Matching Items (11)

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Use of cleavable fluorescent antibodies for highly multiplexed single cell in situ protein analysis

Description

The ability to profile proteins allows us to gain a deeper understanding of organization, regulation, and function of different biological systems. Many technologies are currently being used in order to

The ability to profile proteins allows us to gain a deeper understanding of organization, regulation, and function of different biological systems. Many technologies are currently being used in order to accurately perform the protein profiling. Some of these technologies include mass spectrometry, microarray based analysis, and fluorescence microscopy. Deeper analysis of these technologies have demonstrated limitations which have taken away from either the efficiency or the accuracy of the results. The objective of this project was to develop a technology in which highly multiplexed single cell in situ protein analysis can be completed in a comprehensive manner without the loss of the protein targets. This was accomplished in the span of 3 steps which is referred to as the immunofluorescence cycle. Antibodies with attached fluorophores with the help of novel azide-based cleavable linker are used to detect protein targets. Fluorescence imaging and data storage procedures are done on the targets and then the fluorophores are cleaved from the antibodies without the loss of the protein targets. Continuous cycles of the immunofluorescence procedure can help create a comprehensive and quantitative profile of the protein. The development of such a technique will not only help us understand biological systems such as solid tumor, brain tissues, and developing embryos. But it will also play a role in real-world applications such as signaling network analysis, molecular diagnosis and cellular targeted therapies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

Highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis with biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides

Description

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides, a highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis is reported. In this report, azide-based cleavable linker connects oligonucleotides to fluorophores to show nucleic acids through in situ hybridization. Post-imaging, the fluorophores are effectively cleaved off in half an hour without loss of RNA or DNA integrity. Through multiple cycles of hybridization, imaging, and cleavage this approach proves to quantify thousands of different RNA species or genomic loci because of single-molecule sensitivity in single cells in situ. Different nucleic acids can be imaged by shown by multi-color staining in each hybridization cycle, and that multiple hybridization cycles can be run on the same specimen. It is shown that in situ analysis of DNA, RNA and protein can be accomplished using both cleavable fluorescent antibodies and oligonucleotides. The highly multiplexed imaging platforms will have the potential for wide applications in both systems biology and biomedical research. Thus, proving to be cost effective and time effective.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA analysis by reiterative hybridization

Description

Currently, quantification of single cell RNA species in their natural contexts is restricted due to the little number of parallel analysis. Through this, we identify a method to increase the

Currently, quantification of single cell RNA species in their natural contexts is restricted due to the little number of parallel analysis. Through this, we identify a method to increase the multiplexing capacity of RNA analysis for single cells in situ. Initially, RNA transcripts are found by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Once imaging and data storage is completed, the fluorescence signal is detached through photobleaching. By doing so, the FISH is reinitiated to detect other RNA species residing in the same cell. After reiterative cycles of hybridization, imaging and photobleaching, the identities, positions and copy numbers of a huge amount of varied RNA species can be computed in individual cells in situ. Through this approach, we have evaluated seven different transcripts in single HeLa cells with five reiterative RNA FISH cycles. This method has the ability to detect over 100 varied RNA species in single cells in situ, which can be further applied in studies of systems biology, molecular diagnosis and targeted therapies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

Multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA analysis by reiterative hybridization

Description

Most current approaches for quantification of RNA species in their natural spatial contexts in single cells are limited by a small number of parallel analyses. Here we report a strategy

Most current approaches for quantification of RNA species in their natural spatial contexts in single cells are limited by a small number of parallel analyses. Here we report a strategy to dramatically increase the multiplexing capacity for RNA analysis in single cells in situ. In this method, transcripts are detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After imaging and data storage, the fluorescence signal is efficiently removed by photobleaching. This enables the reinitiation of FISH to detect other RNA species in the same cell. Through reiterative cycles of hybridization, imaging and photobleaching, the identities, positions and copy numbers of a large number of varied RNA species can be quantified in individual cells in situ. Using this approach, we analyzed seven different transcripts in single HeLa cells with five reiterative RNA FISH cycles. This approach has the potential to detect over 100 varied RNA species in single cells in situ, which will have wide applications in studies of systems biology, molecular diagnosis and targeted therapies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-29

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Structure and Biophysical Studies of Proteins Involved in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Description

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease occurs when triglycerides are stored in the liver leading to irreversible scarring and damage of liver tissue. Inside the liver, adipose triglyceride lipase is responsible for

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease occurs when triglycerides are stored in the liver leading to irreversible scarring and damage of liver tissue. Inside the liver, adipose triglyceride lipase is responsible for the breaking down of triglycerides and is regulated by the inhibitor g0/g1 switch gene 2 (G0S2). G0S2 is proposed to be one of the targets against drug design for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and more information is needed on the structure of this protein to aid in drug discovery. Here I describe the expression of G0S2 in an E. coli system as well as purification and biophysical characterization of a functional G0S2 in amounts viable for solution state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Initial spectra of the isotopically labeled protein show well dispersed 15N resonance lines, clean 13C resonances, and dominant a-helices characteristics. These results show that a prepared G0S2 construct is suitable for solution NMR such that 20 amino acids are now assigned in the G0S2 portion of the protein, allowing for further NMR work with this protein for structural discovery. Further work with a large oligomeric complex of G0S2 with Maltose Binding Protein also shows promise for future cryo-EM work.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Identifying and Characterizing Type 1 and Type 2 Eosinophil Subtypes

Description

Eosinophils are innate immune cells that are most commonly associated with parasite infection and allergic responses. Recent studies, though, have identified eosinophils as cells with diverse effector functions at baseline

Eosinophils are innate immune cells that are most commonly associated with parasite infection and allergic responses. Recent studies, though, have identified eosinophils as cells with diverse effector functions at baseline and in disease. Eosinophils in specific tissue immune environments are proposed to promote unique and specific effector functions, suggesting these cells have the capacity to differentiate into unique subtypes. The studies here focus on defining these subtypes using functional, molecular, and genetic analysis as well as using novel techniques to image these subtypes in situ.

To characterized these subtypes, an in vitro cytokine induced type 1 (E1) and type 2 (E2) eosinophil model was developed that display features and functions of eosinophils found in vivo. For example, E1 eosinophils secrete type 1 mediators (e.g., IL-12, CXCL9 and CXCL10), express iNOS and express increased levels of the surface molecules PDL1 and MHC-I. Conversely, E2 eosinophils release type 2 mediators (e.g., IL4, IL13, CCL17, and CCL22), degranulate and express increased surface molecules CD11b, ST2 and Siglec-F. Completion of differential expression analysis of RNAseq on these subtypes revealed 500 and 655 unique genes were upregulated in E1 and E2 eosinophils, respectively. Functional enrichment studies showed interferon regulatory factor (IRF) transcription factors were uniquely regulated in both mouse and human E1 and E2 eosinophils. These subtypes are sensitive to their environment, modulating their IRF and cell surface expression when stimulated with opposing cytokines, suggesting plasticity.

To identify and study these subtypes in situ, chromogenic and fluorescent eosinophil-specific immunostaining protocols were developed. Methods were created and optimized, here, to identify eosinophils by their granule proteins in formalin fixed mouse tissues. Yet, eosinophil-specific antibodies alone are not enough to identify and study the complex interactions eosinophil subtypes perform within a tissue. Therefore, as part of this thesis, a novel highly-multiplexed immunohistochemistry technique was developed utilizing cleavable linkers to address these concerns. This technique is capable of analyzing up to 22 markers within a single biopsy with single-cell resolution. With this approach, eosinophil subtypes can be studied in situ in routine patient biopsies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Charge sensitive and label-free detection of molecules

Description

Quantifying molecular interactions is pivotal for understanding biological processes at molecular scale and for screening drugs. Although various detection technologies have been developed, it is still challenging to quantify the

Quantifying molecular interactions is pivotal for understanding biological processes at molecular scale and for screening drugs. Although various detection technologies have been developed, it is still challenging to quantify the binding kinetics of small molecules because the sensitivities of the mainstream technologies scale down with the size of the molecule. To address this problem, two different optical detection methods, charge sensitive optical detection (CSOD) and virion
ano-oscillators, are developed to measure the binding-induced charge change instead of the mass change, which enables quantification of the binding kinetics for both large and small molecules.

In particular, the nano-oscillator approach provides a unique capability to image individual nanoparticles and measure the size and charge of each nanoparticle simultaneously. This approach is applied to measure one of the smallest biological particles - single protein molecules. By tracking the oscillation of each protein molecule, the size, charge, and mobility are measured in real-time with high precision. This capability also allows to monitor the conformation and charge changes of single protein molecules upon ligand binding. Measuring the size and charge of single proteins opens a new revenue to protein analysis and disease biomarker detection at the single molecule level.

The virion
ano-oscillators and the single protein approach employ a scheme where a particle is tethered to the surface with a polymer molecule. The dynamics of the particle is governed by two important forces: One is entropic force arising from the conformational change of the molecular tether, and the other is solvent damping on the particle and the molecule. The dynamics is studied by varying the type of the tether molecule, size of the particle, and viscosity of the solvent. The findings provide insights into single molecule studies using not only tethered particles, but also other approaches, including force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy and nanopores.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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An integrated microarray printing and detection system to study protein-protein interactions

Description

In this thesis, a breadboard Integrated Microarray Printing and Detection System (IMPDS) was proposed to address key limitations of traditional microarrays. IMPDS integrated two core components of a high-resolution surface

In this thesis, a breadboard Integrated Microarray Printing and Detection System (IMPDS) was proposed to address key limitations of traditional microarrays. IMPDS integrated two core components of a high-resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) system and a piezoelectric dispensing system that can print ultra-low volume droplets. To avoid evaporation of droplets in the microarray, a 100 μm thick oil layer (dodecane) was used to cover the chip surface. The interaction between BSA (Bovine serum albumin) and Anti-BSA was used to evaluate the capability of IMPDS. The alignment variability of printing, stability of droplets array and quantification of protein-protein interactions based on nanodroplet array were evaluated through a 10 x 10 microarray on SPR sensor chip. Binding kinetic constants obtained from IMPDS are close with results from commercial SPR setup (BI-3000), which indicates that IMPDS is capable to measure kinetic constants accurately. The IMPDS setup has following advantages: 1) nanoliter scale sample consumption, 2) high-throughput detection with real-time kinetic information for biomolecular interactions, 3) real-time information during printing and spot-on-spot detection of biomolecular interactions 4) flexible selection of probes and receptors (M x N interactions). Since IMPDS studies biomolecular interactions with low cost and high flexibility in real-time manner, it has great potential in applications such as drug discovery, food safety and disease diagnostics, etc.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Highly multiplexed single cell in situ transcriptomic analysis

Description

Spatial resolved detection and quantification of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules in single cell is crucial for the understanding of inherent biological issues, like mechanism of gene regulation or the development

Spatial resolved detection and quantification of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules in single cell is crucial for the understanding of inherent biological issues, like mechanism of gene regulation or the development and maintenance of cell fate. Conventional methods for single cell RNA profiling, like single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) or single-molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH), suffer either from the loss of spatial information or the low detection throughput. In order to advance single-cell analysis, new approaches need to be developed with the ability to perform high-throughput detection while preserving spatial information of the subcellular location of target RNA molecules.

Novel approaches for highly multiplexed single cell in situ transcriptomic analysis were developed by our group to enable single-cell comprehensive RNA profiling in their native spatial contexts. Reiterative FISH was demonstrated to be able to detect >100 RNA species in single cell in situ, while more sophisticated approaches, consecutive FISH (C-FISH) and switchable fluorescent oligonucleotide based FISH (SFO-FISH), have the potential for whole transcriptome profiling at the single molecule sensitivity. The introduction of a cleavable fluorescent tyramide even enables sensitive RNA profiling in intact tissues with high throughput. These approaches will have wide applications in studies of systems biology, molecular diagnosis and targeted therapies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Highly Multiplexed Single Cell in situ Protein Analysis with Cleavable Fluorescent Probes

Description

Measurements of different molecular species from single cells have the potential to reveal cell-to-cell variations, which are precluded by population-based measurements. An increasing percentage of researches have been focused on

Measurements of different molecular species from single cells have the potential to reveal cell-to-cell variations, which are precluded by population-based measurements. An increasing percentage of researches have been focused on proteins, for its central roles in biological processes. Immunofluorescence (IF) has been a well-established protein analysis platform. To gain comprehensive insights into cell biology and diagnostic pathology, a crucial direction would be to increase the multiplexity of current single cell protein analysis technologies.

An azide-based chemical cleavable linker has been introduced to design and synthesis novel fluorescent probes. These probes allow cyclic immunofluorescence staining which leads to the feasibility of highly multiplexed single cell in situ protein profiling. These highly multiplexed imaging-based platforms have the potential to quantify more than 100 protein targets in cultured cells and more than 50 protein targets in single cells in tissues.

This approach has been successfully applied in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain tissues. Multiplexed protein expression level results reveal neuronal heterogeneity in the human hippocampus.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019