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The Effects of Sleep on Bone Mineral Density in College-Aged Males and Females

Description

Sleep is imperative for health and wellness with direct impacts on brain function, physiology, emotional well-being, performance and safety when compromised. Adolescents and young adults are increasingly affected by factors

Sleep is imperative for health and wellness with direct impacts on brain function, physiology, emotional well-being, performance and safety when compromised. Adolescents and young adults are increasingly affected by factors affecting the maintenance of regular sleep schedules. College and university students are a potentially vulnerable population to sleep deprivation and sleep insufficiency. Possible factors that could contribute to poor sleep hygiene include, but are not limited to, academic pressures, social activities, and increased screen time. Arguably, students are still experiencing bone mineralization, until the age of 30 or even 40 years old, which makes it more important to understand the effects that altered sleep patterns could have on continued development of bone health. It is our understanding that to date, studies assessing the risk of sleep insufficiency on bone mineral density in college students have not been conducted. We hypothesized that college-aged students, between the ages of 18-25 years, with shorter sleep durations, greater sleep schedule variability, and poorer sleep environments will have significantly lower bone mineral density. ActiGraph monitoring, via a wrist ActiWatch was used to quantitatively measure sleep habits for up to 7 consecutive days. During the week-long study participants also captured their self-reported sleep data through the use of a sleep diary. Participants were measured one time within the study for bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total hip through a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. This was a preliminary analysis of a larger cross-sectional analysis looked at 17 participants, of which there were 14 females and 3 males, (n=5, 1 and 11 Hispanic, Black and White, respectively). The mean age of participants was 20.8±1.7 y with an average BMI of 22.9±3.2 kg/m2. ActiWatch measurement data showed a mean daily sleep duration of participants to be 437.5 ± 43.1 (372.5 – 509.4) minutes. Mean sleep efficiency (minutes of sleep divided by minutes of time in bed) and mean number of awakenings were 87.4±4.3 (75.4-93.4) minutes and 32.1±6.4 (22.3-42.7) awakenings, respectively. The median time for wake after sleep onset (WASO) was 34.5±10.5 (18.3-67.4) minutes. The mean bone mineral density (BMD) for the hips was 1.06±0.14 (0.81-1.28) g/cm2 with a mean BMD of the lumbar spine being 1.24±0.12 (0.92-1.43) g/cm2. Age-matched Z-scores of the hips was 0.31±0.96 (-1.6-2.1) and lumbar spine was 0.53 (IQR: 0.13, 0.98; -2.25-1.55). Neither sleep duration nor sleep efficiency was significantly correlated to BMD of either locations. While WASO was positively associated with hip and spine BMD, this value was not statistically significant in this population. Overall, associations between sleep and BMD of the femur and spine were not seen in this cohort. Further work utilizing a larger cohort will allow for control of covariates while looking for potential associations between bone health, sleep duration and efficiency.

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  • 2017-05

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The Effects of Turmeric on Breath Hydrogen Emission and Small Bowel Transit Time

Description

Turmeric, scientifically known as Curcuma longa, is a tropical plant that is most often consumed in India.1 The rhizome of the plant is dried and then ground into a fine,

Turmeric, scientifically known as Curcuma longa, is a tropical plant that is most often consumed in India.1 The rhizome of the plant is dried and then ground into a fine, vibrant yellow powder. In addition to its function as a spice, turmeric is also used in traditional Ayervedic medicine due to its unique medical properties. These unique properties are attributed to the three major constituents of turmeric: curcumin, α-isocurcumin, and β-isocurcumin.2 Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane; C21H20O6), makes up 5% of turmeric by weight, and is the most prominent active ingredient within the turmeric root. Perhaps the most intriguing characteristic about curcumin is its ability to modulate targets such as, but not limited to, transcription factors, enzymes, apoptosis genes, and growth factors.1 Modern medical research has determined curcumin to be a viable treatment and prevention method for disease such as type II diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, liver cirrhosis, and certain cancers. However, research on turmeric’s effects on gastrointestinal health is significantly lacking. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial looked to see if supplemental turmeric (500 mg as dried root powder) would significantly raise breath hydrogen emission (BHE) and reduce small bowel transit time (SBTT) in 8 female adults who were suffering from chronic constipation. Although supplemental turmeric did not significantly impact BHE or SBTT, the number of bowel movements greatly increased during turmeric intervention.

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  • 2016-12

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Development of a Clinically Relevant Brochure About the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative

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The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was created in 1991 with the goal to provide support and education to mothers on breastfeeding in order to increase the rate and duration

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was created in 1991 with the goal to provide support and education to mothers on breastfeeding in order to increase the rate and duration of breastfeeding across the world. Despite being around for over 20 years, it has only been successfully incorporated into 245 hospitals in the United States as of 2015. Due to the many benefits this initiative brings to mothers, infants, and the hospitals themselves as well as being shown to increase the incidence, duration, and exclusivity of breastfeeding, the goal of this project was to create a mother friendly brochure sharing this. The brochure was created in order to spread the word of the BFHI to expecting mothers so that they are informed and able to use this information to not only improve their own child-birthing experience but also push for implementation in their delivering facilities. The brochure covers additional topics such as breastfeeding benefits and tips, lactation resources, and steps to incorporate into their own hospital stay if outside of a BFHI facility in order to get a few of the benefits that the Baby Friendly Initiative provides. The brochure was tested for clarity, effectiveness, and for overall reactions in a study conducted at a local women's clinic surveying expectant mothers through the use of a short survey. These results were used to make minor improvements to the brochure before moving on to plans of how to disseminate the brochure to more clinics within the Phoenix area. The dissemination of this brochure will share this important information with women of childbearing age and hopefully lead to greater knowledge and progress towards improved maternal and neonatal outcomes.

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  • 2015-05

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Evaluating Changes in the Gut Microbial Composition, Diet, and Overall Health in Children in the Nutrition and Health Awareness Program

Description

In the United States, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased to 17% in the general population and even more so in the Hispanic pediatric population to 22.4%. These children

In the United States, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased to 17% in the general population and even more so in the Hispanic pediatric population to 22.4%. These children are at a higher risk for associated comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. The purpose of the following study is to determine the effectiveness of the Nutrition and Health Awareness curriculum at reducing childhood obesity by evaluating alterations in the gut microbial composition, diet, and overall health of the students throughout the five-week program. Nutrition and Health Awareness (NHA) is a student organization that strives to reduce the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, specifically in children, by providing active nutrition education services through peer mentoring in elementary schools and community programs. This study went through ASU's Institutional Review Board process and all forms were translated into Spanish. The control group maintained their normal routines and the experimental group received the 5 week NHA program and then continued with their normal routines. Anthropometric measures (Body Mass Index, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure), diet measures (Hispanic food frequency questionnaire), fecal swabs, and content surveys were collected on weeks 0, 5, and 8. Contrary to expected, alpha diversity, kilocalorie intake, and macronutrient intake decreased as the study progressed for both the control and experimental groups. Anthropometric measurements were relatively stable. Though not statistically significant, the greatest difference in time points is between weeks 1 and 8. This decrease in alpha diversity and kilocalorie intake could be due to a change in environment since the children started school on week 8. Future implications of this study are that parental involvement is necessary for an effective, sustainable change in these children. More research in different settings is necessary to determine NHA's effectiveness

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Turmeric Effects on Serum Lipid Concentration

Description

Turmeric is the bright yellow root that has been used as a spice, healing remedy, and textile dye. Previous studies have suggested that the most active ingredient in turmeric, curcumin,

Turmeric is the bright yellow root that has been used as a spice, healing remedy, and textile dye. Previous studies have suggested that the most active ingredient in turmeric, curcumin, could reduce serum cholesterol concentration. However, most of these studies were conducted on animals and not many have been done on controlled human trials. This randomized, double-blinded, controlled crossover study evaluates the effects of turmeric on blood cholesterol concentrations including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HLD cholesterol, and triglycerides. In this study, eight healthy participants between the ages of 18 and 45 were randomized to receive either 500mg capsules of turmeric or placebo for a period of three weeks. Following a wash-out period of five weeks, all participants were crossed over to the alternative treatment for another three weeks. After comparing the 3 week treatment and placebo phases, turmeric showed no significant effect on serum lipid concentrations. Furthermore, a slight increase in total cholesterol concentrations was observed following the turmeric phase when compared to the placebo phase.

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  • 2016-05

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Stress, Depression, and Sleep Among College Students

Description

There has been a rise in the prevalence of mental health disorders among western industrialized populations.1 By 2020, depression will be second to heart disease in its contribution to the

There has been a rise in the prevalence of mental health disorders among western industrialized populations.1 By 2020, depression will be second to heart disease in its contribution to the global burden of disease as measured by disability-adjusted life years.2 Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting 40 million adults in the United States ages 18 and older, or 18.1% of the U.S population every year.3
Mental disorders are prevalent in young adults and frequently present between 12-24 years of age.4 The top five sources of stress reported by college students were changes in sleeping routines, changes in eating habits, increased amount of work, new responsibilities, and breaks/vacations.5 Overall, a total of 73% of college students report occasional difficulties sleeping, and 48% of students suffer from sleep deprivation, as self-reported.6,7
Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and sleep may influence symptoms related to stress and depression.8 Symptoms of depression include but are not limited to, persistent anxious or sad moods, feeling guilty or helpless, loss of interest in hobbies, irritability, and other behaviors that may interrupt daily living.9 Inadequate intake of folic acid from fruits and vegetables, and essential fatty acids in fish, may increase symptoms of depression.10 Unhealthy eating habits may be associated with increases in depression-like symptoms in women, supporting the notion that healthier eating habits may decrease major depression.11 Diet is only one component of how lifestyle may influence depression and stress in adults. Exercise may be another important component in decreasing depression-related symptoms due to the release of endorphins.12 It has been found that participating in regular physical activity may decrease tension levels, increase and stabilize mood, improve self-esteem, and lead to better sleeping patterns.13 It has been concluded that individuals who consume a healthy diet are less likely to experience depression whereas people eating unhealthy and processed diets are more likely to be depressed.14
Poor sleep quality as well as unstable sleeping patterns may lead to poor psychological and physical health.15 Poor sleep includes longer duration of sleep onset latency, which is defined as the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, waking up multiple times throughout the night, and not getting a restful sleep because of tossing and turning.16 In healthy adults, the short-term consequences of sleep disruption consist of somatic pain, emotional destress and mood disorders, reduced quality of life, and increased stress responsivity.17 Irregular sleep-wake patterns, defined as taking numerous naps within a 24 hour span and not having a main nighttime sleep experience, are present at alarming levels (more than a quarter) among college students.18 A study done with 2,000 college students concluded that more than a quarter of the students were at risk of a sleeping disorder.19 Therefore, college students who were classified as poor-quality sleepers, reported experiencing more psychological and physical health problems compared to their healthy counterparts. Perceived stress was also found to be a factor in lower sleep quality of young adults.20
The link between depression-like symptoms and sleep remains poorly understood. It is mentioned that there are risk factors of poor sleep, depression and anxiety among college students but this topic has not yet been heavily studied within this population.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Effects of Resistance Training on Vascular Health in Overweight Adults

Description

About 75% of men and 66.58% of women are considered overweight or obese (BMI ≥25). $117 billion dollars is spent each year in medical costs due to physical inactivity. Aerobic

About 75% of men and 66.58% of women are considered overweight or obese (BMI ≥25). $117 billion dollars is spent each year in medical costs due to physical inactivity. Aerobic exercise has been well defined in its’ benefits to cardiovascular health; however, the effects of resistance training are still not well defined. The purpose of this preliminary analysis was to evaluate the vascular health effects (central and peripheral blood pressure and VO2 max) of two different types of resistance training programs: high load, low repetitions resistance training and low load, high repetitions resistance training. Fourteen participants aged 18-55 years (6 males, 8 females) were involved in this preliminary analysis. Data were collected before and after the 12-week long exercise program (36 training sessions) via pulse wave analysis and VO2peak testing. Multivariate regression analysis of training program effects, while adjusting for body mass index and time, did not result in significant training effects on central and peripheral diastolic blood pressure, nor VO2peak. A statistical trend was observed between the different training programs for systolic blood pressure, suggesting that subjects partaking in the high load, low repetitions program exhibited higher systolic blood pressures than the low load, high repetitions group. With a larger sample size, the difference in systolic blood pressure may increase between training program groups and indicate that greater loads with minimal repetitions may increase lead to clinically significant elevations in blood pressure. Further work is needed to uncover the relationship between different types of resistance training and blood pressure, especially if these lifting regimens are continued for longer lengths of time.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Effects of urbanization on the nutritional physiology and gut microbiome of house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

Description

The natural habitat as well as the food abundance and food sources of avian species is changing due to urbanization, and such anthropocentric actions could lead to devastating impacts on

The natural habitat as well as the food abundance and food sources of avian species is changing due to urbanization, and such anthropocentric actions could lead to devastating impacts on bird populations. As changes in distribution and nutrition are thought to be related to the gut microbiome, the goal of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional markers, including body mass, gizzard mass, triglycerides, free glycerol and glycogen, and the gut microbiome in urban and rural house sparrows (Passer domesticus), to understand physiological differences between urban and rural house sparrows. We hypothesized that increased access to human refuse, through urbanization, may significantly alter the gut microbiome and thus, the nutritional physiology-the effects of foods on metabolism-of urban birds. Fecal samples were collected from rural (n=13) and urban (n=7) birds to characterize the gut microbiome and plasma samples were collected to measure nutritional markers using commercially available kits. Following euthanasia, liver samples were collected to measure triglycerides, free glycerol and glycogen. While there were no significant differences in circulating triglycerides or free glycerol between populations, urban birds had significantly greater blood glucose (p=0.046) compared to rural birds, when normalized to body mass. Additionally, rural birds had significantly more plasma uric acid (p=0.016) and liver free glycerol (p=0.044). Higher blood glucose suggests greater accessibility to carbohydrates in an urban setting or higher rates of gluconeogenesis. Uric acid is a byproduct of purine catabolism and a potent antioxidant. Thus, higher uric acid suggests that rural birds may utilize more protein for energy. Finally, higher liver free glycerol in rural birds suggests they metabolize more fat but could also indicate that urban birds have greater glycerol gluconeogenesis, which may consume free glycerol resulting in higher glucose concentrations. However, the current study does not provide evidence for this as there were no significant differences in the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK-C levels between urban and rural house sparrows (p= 0.165). While triglyceride, glucose, and uric acid levels differed between urban and rural birds, there were additionally no significant differences in the gut microbiome, indicating that although nutritional physiology can be affected by distribution and varying food availability and sources, differences in the gut microbiome are evident at the phyla level.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Effect of sleep efficiency on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase biomarker in college students

Description

Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem that can occur in people of all ages. It can stem from poor bone health during childhood and adolescence. It hinders independent living,

Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem that can occur in people of all ages. It can stem from poor bone health during childhood and adolescence. It hinders independent living, impacts social living, reduces participation in physical activity, and increases risk of fractures and physical pain. In addition to age, gender, race, physical activity and diet, sleep is considered to be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis in both the young and elderly population. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker was measured to determine osteoporotic risk while an actigraphy device was used to measure sleep efficiency in college students. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels. Recognition of any association may help in understanding how sleep is related to bone health. Methods Twenty-seven participants were recruited with the use of flyers distributed on campus and in residential halls, social media, email, and student newsletters. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase biomarker was measured using human specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sleep data were collected from participants who wore ActiWatch for 7 days and completed a 7-night sleep diary. Linear and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate association between B-ALP (outcome) and sleep efficiency while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, race, gender). Results and Conclusions Overall, there was no significant association between sleep efficiency and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Gender, however, showed a significant influence on the levels of bone-alkaline phosphatase. This is supported by a study that found higher bone turnover marker in males than in females. The result from the study could be due to limitations such as small sample size. More participants may provide a better comparison or association between variables. Genetic factors are believed to influence the outcome of the study as genetics can influence rate of bone loss or formation. Findings may be beneficial for public health and policy initiatives and allow health / nutrition educators to more adequately encourage proper habits such as physical activity, healthy diet and sufficient sleep for good bone health.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Effects of Sleep Efficiency on Serum Osteocalcin in College-Aged Individuals

Description

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is most affected by osteoporosis, adolescents are the most proactive population in terms of prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and serum osteocalcin in college-aged individuals as a means of osteoporosis prevention. Thirty participants ages 18-25 years (22 females, 8 males) at Arizona State University were involved in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during one week via self-recorded sleep diaries, quantitative ActiWatch, DEXA imaging, and serum blood draws to measure the bone biomarker osteocalcin. Three participants were excluded from the study as outliers. The median (IQR) for osteocalcin measured by ELISA was 11.6 (9.7, 14.5) ng/mL. The average sleep efficiency measured by actigraphy was 88.3% ± 3.0%. Regression models of sleep efficiency and osteocalcin concentration were not statistically significant. While the addition of covariates helped explain more of the variation in serum osteocalcin concentration, the results remained insignificant. There was a trend between osteocalcin and age, suggesting that as age increases, osteocalcin decreases. This was a limited study, and further investigation regarding the relationship between sleep efficiency and osteocalcin is warranted.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05