replicates at a higher rate than parental measles strain. It is also demonstrated through western blot analysis of protein expression and immunofluorescence that this recombinant virus expresses both the inserted HCV NS3 protein, as well as native measles proteins.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Expression of the measles virus proteome by RAPID ELISA for serological assays

Description

Background: Measles virus (MV) infections are the main cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated there are over 20 million cases of measles every year. Currently, diagnostic methods rely on

Background: Measles virus (MV) infections are the main cause of vaccine-preventable death in children younger than 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated there are over 20 million cases of measles every year. Currently, diagnostic methods rely on enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to detect IgM or IgG Abs in serum. These commercial assays measure reactivity against the immunodominant N antigen and can have a false negative rates of 20-30%. Centralized testing by clinical labs can delay rapid screening in an outbreak setting. This study aims to develop a rapid molecular diagnostic assay to detect IgG reactive to five individual MV proteins representing 85% of the measles proteome. Methods: MV genes were subcloned into pANT_cGST vector to generate C-terminal GST fusion proteins. Single MV cistrons were expressed using in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) with human cell lysate. Expression of GST-tagged proteins was measured using a sandwich ELISA for GST expression using relative light units (RLUs) as readouts. Single MV antigens were used as bait to determine the IgG-dependent reactivity in 12 serum samples obtained from immunized animals with previously determined neutralization titer (NT) and the correlation between NT and ELISA reactivity was determined. Results: Protein expression of five measles genes of interest, M, N, F, H, and L, was measured. L exhibited the strongest protein expression with an average RLU value of 4.34 x 10^9. All proteins were expressed at least 50% greater than control (2.33 x 10^7 RLU). As expected, reactivity against the N was the highest, followed by reactivity against M, F, H and L. The best correlation with NT titer was reactivity against F (R^2 = 0.62). Conclusion: These data indicate that the expression of single MV genes M, N, F, H, and L are suitable antigens for serologic capture analysis of measles immunity.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Display of Domain III from Dengue 2 Envelope Protein on HBsAg Virus-like Particles Vectored by Measles Virus

Description

Dengue virus infects millions of people every year. Yet there is still no vaccine available to prevent it. Here we use a neutralizing epitope determinant on the dengue envelope (E) protein as an immunogen to be vectored by a measles

Dengue virus infects millions of people every year. Yet there is still no vaccine available to prevent it. Here we use a neutralizing epitope determinant on the dengue envelope (E) protein as an immunogen to be vectored by a measles virus (MV) vaccine. However the domain III (DIII) of the dengue 2 E protein is too small to be immunogenic by itself. In order for it to be displayed on a larger particle, it was inserted into the amino terminus of small hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, S) coding sequence. To generate the recombinant MV vector and verify the efficiency of this concept, a reverse genetics system was used where the MV vectors express one or two additional transcription units to direct the assembly of hybrid HBsAg particles. Two types of recombinant measles virus were produced: pB(+)MVvac2(DIII-S,S)P and pB(+)MVvac2(DIII-S)N. Virus recovered from pB(+)MVvac2(DIII-S,S)P was viable. An ELISA assay was performed to demonstrate the expression and secretion of HBsAg. Supernatant from MVvac2(DIII-S,S)P infected cells confirmed that hybrid HBsAg-domain III particles with a density similar to traditional HBsAg particles were released. Characteristics of the subviral particle have been analyzed for the successful incorporation of domain III. The replication fitness of the recombinant MV was evaluated using multi-step growth kinetics and showed reduced replication fitness when compared to the parental strain MVvac2. This demonstrates that viral replication is hindered by the addition of the two inserts into MV genome. Further analysis of MVvac2(DIII-S)N is needed to justify immune response studies in a small animal model using both of the generated recombinant vectors.

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Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Importance of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains in measles virus

Description

Lipid microdomains play a vital role in a number of biological processes. They are often a target of diseases and viruses. Viruses in particular utilize lipid microdomains to gain entry and fuse with the host-cell membrane. Measles virus (MV) a

Lipid microdomains play a vital role in a number of biological processes. They are often a target of diseases and viruses. Viruses in particular utilize lipid microdomains to gain entry and fuse with the host-cell membrane. Measles virus (MV) a human pathogen, spread from cell to cell by inducing fusion of cellular membranes. This causes the formation of large multinucleated cells, syncytia. It has been previously reported that lipid microdomains are essential for measles virus infection/replication. In this study we used methyl beta cyclodextrin (MBCD), a cholesterol-sequestering agent to disrupt lipid microdomains. Through transfection of Vero h/SLAM cells, we found that Measles virus fusion was dependent on lipid microdomains integrity. Indeed, a dose dependent fusion inhibition was documented with increasing concentrations of MBCD resulting in reduced formation of syncytia.

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Created

Date Created
2013-05

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Expression of dengue virus envelope glycoproteins using a measles vaccine vector

Description

ABSTRACT In terms of prevalence, human suffering and costs dengue infections are the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and the etiological agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Thus, development of

ABSTRACT In terms of prevalence, human suffering and costs dengue infections are the most important arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and the etiological agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Thus, development of a safe and efficient vaccine constitutes an urgent necessity. Besides the traditional strategies aim at generating immunization options, the usage of viral vectors to deliver antigenic stimulus in order to elicit protection are particularly attractive for the endeavor of a dengue vaccine. The viral vector (MVvac2) is genetically equivalent to the currently used measles vaccine strain Moraten, which adds practicality to my approach. The goal of the present study was to generate a recombinant measles virus expressing structural antigens from two strains of DENV (DENV2 and DENV4) The recombinant vectors replication profile was comparable to that of the parental strain and expresses either membrane bound or soluble forms of DENV2 and DENV4 E glycoproteins. I discuss future experiments in order to demonstrate its immunogenicity in our measles-susceptible mouse model.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF FLAVIVIRUS (YELLOW FEVER VIRUS AND DENGUE VIRUS) RECOMBINANT ENVELOPE PROTEINS IN E. COLI

Description

As research progresses in the field of vaccinology, momentum has been gained to develop an efficacious and efficient dengue virus (DV) vaccine for all four serotypes. Dengue viral outbreaks across the world have called for a vaccine campaign. However, due

As research progresses in the field of vaccinology, momentum has been gained to develop an efficacious and efficient dengue virus (DV) vaccine for all four serotypes. Dengue viral outbreaks across the world have called for a vaccine campaign. However, due to anti--"body dependent enhancement of infection, dengue virus has provided Researchers with challenges in developing a safe vaccine. Currently, there are a handful of vaccine candidates in clinical trial, but live chimeric attenuated vaccines dominate them. There are associated risks with using a live chimeric attenuated vaccine, but they are less expensive to generate and seem to provide a high immune response. Subunit vaccines are safer to use and can provide full protection for several years with then use of adjuvants and a booster shot. As a result, our lab is interested in pursuing this route to produce an effective dengue vaccine. The main target for a dengue subunit vaccine is the envelope protein, which is known to be an important recognition site by neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, expression of a recombinant envelope protein in a prokaryotic expression system is useful to study the immune response in vivo. This could be taken a step further and recombinant dengue envelope proteins can be expressed by a eukaryote to help generate hypotheses and insight to create a successful dengue virusn subunit vaccine.

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Created

Date Created
2013-05

Entrepreneurship Initiative at Westward Ho (DIY Bench)

Description

The goal is to develop a long term collaborative partnership that benefits the four main stakeholders: Arizona State University, The City of Phoenix, Westward Ho residents, and Westward Ho ownership. Arizona State University gains unique access to a research and

The goal is to develop a long term collaborative partnership that benefits the four main stakeholders: Arizona State University, The City of Phoenix, Westward Ho residents, and Westward Ho ownership. Arizona State University gains unique access to a research and learning environment for faculty and students of a variety of health disciplines. The City of Phoenix receives stability and safety to the neighborhood and protects the city's investment in the Westward Ho. The residents gain needed services through participation in ASU programs and initiatives. They acquire new life skills that contribute to their independence, thereby reducing the demand for costly emergency services and adding to their quality of life. The owners gain a more stable resident population and ASU's investment allows them to continue to upgrade the property, benefitting the city, the residents, and ASU.

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Created

Date Created
2013-05

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Effect of oxygen on the competition between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

Description

The viscous lung mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by oxygen gradients, which creates a unique niche for bacterial growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two predominant microorganisms chronically infecting the airways of CF patients, typically localize in

The viscous lung mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by oxygen gradients, which creates a unique niche for bacterial growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two predominant microorganisms chronically infecting the airways of CF patients, typically localize in hypoxic regions of the mucus. While interspecies interactions between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus have been reported, little is known about the role of low oxygen in regulating these interactions. Studying interspecies interactions in CF lung disease is important as evidence suggests that microbial community composition governs disease progression. In this study, P. aeruginosa lab strain PAO1 and two primary clinical isolates from hypoxic tissues were cultured alone, or in combination, with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain N315 under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. Herein, it is shown for the first time that low oxygen conditions relevant to the CF lung affect the competitive behavior between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Specifically, S. aureus was able to better survive competition in hypoxic versus normoxic conditions. Competition data from different oxygen concentrations were consistent using PAO1 and clinical isolates even though differences in the level of competition were observed. PAO1 strains carrying mutations in virulence factors known to contribute to S. aureus competition (pyocyanin/phzS, elastase/lasA and lasI quorum sensing/lasI) were used to determine which genes play a role in the differential growth inhibition. The lasA and lasI mutants competed less effectively with S. aureus regardless of the oxygen level present in the culture compared to the isogenic wild type strain. These results are consistent with previous findings that elastase and lasI quorum sensing play a role in competitive behavior of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Interestingly, the phzS mutant competed less effectively in hypoxic conditions suggesting that pyocyanin may be important in microaerophilic conditions. This study demonstrates that oxygen plays a role in competition between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and contributes to understanding CF environmental factors that may regulate microbial community dynamics important for disease progression with potential for development of therapeutic avenues.

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Date Created
2014