Matching Items (21)

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The Effect of Disability on Subjective Well-Being across the Adult Lifespan: The Moderating Roles of Age at Disability Onset and Disability Type

Description

The present study aimed to advance the current understanding of the relation between disability and subjective well-being by examining the extent to which different facets of subjective well-being (life satisfaction,

The present study aimed to advance the current understanding of the relation between disability and subjective well-being by examining the extent to which different facets of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) change before and after disability onset, and the extent to which age and type of disability moderate such changes. Multiphase growth-curve models to prospective longitudinal survey data from Waves 1-16 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (N = 3,795; mean age = 50.22; age range: 16-99; 51% women). On average, life satisfaction remained relatively stable across the disability transition, whereas positive affect declined and negative affect increased the year surrounding disability onset; in the years thereafter, neither positive affect nor negative affect returned to pre-onset levels. Individuals who acquired disability in old age were more likely to report sustained declines in subjective well-being than were individuals who became disabled in midlife or young adulthood. Psychological disability was associated with the strongest declines across each indicator of subjective well-being at disability onset but also greater adaptation in the years thereafter. The findings provide further evidence against the set-point theory of hedonic adaptation and for a more moderate viewpoint that allows for processes of adaptation to vary based on the outcome examined, the type of stressor, and individual characteristics. The discussion focuses on possible mechanisms underlying the moderating roles of age and type of disability.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The Role of Social Media Use in Adolescent Alcohol Use Accounting for Peer Alcohol Use

Description

This study aimed to advance understanding of the relation between social media and adolescent alcohol use while accounting for offline peer alcohol use, exploring offline peer alcohol use separately as

This study aimed to advance understanding of the relation between social media and adolescent alcohol use while accounting for offline peer alcohol use, exploring offline peer alcohol use separately as a covariate and as a moderator, with an additional exploratory analysis of the relation between social media and alcohol use without offline peer alcohol use in the model. A total of 868 students (55% female) in grade 7 (n = 468) and grade 8 (n = 400) at wave 1, self-reported on alcohol use, binge drinking, and social media use as well as nominated friends from their school and grade. Data from nominated peers who also completed the questionnaires were used for peer-report of alcohol use. Data were collected annually from students at grades 8, 9, 10, and 11 were used in analyses. Final structural models consisted of a cross-lagged panel design with saved factor scores for social media and peer alcohol use predicting a categorical alcohol use variable or a binary binge drinking variable. With offline peer alcohol use as a covariate in the model, social media did not prospectively relate to subsequent grade alcohol use or binge drinking. However, without offline peer alcohol use, the path from social media use to subsequent grade alcohol use was significant but not the path to binge drinking. Offline peer alcohol use did not significantly moderate the relation between social media and subsequent grade alcohol use or binge drinking.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Trajectories of Familism Values Among Mexican American Youth: Family Environment, Economic Hardship, and Perceived Ethnic Discrimination as Predictors

Description

Familism values have been shown to have a multitude of benefits for Mexican American youth. Understanding different pathways of the adoption of familism values from adolescence and young adulthood, and

Familism values have been shown to have a multitude of benefits for Mexican American youth. Understanding different pathways of the adoption of familism values from adolescence and young adulthood, and predictors of these pathways, is critical. The current study assessed different classes of change in familism values across five waves from fifth grade to young adulthood, and fifth-grade predictors of these profiles, among a sample of 749 Mexican American youth. Univariate and growth mixture modeling was used to determine classes of familism change and found two classes—one class that showed small, insignificant declines across adolescence that accelerated into young adulthood and one class that showed significant declines across adolescence that stabilized and increased into young adulthood. The three-step procedure was then used to examine the following fifth-grade predictors of familism classes: family conflict, family cohesion, harsh parenting, parental acceptance, economic hardship, and perceived ethnic discrimination. Family conflict and perceived ethnic discrimination were significant predictors of familism class membership. Greater family conflict predicted a greater probability of being in the class of significant declines in familism across adolescence that stabilized and increased into young adulthood. Greater perceived ethnic discrimination predicted a greater probability of being in the class of small, insignificant decreases across adolescence that accelerated into young adulthood. Gender moderated the impact of family cohesion. For females, greater father-reported family cohesion predicted a greater probability of being in the class with significant declines during adolescence that stabilized and increased into young adulthood. For males, greater father-reported family cohesion predicted a greater probability of being in the class with slight, insignificant declines in adolescence that accelerated into young adulthood. Youth nativity moderated the impact of maternal acceptance. For youth born in the U.S., greater mother-reported acceptance predicted a greater probability of being in the class of slight, insignificant declines across adolescence that accelerated into young adulthood. For youth born in Mexico, greater mother-reported acceptance predicted a greater probability of being in the class of significant declines in familism across adolescence that stabilized and increased into young adulthood. Limitations and implications for prevention and future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Comparison of Video and Audio Rating Modalities for Assessment of Provider Fidelity to a Family-Centered, Evidence-Based Program

Description

The current study assessed whether the interrater reliability and predictive validity of fidelity ratings differed significantly across the modalities of audio and video recordings. As empirically supported programs are moving

The current study assessed whether the interrater reliability and predictive validity of fidelity ratings differed significantly across the modalities of audio and video recordings. As empirically supported programs are moving to scale, attention to fidelity, the extent to which a program is delivered as intended, is essential because high fidelity is needed for positive program effects. Consequently, an important issue for prevention science is the development of feasible and acceptable methods for assessing fidelity. Currently, fidelity monitoring is rarely practiced, as the typical way of measuring fidelity, which uses video of sessions, is expensive, time-consuming, and intrusive. Audio recording has multiple advantages over video recording: 1) it is less intrusive; 2) equipment is less expensive; 3) recording procedures are simpler; 4) files are smaller so it takes less time to upload data and storage is less expensive; 5) recordings contain less identifying information; and 6) both clients and providers may be more willing to have sensitive interactions recorded with audio only. For these reasons, the use of audio recording may facilitate the monitoring of fidelity and increase the acceptability of both the intervention and implementation models, which may serve to broaden the scope of the families reached and improve the quality of the services provided. The current study compared the reliability and validity of fidelity ratings across audio and video rating modalities using 77 feedback sessions drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of the Family Check-Up (FCU). Coders rated fidelity and caregiver in-session engagement at the age 2 feedback session. The composite fidelity and caregiver engagement scores were tested using path analysis to examine whether they predicted parenting behavior at age 3. Twenty percent of the sessions were double coded to assess interrater reliability. The interrater reliability and predictive validity of fidelity scores and caregiver engagement did not significantly differ across rating modality. However, caution must be used in interpreting these results because the interrater reliabilities in both conditions were low. Possible explanations for the low reliability, limitations of the current study, and directions for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Three-level multiple imputation: a fully conditional specification approach

Description

Currently, there is a clear gap in the missing data literature for three-level models.

To date, the literature has only focused on the theoretical and algorithmic work

required to implement three-level imputation

Currently, there is a clear gap in the missing data literature for three-level models.

To date, the literature has only focused on the theoretical and algorithmic work

required to implement three-level imputation using the joint model (JM) method of

imputation, leaving relatively no work done on fully conditional specication (FCS)

method. Moreover, the literature lacks any methodological evaluation of three-level

imputation. Thus, this thesis serves two purposes: (1) to develop an algorithm in

order to implement FCS in the context of a three-level model and (2) to evaluate

both imputation methods. The simulation investigated a random intercept model

under both 20% and 40% missing data rates. The ndings of this thesis suggest

that the estimates for both JM and FCS were largely unbiased, gave good coverage,

and produced similar results. The sole exception for both methods was the slope for

the level-3 variable, which was modestly biased. The bias exhibited by the methods

could be due to the small number of clusters used. This nding suggests that future

research ought to investigate and establish clear recommendations for the number of

clusters required by these imputation methods. To conclude, this thesis serves as a

preliminary start in tackling a much larger issue and gap in the current missing data

literature.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Time metric in latent difference score models

Description

Time metric is an important consideration for all longitudinal models because it can influence the interpretation of estimates, parameter estimate accuracy, and model convergence in longitudinal models with latent variables.

Time metric is an important consideration for all longitudinal models because it can influence the interpretation of estimates, parameter estimate accuracy, and model convergence in longitudinal models with latent variables. Currently, the literature on latent difference score (LDS) models does not discuss the importance of time metric. Furthermore, there is little research using simulations to investigate LDS models. This study examined the influence of time metric on model estimation, interpretation, parameter estimate accuracy, and convergence in LDS models using empirical simulations. Results indicated that for a time structure with a true time metric where participants had different starting points and unequally spaced intervals, LDS models fit with a restructured and less informative time metric resulted in biased parameter estimates. However, models examined using the true time metric were less likely to converge than models using the restructured time metric, likely due to missing data. Where participants had different starting points but equally spaced intervals, LDS models fit with a restructured time metric resulted in biased estimates of intercept means, but all other parameter estimates were unbiased, and models examined using the true time metric had less convergence than the restructured time metric as well due to missing data. The findings of this study support prior research on time metric in longitudinal models, and further research should examine these findings under alternative conditions. The importance of these findings for substantive researchers is discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Bouncing back from recent adversity: the role of the community environment in promoting resilience in midlife

Description

Lifespan psychological perspectives have long suggested the context in which individuals live having the potential to shape the course of development across the adult lifespan. Thus, it is imperative to

Lifespan psychological perspectives have long suggested the context in which individuals live having the potential to shape the course of development across the adult lifespan. Thus, it is imperative to examine the role of both the objective and subjective neighborhood context in mitigating the consequences of lifetime adversity on mental and physical health. To address the research questions, data was used from a sample of 362 individuals in midlife who were assessed on lifetime adversity, multiple outcomes of mental and physical health and aspects of the objective and subjective neighborhood. Results showed that reporting more lifetime adversity was associated with poorer mental and physical health. Aspects of the objective and subjective neighborhood, such as green spaces moderated these relationships. The discussion focuses on potential mechanisms underlying why objective and subjective indicators of the neighborhood are protective against lifetime adversity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Social Competence Growth in Preschool: Individual Differences and the Role of Classroom Context

Description

Social-emotional competence (SEC), or effectiveness of social interaction, plays a central role in children’s health and well-being. The three goals of the current study were to describe the development of

Social-emotional competence (SEC), or effectiveness of social interaction, plays a central role in children’s health and well-being. The three goals of the current study were to describe the development of SEC during a preschool year; identify an appropriate factor structure for observed teacher-child interactions; and predict SEC growth from children’s characteristics (emotional competence, language risk, gender, and race/ethnicity), teacher-child relationship quality, and classroom characteristics (relational climate, observed teacher-child interaction quality, and curriculum). Children’s social competence, anger/aggression, effortful control, and emotion knowledge (N =822) was assessed at three time points during a preschool year via teachers’ reports and behavioral assessments. In the fall, teachers reported the quality of their relationships with children and teacher-child interactions were observed in classrooms. Aim 1 results indicated that children exhibited linear increases in effortful control and social competence and stability in anger/aggression, although social competence was the only construct where linear change varied among children. Due to a lack of longitudinal measurement invariance, growth in latent emotion knowledge could not be evaluated. Several gender and racial/ethnic differences were identified in SEC intercepts, but not the social competence slope. Language risk and impulsivity were consistent predictors of SEC intercepts. Aim 2 results indicated that teacher-child interaction quality was primarily unidimensional. Finally, results from aim 3 indicated that children’s emotional competence at the beginning of the year and classroom relational climate were predictive of growth in social competence. End-of-year social competence levels were associated with supportive teacher-child relationship quality (particularly among girls), high emotional competence, low language risk, and supportive classroom relational climate; girls had higher social competence than boys. Although not directly associated with social competence, observed teacher-child interaction quality was conditionally predictive of the social competence in the context of supportive teacher-child relationships. Further, when observed teacher-child interaction quality was average or high, children with low emotional competence exhibited greater growth in social competence than children with high emotional competence. The results inform our understanding of SEC development, the nature of teacher-child interactions in preschool classrooms serving high-risk populations, and potential school-based mechanisms for promoting social competence.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Differences in Offending among Bisexual and Heterosexual Youth: The Influence of Maternal Support and Running Away from Home

Description

Research has consistently shown that gay/lesbian/bisexual (GLB) or sexual minority youth are at an increased risk for adverse outcomes resulting from the stress caused by continual exposure to negative events

Research has consistently shown that gay/lesbian/bisexual (GLB) or sexual minority youth are at an increased risk for adverse outcomes resulting from the stress caused by continual exposure to negative events (e.g., victimization, discrimination). The present study used a nationally representative sample of adolescents to test mechanisms that may be responsible for the differences in offending behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Specifically, this study tested whether bisexual adolescents received less maternal support than did heterosexual adolescents because of their sexual orientation, thus increasing the likelihood that they run away from home. This study then examined whether the greater likelihood that bisexual adolescents running away would lead to them committing a significantly higher variety of income-based offenses, but not a significantly higher variety of aggression-based offenses. This study tested the hypothesized mediation model using two separate indicators of sexual orientation measured at two different time points, modeled outcomes in two ways, as well as estimated the models separately for boys and girls. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized direct and indirect relations. Results showed support for maternal support and running away mediating the relations between sexual orientation and offending behaviors for the model predicting the likelihood of committing either an aggressive or an income offense, but only for girls who identified as bisexual in early adulthood. Results did not support these relations for the other models, suggesting that bisexual females have unique needs when it comes to prevention and intervention. Results also highlight the need for a greater understanding of sexual orientation measurement methodology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Evaluating Person-Oriented Methods for Mediation

Description

Statistical inference from mediation analysis applies to populations, however, researchers and clinicians may be interested in making inference to individual clients or small, localized groups of people. Person-oriented approaches focus

Statistical inference from mediation analysis applies to populations, however, researchers and clinicians may be interested in making inference to individual clients or small, localized groups of people. Person-oriented approaches focus on the differences between people, or latent groups of people, to ask how individuals differ across variables, and can help researchers avoid ecological fallacies when making inferences about individuals. Traditional variable-oriented mediation assumes the population undergoes a homogenous reaction to the mediating process. However, mediation is also described as an intra-individual process where each person passes from a predictor, through a mediator, to an outcome (Collins, Graham, & Flaherty, 1998). Configural frequency mediation is a person-oriented analysis of contingency tables that has not been well-studied or implemented since its introduction in the literature (von Eye, Mair, & Mun, 2010; von Eye, Mun, & Mair, 2009). The purpose of this study is to describe CFM and investigate its statistical properties while comparing it to traditional and casual inference mediation methods. The results of this study show that joint significance mediation tests results in better Type I error rates but limit the person-oriented interpretations of CFM. Although the estimator for logistic regression and causal mediation are different, they both perform well in terms of Type I error and power, although the causal estimator had higher bias than expected, which is discussed in the limitations section.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019