There are various motivational factors that affect both enlistment and retention success in the military. The purpose of this study was to identify those factors, their influence on enlistment rates, and to determine if there is an all-encompassing personality type characteristics of individuals who choose to enlist. Nineteen studies were identified that looked at one or more potential motivational factors. In total, these studies contained roughly 95,226 participants including men, women, Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Other minority groups were looked at in these studies, however, their sample sizes were too small for any conclusions to be drawn. The population samples ranged from high school seniors who were about to make the decision between the armed forces and alternative paths to those who had recently enlisted. Participants were from across all branches of the military. Overall, there were six main categories of motivational factors that appeared to be the most influential on one's decision to enlist in the armed forces. These include benefits offered by the military, educational aspirations and achievements of the potential enlistee, one's socioeconomic status, social influences, family influence, and the potential recruit's own personality. Finally, apart from motivational factors, the standards for enlistment imposed by the different military branches also affect who can enlist. In general, these six factors seem to be the most influential, although the specific patterns of motivational factors underlying one's enlistment decision are likely as unique as the enlistees themselves.