Matching Items (15)

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A Civil War, a Sectarian War and a Proxy War: Problems of Negotiated Settlement in the Syrian Civil War

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This paper examines the Syrian Civil War using seven different civil war settlement theories in order to assess the likelihood of a negotiated settlement ending the conflict. The costs of

This paper examines the Syrian Civil War using seven different civil war settlement theories in order to assess the likelihood of a negotiated settlement ending the conflict. The costs of war, balance of power, domestic political institutions, ethnic identity, divisibility of stakes, veto player, and credible commitment theories were used in a multi-perspective analysis of the Syrian Civil War and the possibility of a peace settlement. It was found that all of the theories except for costs of war and balance of power predict that a negotiated settlement is unlikely to resolve the conflict. Although the Syrian government and the Syrian National Coalition are currently engaged in diplomatic negotiations through the Geneva II conference, both sides are unwilling to compromise on the underlying grievances driving the conflict. This paper ultimately highlights some of the problems inhibiting a negotiated settlement in the Syrian Civil War. These obstacles include: rival ethno-religious identities of combatants, lack of democratic institutions in Syria, indivisibility of stakes in which combatants are fighting for, number of veto player combatant groups active in Syria, and the lack of a credible third party to monitor and enforce a peace settlement.

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  • 2014-05

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Called to Serve Local and Global Communities: How Internationalization at Public Research Universities Differs with Varying Levels of Publicness

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Universities have played a key, but often understudied, role in international development throughtechnical assistance, the education of international students and the research of critical global issues (Morgan, 1979; BIFAD, 2011).

Universities have played a key, but often understudied, role in international development throughtechnical assistance, the education of international students and the research of critical global issues (Morgan, 1979; BIFAD, 2011). Understanding internationalization in higher education can help uncover nuances of the role that United States (U.S.) universities play in U.S. international development efforts. This paper seeks to answer: “How do internationalization activities differ in public research universities with varying levels of publicness?” The study follows multicase qualitative methodology and a framework from Horn et al. to collect data on 5 dimensions of internationalization, students, scholars, research orientation, curriculum content and organizational support, to compare internationalization at four U.S. public research universities with varying levels of state funding and state change (2007). Case selection is grounded on dimensional publicness theory to provide a theoretical foundation for the variables used: level of state appropriations and percent change of state appropriations. Through a purposeful case selection process, four U.S. public research intensive universities with similar size, endowment and research activity were selected. Results showed that all universities have internationalization efforts across all dimensions but nuances exist in how internationalization is actualized at institutions. Cases with low state funding differed noticeably in student and research characteristics but did not differ in curricular and organizational support. Differences across cases can be explained by an economic rationale for the need to subsidize state budget cuts with full- paying international students and increased research grants. Similarities can be explained by other non-economic rationales that may insulate curriculum and organizational support from budgetary costs. While results demonstrate a clear commitment to internationalization, further research will need to be conducted to determine if results hold true against a dramatic shift in world events since 2017 which include a rise in nationalism, a global pandemic and decrease global standing of the United States.

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Date Created
  • 2020

Evaluation of sustainability in development projects utilizing renewable energy products in Zimbabwe

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The problem concerning the access to energy has become an increasingly acute matter of concern in low-income areas. Currently an estimated 1.2 billion people don't have access to energy (IEA,

The problem concerning the access to energy has become an increasingly acute matter of concern in low-income areas. Currently an estimated 1.2 billion people don't have access to energy (IEA, 2014). Following the declaration of 2012 as "The International Year of Sustainable Energy for All" by the United Nations General Assembly (UNDP, 2014), this alarming situation of energy poverty has resulted in the creation of new partnerships between governments, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organization), and large multi-national corporations.

This study is focused on the evaluation of sustainability of a development project in Gutu, Zimbabwe that is initiated by Schneider Electric Corporation's BipBop Program. This program aims to provide access to energy via photo-voltaic cells and battery kits for daily use. It is expected that this project will have a high impact on sustainable development, and creation of value, which in turn is expected to allow participation in global supply chains.

The results gathered from the analysis show that the development project to be piloted in Gutu, Zimbabwe is likely to have a "high impact on sustainability". The project is therefore considered an effective sustainable development project that aims to promote, and develop local Zimbabwean markets through increased transactions and the creation of sustainable supply chains that are expected to recruit Zimbabwe into the global value chains.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Evaluating applications of a telemedicine taxonomy on the classification of research

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By offering increased access to medical care, telemedicine offers significant opportunity for the process of development under Amartya Sen’s definition, that development is freedom, including freedom from illness, early death,

By offering increased access to medical care, telemedicine offers significant opportunity for the process of development under Amartya Sen’s definition, that development is freedom, including freedom from illness, early death, and preventable disease. It advances development by freeing people from these burdens. However, like many emerging technologies, organizing information and understanding the field faces significant challenges. This paper applies Bashshur's three-dimensional model of telemedicine to the classification of telemedicine literature found in databases to assess the value of the model as a tool for classification. By standardizing language and creating a repository of research done to date in a centralized location, the field can better understand how it is progressing and where work still needs to be done. This paper aims to see if Bashshur's model serves well for this task.

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  • 2015

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Analysis of the effects of socioeconomic, political and institutional determinants on technological innovation in the Maghreb

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This study focuses on three major Maghreb states (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) with distinct institutional, political and socioeconomic patterns. It essentially tackles the issue of technological development particularly investments, trade,

This study focuses on three major Maghreb states (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) with distinct institutional, political and socioeconomic patterns. It essentially tackles the issue of technological development particularly investments, trade, human capital and patents in a socially and politically sensitive environment. The researcher assumes that government stability, law and order, GDP growth and ICT usage are related to technological innovation in the Maghreb. The stated hypotheses indicate that these political, institutional and socioeconomic factors have significant effect on technological innovation in the Maghreb. Based on a two equations' empirical model, our researcher attempts to test these effects and explore the interactions between the different dependent and independent variables through a set of hypotheses. Data analysis covers three countries from 1996 to 2010. The study identifies significant effects of key covariates on technological innovation in the Maghreb. Although not every predictor effect is consistent, the results indicate that they matter for technological innovation in the Maghreb. Empirical findings might constitute essential evidence for technology and innovation policies in this Middle East and North African region.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Brazil: measuring the constructs of the business incubation process

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With various gaps remaining in business incubation literature, developing scales that capture the multi-dimensional constructs of the incubation process remains a necessity. While living and traveling within Brazil, this author

With various gaps remaining in business incubation literature, developing scales that capture the multi-dimensional constructs of the incubation process remains a necessity. While living and traveling within Brazil, this author journeyed within Brazil's well-developed incubation ecosystem in order to investigate the reproducibility and validity of scales whose authors propose measure the constructs that capture the process of business incubation which were defined in their options-driven theory of business incubation as "selection performance", "monitoring and business assistance intensity", and "resource munificence". Regression analysis resulted in the data suggesting that there is no statistically significant predictive ability of the Hackett and Dilts scales when used to predict incubatee outcomes from this study's sample of incubators. The results of the analysis between total score in each of the three constructs and incubatee outcomes suggested that when the total score within the construct of selection performance increases, there tends to be a decrease in incubatee outcomes where the incubatee was surviving and growing profitably at the time of its exit from the incubator. Also, there tends to be a decrease in incubatee outcomes where the incubatee was surviving and growing on a path toward profitability at the time of the incubator exit. The results show no predictive ability of the remaining two constructs of "monitoring and business assistance intensity" and "resource munificence" to capture business incubation performance. The item specific analysis of all correlating and inter-correlating variables for each of the dependent variables, resulting in several significant relationships, however, many demonstrate negative relationships which also run contrary to the relationships proposed by Hackett and Dilts. These results have challenged both the validity of the Hackett and Dilts scale as a tool for investigating the constructs of the incubation process, and the ability of the options-driven theory to explain and predict business incubation outcomes.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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An: examination of the self-esteem of street children, as measured by the CFSEI-3

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It is estimated there are tens of millions of street children throughout the world. Existing literature has identified the conditions street children live in; and additional research has shown how

It is estimated there are tens of millions of street children throughout the world. Existing literature has identified the conditions street children live in; and additional research has shown how these conditions typically affect the self-esteem of children. There is also ample research to support self-esteem as a critical component to a healthy childhood development. Existing research suggests that street children should have a low self-esteem, however data has not yet been collected to examine if this is true. Existing literature has also not yet explored how the self-esteem of street children is a necessary component to economic development. Based on Amartaya Sen's development theory of capabilities, damaged self-esteem in street children could be considered a hindrance to development.

This paper will examine how the self-esteem of street children is important to overall economic development. To understand if the self-esteem of street children are affected how existing literature suggests, this research examines the self-esteem of street children (n=22) in the Philippines using the Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventories 3 tool, which quantifies self-esteem levels with the Global Self-Esteem Quotient (GSEQ). In comparison to the GSEQ standardized scale, almost all street children surveyed scored below average or lower. The mean GSEQ score for the street children in Manila was below average.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Lost koreans: information technology and identity in the former Soviet Union

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The history of Koreans in the former Soviet Union dates back to more than a century ago. Yet little was known about them during the existence of the USSR, and

The history of Koreans in the former Soviet Union dates back to more than a century ago. Yet little was known about them during the existence of the USSR, and even less as the first decade of the Newly Independent States unfolded. This current study is one of the first attempts to quantitatively measure the national and ethnic identity of this group. The research was conducted via an online survey in two languages, English and Russian. Three main variables -- ethnic identity, national identity and information technology -- were used to test the hypothesis. The data collection and survey process revealed some interesting facts about this group. Namely, there are some strong indicators that post-Soviet Koreans belong to a category of their own within the larger group known as the "Korean diaspora." Secondly, a very strong sense of ethnic group belonging, when paired with higher education and high to medium levels of proficiency with Internet technology, indicates the potential for further development and sustainability of these ethnic and national identities, particularly when nurtured by the continued progress of information technology.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Handling solid and hazardous waste by waste pickers: a case study of Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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The handling of waste encompasses the following processes: recycling, collection, treatment, and disposal. It is crucial to provide a cost-effective waste management system that improves public health and reduces environmental

The handling of waste encompasses the following processes: recycling, collection, treatment, and disposal. It is crucial to provide a cost-effective waste management system that improves public health and reduces environmental risks. In developing countries, proper handling of solid and hazardous wastes remain severely limited in urban cities if the industries and hospitals producing it do not take responsibility. Recycling and reusing of 12% of total waste in Phnom Penh is an active industry in Cambodia, driven by an informal network of waste pickers, collectors, and buyers. This thesis examines the environmental situation of solid and hazardous wastes in Phnom Penh. The socio-economic background of waste pickers and their current practices for handling solid and hazardous wastes will be mainly discussed in order to understand health and sanitation impacts and risks for disposal of solid and hazardous waste by these informal waste pickers. Surveys and interviews with the following sources are conducted: waste pickers, community members, observation at local dumpsites, governmental officials, and other non-government organization agencies in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. This thesis reports the external and internal factors that hinder safety and cost-effective management for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Multiple literature reviews are assessed in regards to the health effects, economic, and social impacts in developing countries. Evidentially, after attending several training and environmental awareness-raising programs, waste pickers expressed concerns about their health and the environment. Instead of receiving support, waste pickers are under economic pressure to use improper tools for waste picking, to stop working, get access to health care/service, to change their career, and prevent contact to limit serious communicable diseases and disability. As a result, the government and other related government agencies have made an effort to establish sanitation handling, treatment, and disposal systems by closing the old dumpsite. Due to limited entrepreneurship and business experience after training, most waste pickers cannot initiate micro business or find new jobs and then resume their waste picking. In conclusion, this thesis proposed that there are alternative technologies and management methods that will allow waste pickers to maintain employment while minimizing hazardous waste. Some examples of alternatives for waste pickers are establishing a material recovery center and alternative higher income occupation.

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  • 2012