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An evaluation of the ecological and human health factors in protein source decisions

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Protein is an essential macronutrient in the human diet, but the source of this protein has both human health and environmental impacts. Health complications can result from protein deficiency, but

Protein is an essential macronutrient in the human diet, but the source of this protein has both human health and environmental impacts. Health complications can result from protein deficiency, but the practices by which protein sources are raised, grown, or harvested have environmental consequences, potentially reducing biodiversity, essential habitat, and crucial stocks of natural resources. Terrestrial cultivation encroaches on natural habitats and consumes resources inefficiently, while overfishing has greatly depleted wild fishery stocks. These environmental factors, along with concerns about nutrients, contaminants and the ethics of animal protein has led to confusion about weighing the risks and benefits associated with alternative sources of protein. Providing consumers \u2014 and policy makers \u2014 with a comprehensive account of major protein sources and their impacts in an understandable form is crucial to reducing environmental degradation and improving human health. Here I provide a general framework to compare the health and environmental impacts of livestock, seafood, and plant protein, and illustrate the application of this framework with case studies for each of these categories.

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  • 2014-05

STUDY OF INACTIVATION OF MS2 BACTERIOPHAGE BY ULTRA SHORT PULSES OF TI-SAPPHIRE LASER

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Studies have demonstrated that viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], M13 bacteriophage, and murine cytomegalovirus [MCMV] have been effectively inactivated by exposure to ultra short-pulsed lasers (6,7,10,11,14,15,17). Ultra short

Studies have demonstrated that viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], M13 bacteriophage, and murine cytomegalovirus [MCMV] have been effectively inactivated by exposure to ultra short-pulsed lasers (6,7,10,11,14,15,17). Ultra short pulse laser shows promise as a new method for non-invasive antiviral treatments (17). This method can be used to prevent problems such as drug resistance that is currently rising in numbers. According to the Center for Disease Control [CDC], there are more than two million people in the United States of America that are infected with antimicrobial-resistant infections and at least 23,000 deaths per year occur as a result (19). In this study, ultra-short pulses, specifically Ti-Sapphire Laser [USP Ti-Sapphire Laser] will be evaluated for viral inactivation. The virus chosen for this study was MS2 bacteriophage, which is a non- enveloped, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] bacteriophages that infects F+ pilus Escherichia coli (16). It was hypothesized that ultrashort pulses from a Ti-Sapphire laser will inactivate MS2 bacteriophage. Inactivation was measured using plaque-forming units [PFU/mL] as an indicator. It was expected that there would be an increase in inactivation of MS2 bacteriophage with an increase in irradiation duration. The results indicated that MS2 bacteriophage was highly sensitive to irradiation treatments of the USP Ti-Sapphire Laser. The concentration of MS2 bacteriophage decreased by 107 PFU/mL after being treated for various time periods ranging from 5 minutes to 150 minutes. Longer duration of USP Ti- Sapphire Laser treatment inactivated more MS2 Bacteriophage.

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  • 2014-05

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University Student Knowledge and Perception of Influenza

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Influenza has shown its potential to affect and even kill millions of people within an extremely short time frame, yet studies and surveys show that the general public is not

Influenza has shown its potential to affect and even kill millions of people within an extremely short time frame, yet studies and surveys show that the general public is not well educated about the facts about influenza, including prevention and treatment. For this reason, public perception of influenza is extremely skewed, with people generally not taking the disease as seriously as they should given its severity. To investigate the inconsistencies between action and awareness of best available knowledge regarding influenza, this study conducted literature review and a survey of university students about their knowledge, perceptions, and action taken in relationship to influenza. Due to their dense living quarters, constant daily interactions, and mindset that they are "immune" to fairly common diseases like influenza, university students are a representative sample of urban populations. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 54% of the world's population lived in cities as of 2014 (Urban population growth). Between 2015 and 2020, the global urban population is expected to grow 1.84% per year, 1.63% between 2020 and 2025, and 1.44% between 2025 and 2030 (Urban population growth). Similar projections estimate that by 2017, an overwhelming majority of the world's population, even in less developed countries, will be living in cities (Urban population growth). Results of this study suggest possible reasons for the large gap between best available knowledge and the perceptions and actions of individuals on the other hand. This may lead to better-oriented influenza education initiatives, more effective prevention and treatment plans, and generally raise excitement and awareness surrounding public health and scientific communication.

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  • 2014-12

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ESOPs and the Need towards Democratic Governance in the Workplace

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If democracy is the best way to rule why then is it limited only to the political sphere? This question is central to economic democracy which is the theory that

If democracy is the best way to rule why then is it limited only to the political sphere? This question is central to economic democracy which is the theory that economic activities should be governed by democratic principles. In America, ESOPs are used for a variety of reasons, and I believe that they can be used for the development of democratic firms. My thesis looks at current ESOPs to see if they are democratic, and suggests how they can be used to develop democratic firms.

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  • 2014-05

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Sharks and Society: Changing the Reputation of a Keystone Predator

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Globally, many species of shark are facing rapid population decline. This is due to increasing fishing pressures, primarily from the booming demand in China for shark fins for soup. In

Globally, many species of shark are facing rapid population decline. This is due to increasing fishing pressures, primarily from the booming demand in China for shark fins for soup. In recent years there has also been an increase in international shark conservation efforts, but there is still a long way to go in gathering support for those efforts. Public perception of sharks in America has been greatly influenced by negative media representations of them, Jaws being one of the most influential. Many of these representations are based on inaccurate information that has been disproven by science, but still lingers in popular culture. Symbolic Interactionism Theory proved to be a useful framework for unpacking the connections between public perception, mainstream culture and media, and conservation regarding sharks. A social psychological theory, Symbolic Interactionism describes the ways that people construct meaning about a topic through direct and indirect interactions, and how this meaning can change on individual, social, and cultural levels. By changing the way sharks are perceived and represented to the public, these important and incredible animals may gather the support they need to continue living in the world's oceans.

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  • 2014-05

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Response of Daphnia feeding rate to food C:P ratio: a test for the ""stoichiometric knife edge"" mechanism

Description

It is well known that deficiencies in key chemical elements (such as phosphorus, P) can reduce animal growth; however, recent empirical data have shown that high levels of dietary nutrients

It is well known that deficiencies in key chemical elements (such as phosphorus, P) can reduce animal growth; however, recent empirical data have shown that high levels of dietary nutrients can also reduce animal growth. In ecological stoichiometry, this phenomenon is known as the "stoichiometric knife edge," but its underlying mechanisms are not well-known. Previous work has suggested that the crustacean zooplankter Daphnia reduces its feeding rates on phosphorus-rich food, causing low growth due to insufficient C (energy) intake. To test for this mechanism, feeding rates of Daphnia magna on algae (Scenedesmus acutus) differing in C:P ratio (P content) were determined. Overall, there was a significant difference among all treatments for feeding rate (p < 0.05) with generally higher feeding rates on P-rich algae. These data indicate that both high and low food C:P ratio do affect Daphnia feeding rate but are in contradiction with previous work that showed that P-rich food led to strong reductions in feeding rate. Additional experiments are needed to gain further insights.

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  • 2014-05

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Xianyou (Transcendent Journeys): The Pursuit, Inquiry into and Experience of Dao in the Quanzhen School of Daoism

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The following paper is a translation of National Zhengzhi University Professor Li Fengmao’s original Chinese article. This translation was completed with the express approval of Professor Li, and under

The following paper is a translation of National Zhengzhi University Professor Li Fengmao’s original Chinese article. This translation was completed with the express approval of Professor Li, and under the direction of Professor Stephen R. Bokenkamp.
Quanzhen Daoism (“The Way of Complete Perfection”) is a sect of Daoism founded by master Wang Chongyang (王重陽 1113-1170) in the twelfth century AD. The tradition is, in essence, the systemization and formalization of traditional Daoist practices through the implementation of Confucian and Buddhist infrastructure. Synthesizing Confucian practices of study and copying of classics, proper human relationships, and master-student succession, and Buddhist chujia (出家 “to leave the household”) and large public monastic systems, Quanzhen Daoism established systematic mechanisms which facilitated the zealous advancement of practitioners.
The Quanzhen sect formalized the Daoist tradition of “famous mountains and enlightened teachers” and integrated the respective practices of residing in a monastery and participating in fangdao (訪道) as required components of personal cultivation, constituting “monastery residence” and “travel” experiences. These two components complemented each other and eventually came to form the integral experiences of Quanzhen cultivation. The establishment of a uniform “household system,” inter-monastery exchange system, “Pure Rules,” “Collection of Orthodox Chants,” “percept transmission system,” and “name assignment system” streamlined the acclimation process for both entering the household of religion and participating in required ceremonies during travel.
Ultimately, the systemized infrastructure established by Quanzhen Daoism allowed for the formation of a complete ordered society outside of the secular world. This Quanzhen world, in turn, provided the framework for large-scale, practical implementation of Daoist techniques, the most ideologically significant of which are participation in arduous travel and actualization of “an irregular accordance with the Dao.”

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  • 2014-05

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Cocladogenesis: A Thesis in 3 Attempts

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This collection of literary nonfiction essays is lead by the metaphor of cocladogenesis — a unique evolutionary relationship between two lineages that combines coevolution and cospeciation — to suggest that

This collection of literary nonfiction essays is lead by the metaphor of cocladogenesis — a unique evolutionary relationship between two lineages that combines coevolution and cospeciation — to suggest that a similar relationship should exist between the subjective and the objective experience, art and science, and the chronicle and the narrative. It is not the singular extreme of either side that results in the advantageously beautiful products of cocladogenesis — it is the constant dialogue between the two factions.

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  • 2014-05

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Preliminary Metabolic Reconstruction of Two Methane Producing Microbes: Methanoregula boonei 6A8 and Methanosphaerula palustris E1-9c

Description

Methane (CH4) is very important in the environment as it is a greenhouse gas and important for the degradation of organic matter. During the last 200 years the atmospheric concentration

Methane (CH4) is very important in the environment as it is a greenhouse gas and important for the degradation of organic matter. During the last 200 years the atmospheric concentration of CH4 has tripled. Methanogens are methane-producing microbes from the Archaea domain that complete the final step in breaking down organic matter to generate methane through a process called methanogenesis. They contribute to about 74% of the CH4 present on the Earth's atmosphere, producing 1 billion tons of methane annually. The purpose of this work is to generate a preliminary metabolic reconstruction model of two methanogens: Methanoregula boonei 6A8 and Methanosphaerula palustris E1-9c. M. boonei and M. palustris are part of the Methanomicrobiales order and perform hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, which means that they reduce CO2 to CH4 by using H2 as their major electron donor. Metabolic models are frameworks for understanding a cell as a system and they provide the means to assess the changes in gene regulation in response in various environmental and physiological constraints. The Pathway-Tools software v16 was used to generate these draft models. The models were manually curated using literature searches, the KEGG database and homology methods with the Methanosarcina acetivorans strain, the closest methanogen strain with a nearly complete metabolic reconstruction. These preliminary models attempt to complete the pathways required for amino acid biosynthesis, methanogenesis, and major cofactors related to methanogenesis. The M. boonei reconstruction currently includes 99 pathways and has 82% of its reactions completed, while the M. palustris reconstruction includes 102 pathways and has 89% of its reactions completed.

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  • 2014-05

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How Was I to Know You Wouldn't Let Me Forget?

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How Was I to Know You Wouldn't Let Me Forget? is a art installation created by Christine Adams showcasing printmaking media, including lithography and etching. This installation was based on

How Was I to Know You Wouldn't Let Me Forget? is a art installation created by Christine Adams showcasing printmaking media, including lithography and etching. This installation was based on Adams' childhood bedroom and featured small bedroom shrines, a common motif throughout girlhood. The portraits of the people in the show are all individuals who Adams met between the ages of 13 and 21 and who have left her life, commenting on whether or not someone can ever really leave you.

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  • 2014-05