Matching Items (12)

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Feasibility of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Suicidality of Children

Description

Background: Suicidal ideation and attempts are increasing in the adolescent population and suicide is now the second leading cause of death for youth 10-24 years of age (Center for Disease

Background: Suicidal ideation and attempts are increasing in the adolescent population and suicide is now the second leading cause of death for youth 10-24 years of age (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). Children that continue to struggle with suicidality and depression after treatment as usual have an increased length of stay, from an average of five days to nine days per admission. Recidivism rates are also increasing, with some patients
requiring readmission the same day as discharge.

Method: The purpose of project was to check the feasibility of the use of cognitive behavioral therapy-based group called Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment (COPE) in the treatment of children with depression and suicidality. The study patients participated in up to 7 groups of a 60-minute lesson of COPE each day, combined with interactive activities that helped
them practice problem solving and coping skills. The feasibility of the COPE groups were measured by the consistent decrease of Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale at the beginning and conclusion of lessons as well as consistency of engaged participation in the COPE groups on the unit based of staff observation obtained from Staff Survey.

Results: The results analyzed using the two-tailed Wilcoxon signed rank test were significant based on an alpha value of 0.05, V = 0.00, z = -3.64, p < .001. This indicated that the differences between Pre-CSSR and Post-CSSR were not likely due to random post variation. The median of Pre-CSSR (Mdn = 1.00) was significantly lower than the median of Post-CSSR (Mdn = 2.00).

Discussion: The results proved feasibility of a cognitive behavioral therapy-based group in the treatment of depression and suicidality of children in an inpatient unit.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05-02

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Substance Use Disorder Relapse and Readmission

Description

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs accounted for 820 billion dollars in costs related to crime, lost work productivity, and health care

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs accounted for 820 billion dollars in costs related to crime, lost work productivity, and health care services. Nearly 20 million Americans suffer from substance misuse, but only 3.7 million received treatment. Of those who receive treatment, the risk of relapse is high, ranging from 40-60% within a year of treatment. Improvement in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) is necessary to improve the health of our society.

Current literature demonstrates that individualized recovery plans and follow-up care are effective in reducing relapse and readmission. Costs to the individual, institution, and healthcare system can be reduced. This project aimed to decrease the risk for relapse and readmission with recovery plan reviews at 72hrs, and two-weeks, post-discharge. The risk of relapse was measured by the Time-To-Relapse questionnaire and the UCLA loneliness scale. The project took place in a residential treatment facility in Phoenix, Arizona. There were five participants initially; two were lost at the two-week follow-up. Pre and post-test results were compared to measure potential predictability of relapse. The two-tailed paired samples t-test was performed to compare the means of the scores but yielded insignificant results.

All participants maintained sobriety. Qualitative data via interview showed positive results demonstrated by statements from the participants. Recovery plan review with follow-up care is a promising evidence-based practice that can be implemented to help individuals maintain sobriety. Additional research is recommended to examine further the impact on the maintenance of sobriety over time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05-03

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A Trauma-Informed Intervention Using Mindfulness to Improve Early Childhood Classroom Environments.

Description

Research has shown adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have a lifelong negative impact on a person’s physical, mental, and social well-being. ACEs refer to experiences related to abuse, household challenges, or

Research has shown adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have a lifelong negative impact on a person’s physical, mental, and social well-being. ACEs refer to experiences related to abuse, household challenges, or neglect that occur before the age of 18. Some of the effects of ACEs include anxiety, depression, increased stress, increase in high-risk behaviors, and early death. Mindfulness practices have been shown to be an effective tool in reducing some of these symptoms. In looking for ways to prevent or mitigate the effects of ACEs, it is important to provide tools and resources to the adults taking care of children including; parents, guardians, and teachers.

The purpose of this evidence based project (EBP) was to evaluate mindfulness and classroom environments after the implementation of a mindfulness intervention. The intervention consisted of a three day training followed by four weeks of mindfulness practice prior to beginning the school day. Ten preschool and Early Head Start teachers from seven classrooms at a school in inner city Phoenix participated in the project. Utilizing the Five Factors Mindfulness Questionnaire pre and post intervention, a paired sample t-test showed a significant increase in two factors of mindfulness. The CLASS tool was used to assess classroom environment pre and post intervention and showed significant improvement in five classes. These findings support ongoing mindfulness training and practice for preschool and Early Head Start teachers to improve classroom environments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05-01

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Obesity in Adults on Antidepressant Therapy

Description

In the United States obesity continues to be a growing issue in the adult population, which is compounded by the fact that many people have had antidepressant therapy at some

In the United States obesity continues to be a growing issue in the adult population, which is compounded by the fact that many people have had antidepressant therapy at some point in their lives. Health problems such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, skeleton/joint issues and more can stem from obesity. These comorbid health care problems can increase the costs at the state and federal levels. This paper will examine obesity and its relation to antidepressant therapy in depressed adults that are obese or endeavoring to avoid further weight gain. Research indicates that antidepressant therapies have shown a greater propensity towards weight gain, though few research studies show weight loss.

Intervention: 10 minutes of nutritional counseling during office visits. Setting: Family psychiatric clinic in the southwest of the United States.

Methods: Data collection process: Depressed adults on antidepressant therapies were randomly selected.

Instrumentation: Weight scale, National Literacy Scale, pamphlet (for teaching) and height scale. Data collected was at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks.

Outcomes: 14 Participants agreed to the project, 10 completed to the 4-week mark and 4 finished the project to the 8-week mark. 10 female participants and 4 male participants. The remaining 4 participants showed 1.6% reduction in body mass index, which correlated with an increase in nutritional learning from baseline to 8-weeks.

Recommendations: Nutritional counseling is a non-pharmacological intervention for achieving and a desired weight, which has shown positive results in varying populations and clinical situations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05-07

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Nursing Interventions for Supporting Individuals with OCD in Acute Care Settings

Description

This thesis highlights the impact that nursing and collaborative care can have for patients in the acute care setting who have a mental illness, with a specific focus on Obsessive-Compulsive

This thesis highlights the impact that nursing and collaborative care can have for patients in the acute care setting who have a mental illness, with a specific focus on Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and related disorders. Holistic care for patients admitted into the acute care setting with a comorbidity of OCD includes exploration of nursing interventions and collaborative therapies, namely journaling, mindfulness or meditation, breathing, self-help methods, exercise, massage, acupuncture or electroacupuncture, yoga, and nutrition. Each intervention was evaluated in the context of how a nurse can apply or facilitate the intervention in an acute care setting. Nurses and health professionals are encouraged to utilize these interventions and to be creative in their treatments, taking into consideration all aspects of a patient: mental, physical, and otherwise.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Reducing Polypharmacy with Mobile Apps Among Mental Health Patients

Description

Polypharmacy among psychiatric patients is a concerning trend. From 2007-2010, 58.2% of women and 41.8% of men reported taking five or more prescription drugs within the last 30 days (CDC,

Polypharmacy among psychiatric patients is a concerning trend. From 2007-2010, 58.2% of women and 41.8% of men reported taking five or more prescription drugs within the last 30 days (CDC, 2014). Negative outcomes include prescription drug abuse, side effects, interactions, treatment failure, patient dissatisfaction, and lack of treatment control. The associated practice challenges have led to the following PICOT question. In persons with mental health issues receiving care at an outpatient mental health clinic, does engaging in mindfulness practice versus no mindfulness practice change polypharmacy use over a 3-month period?

The project purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of Insight Timer mobile mindfulness app at helping patients self-manage distressing symptoms and reduce polypharmacy. Over three weeks, mental health clinic nurse practitioners (NPs) voluntarily recruited patients (n=12) over age 18 using as needed prescriptions (PRNs), and agreed to use Insight Timer mobile mindfulness app for adjunct symptom management. Consenting participants downloaded the mobile app, and completed a brief questionnaire measuring PRN use at the start of app use, and PRN use at their next visit. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated a 10-week mindfulness app trial did not significantly lower total PRN doses compared with pre-app dosing (Z = -.534, p = .593). Paired t-tests revealed no significant change in pre (M = 65.17, SD = 28.64) versus post (M = 67.75, SD = 20.22) OQ45 life functionality results (t(11) = -.420, p = .683) (d = .121) as a result of app use.

Clinically relevant results illustrated 83.33% of participants taking greater than nine PRN doses over the study period used the app six times or more in place of medication. High PRN users employed the app frequently in place of medication regardless of total PRN doses taken. Practice implications and sustainability recommendations include incorporating mobile app use in treatment plans for high PRN users and educating NP’s on the tangible benefits of mindfulness apps in reducing polypharmacy and easing symptom distress on an ongoing basis.
Keywords: mindfulness, mhealth, mobile apps, mobile smart phone, online, RCT, behavior change, polypharmacy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-04-29

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Adolescent Aggression and Restrictive Interventions

Description

Seclusion and restraint are restrictive interventions that continue to be used in both physical care and mental health care settings as a means of controlling dangerous behavior such as aggression.

Seclusion and restraint are restrictive interventions that continue to be used in both physical care and mental health care settings as a means of controlling dangerous behavior such as aggression. Restrictive interventions place patients and healthcare staff in hostile situations that can lead to physical, mental, and emotional injuries that can last a lifetime. Unfortunately, restrictive interventions continue to be used in many healthcare organizations around the world and the number of patient and staff injuries continue to rise. Stakeholders at a Phoenix area psychiatric inpatient hospital conducted an internal audit on the number of seclusion and restraint episodes in 2019, which revealed an increase in the number of seclusion and restraints episodes on the adolescent unit.

The result of this audit led to the project question: For nurses on an acute adolescent inpatient unit, is a seclusion and restraint education program more effective than usual
practice in changing the knowledge and attitude regarding seclusion and restraint? The purpose of this practice change project was to provide staff education that focused on trauma informed care, de-escalation techniques, and therapeutic communication to improve staff confidence to ultimately lead to the reduction of seclusion and restraint use on an adolescent inpatient unit. A
pre and posttest questionnaire designed to better understand nurse attitude and knowledge regarding restrictive interventions prior to the education session was provided. A convenience sample of nurses (N=9) participated in the project. The findings from the pre and posttest questionnaire suggest that seclusion and restraint education for nurses may improve nurse knowledge and attitude regarding the use of restrictive interventions and reduce rates of use.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-04-21

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Implementing a Safety Plan and Using Follow-up Postcards to Mitigate Suicide Risk in Patients in the Emergency Department

Description

Suicide has become a national concern due to the increasing rates across the country. The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention aims to improve the area of clinical prevention. Emergency

Suicide has become a national concern due to the increasing rates across the country. The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention aims to improve the area of clinical prevention. Emergency departments (ED) play a key role in addressing this effort as they have multiple opportunities to connect with patients who are at risk. There exists a high-risk period of time immediately following a patient’s discharge from emergency care. To address this period of concern, a review of the literature was conducted on the effectiveness of follow-up contacts as a means to prevent suicide and suicide related attempts in this at-risk population.

Based on this review, a follow-up intervention was proposed to increase patients’ social support and knowledge on suicide prevention through a safety plan and the use of caring postcards. The aim was to evaluate the degree to which implementation of a safety plan and follow-up using postcards reduces suicide risk in the ED. ED suicide prevention practices such as safety planning and caring contacts with postcards have shown to be feasible and cost-effective methods to reduce patients’ risk of suicide as they provide education and address the high-risk period of time after discharge.

Using a quasi-experimental pre and post-test design, English speaking adults 18 years of age and older, admitted to an ED in the Phoenix Metropolitan area with suicidal ideation, were voluntarily recruited for two weeks. The self-rated Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) was used as a baseline assessment along with the introduction of a safety plan. Participants were then followed with the receipt of postcards with caring messages over a two-week period, and a final SBQ-R. The SBQ-R has shown beneficial reliability and validity measuring suicidality in the adult population. Data from the pre-SBQ-R was analyzed using descriptive statistics as no post-SBQ-Rs were received. Outcomes for this project included a reduction in suicidal ideation and suicide risk.

This project provides insight into the implementation of a safety plan and follow-up intervention in the ED and their attempts to reduce acute suicide risk as well as highlight the value that post-ED support provides.

Keywords: suicide, prevention, safety plan, caring messages, postcards, emergency department, follow-up, contacts, brief intervention

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-04-29

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Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Implementation in the Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Setting

Description

Background: The cost of substance use (SU) in the United States (U.S.) is estimated at $1.25 trillion annually. SU is a worldwide health concern, impacting physical and psychological health of

Background: The cost of substance use (SU) in the United States (U.S.) is estimated at $1.25 trillion annually. SU is a worldwide health concern, impacting physical and psychological health of those who use substances, their friends, family members, communities and nations. Screening, Brief Intervention (BI) and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) provides an evidence-based (EB) framework to detect and treat SU. Evidence shows that mental health (MH) providers are not providing EB SU management. Federally grant-funded SBIRT demonstrated evidence of decreased SU and prevention of full disorders. Implementation outcomes in smaller-scale projects have included increased clinician knowledge, documentation and interdisciplinary teamwork.

Objective: To improve quality of care (QOC) for adolescents who use substances in the inpatient psychiatric setting by implementing EB SBIRT practices.

Methods: Research questions focused on whether the number of SBIRT notes documented (N=170 charts) increased and whether training of the interdisciplinary team (N=26 clinicians) increased SBIRT knowledge. Individualized interventions used existing processes, training and a new SBIRT Note template. An SBIRT knowledge survey was adapted from a similar study. A pre-and post-chart audit was conducted to show increase in SBIRT documentation. The rationale for the latter was not only for compliance, but also so that all team members can know the status of SBIRT services. Thus, increased interdisciplinary teamwork was an intentional, though indirect, outcome.

Results: A paired-samples t-test indicated clinician SBIRT knowledge significantly increased, with a large effect size. The results suggest that a short, 45-60-minute tailored education module can significantly increase clinician SBIRT knowledge. Auditing screening & BI notes both before and after the study period yielded important patient SU information and which types of SBIRT documentation increased post-implementation. The CRAFFT scores of the patients were quite high from a SU perspective, averaging over 3/6 both pre- and post-implementation, revealing over an 80% chance that the adolescent patient had a SU disorder. Most patients were positive for at least one substance (pre- = 47.1%; post- = 65.2%), with cannabis and alcohol being the most commonly used substances. Completed CRAFFT screenings increased from 62.5% to 72.7% of audited patients. Post-implementation, there were two types of BI notes: the preexisting Progress Note BI (PN BI) and the new Auto-Text BI (AT BI), part of the new SBIRT Note template introduced during implementation. The PN BIs not completed despite a positive screen increased from 79.6% to 83.7%. PN BIs increased 1%. The option for AT BI notes ameliorated this effect. Total BI notes completed for a patient positive for a substance increased from 20.4% to 32.6%, with 67.4% not receiving a documented BI. Total BIs completed for all patients was 21.2% post-implementation.

Conclusion: This project is scalable throughout the U.S. in MH settings and will provide crucial knowledge about positive and negative drivers in small-scale SBIRT implementations. The role of registered nurses (RNs), social workers and psychiatrists in providing SBIRT services as an interdisciplinary team will be enhanced. Likely conclusions are that short trainings can significantly increase clinician knowledge about SBIRT and compliance with standards. Consistent with prior evidence, significant management involvement, SBIRT champions, thought leaders and other consistent emphasis is necessary to continue improving SBIRT practice in the target setting.

Keywords: adolescents, teenagers, youth, alcohol, behavioral health, cannabis, crisis, documentation, drug use, epidemic, high-risk use, illicit drugs, implementation, mental health, opiates, opioid, pilot study, psychiatric inpatient hospital, quality improvement, SBIRT, Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment, substance use, unhealthy alcohol use, use disorders

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05-02

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Improving Metabolic Monitoring for Children Prescribed Second-Generation Antipsychotics

Description

The number of children taking second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) is increasing. While SGAs produce fewer neurological side effects, the metabolic side effects of SGAs increase the risk for future cardiometabolic disease.

The number of children taking second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) is increasing. While SGAs produce fewer neurological side effects, the metabolic side effects of SGAs increase the risk for future cardiometabolic disease. In 2011, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry endorsed following guidelines established in 2004 recommending that people taking SGAs receive regular metabolic screening including waist circumference measurement, fasting blood glucose, and fasting lipids. Despite recommendations, studies have shown that children do not receive routine metabolic monitoring. Provider attitudes toward following guidelines can influence the rates of monitoring.

Research suggests that monitoring rates improve after psychiatric providers receive educational programs on SGA use and recommended guidelines. In response to these findings, an evidence-based educational intervention discussing SGA use in children and recommended metabolic monitoring was proposed to increase the rates of metabolic monitoring in a community-based psychiatric practice that treats children. While no results were statistically significant, the average attitude score of providers toward following guidelines was higher post-education and the proportion of providers who ordered screening tests post-education increased. To further improve metabolic monitoring, it is recommended that interventions designed to increase the subjective norms and perceived behavioral control of providers be implemented. The main limitations of this project were the small sample size and the use of self-reports to assess provider ordering of screening tests.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-04-21