Matching Items (63)

137575-Thumbnail Image.png

Electroporation of HeLa Cells with Propidium Iodide using ""Anodisc"" Nanopore Inorganic Membrane-Buffered MEAs

Description

The use of microelectrode arrays (MEA) to electroporate cells is now a reliable way of transfecting RNA interfering substances with high viability and efficiency. However, as the 50-200 micron electrodes

The use of microelectrode arrays (MEA) to electroporate cells is now a reliable way of transfecting RNA interfering substances with high viability and efficiency. However, as the 50-200 micron electrodes are coated with many cells, there are differences in both viability and efficiency between the outside and inside of the electrode. This is due to the field created by the electrode, which has higher intensities toward the outside and lower intensities toward the middle. In order to get the electric field to spread in a more even manner, an "Anodisc" inorganic membrane seeded with cells was placed on the MEA to act as a buffer to the electric fields. One hundred percent transfection efficiency on live cells was found on one sample, though there were problems encountered along the experimental process that introduced error into the results, some of which included the inability for cells to grow to high levels of confluency on the Anodisc as well as the inverted imaging technique used on the opaque disc.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137218-Thumbnail Image.png

Observing effects of drug modulation on electrophysiological response of Aplysia neurons

Description

The effect of three different drug modulators on the electrophysiological response of Aplysia neurons was observed through the use of extracellular and intracellular recordings. Extracellular recordings captured the effects of

The effect of three different drug modulators on the electrophysiological response of Aplysia neurons was observed through the use of extracellular and intracellular recordings. Extracellular recordings captured the effects of magnesium chloride and glutamate at a variety of concentrations for each. Intracellular recordings displayed the effects of magnesium chloride, glutamate, and GABA for two concentrations each. For extracellular recordings, the average firing rate, average peak-to-peak voltage, average SNR, and sorted units were considered. For intracellular recordings, average firing rate, average peak voltage, and average resting potential were considered. Significance of data could not be determined using statistical analysis due to having a sample size of 1 for every experiment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

134656-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluation of EpiFinder App: An Epilepsy Diagnostic Tool

Description

Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease that affects one in twenty-six people. Despite this prevalence, it is very difficult to diagnose. EpiFinder, Inc. has created an app to better diagnose

Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease that affects one in twenty-six people. Despite this prevalence, it is very difficult to diagnose. EpiFinder, Inc. has created an app to better diagnose epilepsy through the use of an epilepsy focused ontology and a heuristic algorithm. Throughout this project, efforts were made to improve the user interface and robustness of the EpiFinder app in order to ease usability and increase diagnostic accuracy. A general workflow of the app was created to aid new users with navigation of the app’s screens. Additionally, numerous diagnostic guidelines provided by the International League Against Epilepsy as well as de-identified case studies were annotated using the Knowtator plug-in in Protégé 3.3.1, where new terms not currently represented in the seizure and epilepsy syndrome ontology (ESSO) were identified for future integration into the ontology. This will help to increase the confidence level of the differential diagnosis reached. A basic evaluation of the user interface was done to provide feedback for the developers for future iterations of the app. Significant efforts were also made for better incorporation of the app into a physician’s typical workflow. For instance, an ontology of a basic review of systems of a medical history was built in Protégé 4.2 for later integration with the ESSO, which will help to increase efficiency and familiarity of the app for physician users. Finally, feedback regarding utility of the app was gathered from an epilepsy support group. These points will be taken into consideration for development of patient-based features in future versions of the EpiFinder app. It is the hope that these various improvements of the app will contribute to a more efficient, more accurate diagnosis of epilepsy patients, resulting in more appropriate treatments and an overall increased quality of life.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

135402-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of Brain Activity in Elite Golfers

Description

It is unknown which regions of the brain are most or least active for golfers during a peak performance state (Flow State or "The Zone") on the putting green. To

It is unknown which regions of the brain are most or least active for golfers during a peak performance state (Flow State or "The Zone") on the putting green. To address this issue, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were taken on 10 elite golfers while they performed a putting drill consisting of hitting nine putts spaced uniformly around a hole each five feet away. Data was collected at three time periods, before, during and after the putt. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) measurements were also recorded on each subject. Three of the subjects performed a visualization of the same putting drill and their brain waves and GSR were recorded and then compared with their actual performance of the drill. EEG data in the Theta (4 \u2014 7 Hz) bandwidth and Alpha (7 \u2014 13 Hz) bandwidth in 11 different locations across the head were analyzed. Relative power spectrum was used to quantify the data. From the results, it was found that there is a higher magnitude of power in both the theta and alpha bandwidths for a missed putt in comparison to a made putt (p<0.05). It was also found that there is a higher average power in the right hemisphere for made putts. There was not a higher power in the occipital region of the brain nor was there a lower power level in the frontal cortical region during made putts. The hypothesis that there would be a difference between the means of the power level in performance compared to visualization techniques was also supported.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

Modeling Biological and Optical Tools Towards Achieving Deeper Levels of Brain Stimulation using OLEDs

Description

Optogenetics presents the ability to control membrane dynamics through the usage of transfected proteins (opsins) and light stimulation. However, as the field continues to grow, the original biological and stimulation

Optogenetics presents the ability to control membrane dynamics through the usage of transfected proteins (opsins) and light stimulation. However, as the field continues to grow, the original biological and stimulation tools used have become dated or limited in their uses. The usage of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) in optical stimulation offers greater resolution, finer control of pixel arrays, and the increased functionality of a flexible display at the cost of lower irradiance power density. This study was done to simulate methods using genetic and optical tools towards decreasing the threshold irradiance needed to initiate an action potential in a ChR2 expressing neuron. Simulations show that pulsatile stimulation can decrease threshold irradiances by increasing the overall duration of stimulus while keeping individual pulse durations below 5 ms. Furthermore, the redistribution of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to the apical dendrites and a change in wavelength to 625 nm both result in lower threshold irradiances. However, the model used has many discrepancies and has room for improvement in areas such as the light distribution model and ChR2 dynamics. The simulations run with this model however still present valuable insight and knowledge towards the usage of new stimulation methods and revisions on existing protocols.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

Acute Human Brain Responses to Intracortical Microelectrode Arrays: Challenges and Future Prospects

Description

The emerging field of neuroprosthetics is focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions that will be able to restore some lost neural function by selective electrical stimulation or by

The emerging field of neuroprosthetics is focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions that will be able to restore some lost neural function by selective electrical stimulation or by harnessing activity recorded from populations of neurons. As more and more patients benefit from these approaches, the interest in neural interfaces has grown significantly and a new generation of penetrating microelectrode arrays are providing unprecedented access to the neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). These microelectrodes have active tip dimensions that are similar in size to neurons and because they penetrate the nervous system, they provide selective access to these cells (within a few microns). However, the very long-term viability of chronically implanted microelectrodes and the capability of recording the same spiking activity over long time periods still remain to be established and confirmed in human studies. Here we review the main responses to acute implantation of microelectrode arrays, and emphasize that it will become essential to control the neural tissue damage induced by these intracortical microelectrodes in order to achieve the high clinical potentials accompanying this technology.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-07-21

128536-Thumbnail Image.png

The Ictal Wavefront is the Spatiotemporal Source of Discharges During Spontaneous Human Seizures

Description

The extensive distribution and simultaneous termination of seizures across cortical areas has led to the hypothesis that seizures are caused by large-scale coordinated networks spanning these areas. This view, however,

The extensive distribution and simultaneous termination of seizures across cortical areas has led to the hypothesis that seizures are caused by large-scale coordinated networks spanning these areas. This view, however, is difficult to reconcile with most proposed mechanisms of seizure spread and termination, which operate on a cellular scale. We hypothesize that seizures evolve into self-organized structures wherein a small seizing territory projects high-intensity electrical signals over a broad cortical area. Here we investigate human seizures on both small and large electrophysiological scales. We show that the migrating edge of the seizing territory is the source of travelling waves of synaptic activity into adjacent cortical areas. As the seizure progresses, slow dynamics in induced activity from these waves indicate a weakening and eventual failure of their source. These observations support a parsimonious theory for how large-scale evolution and termination of seizures are driven from a small, migrating cortical area.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-03-29

133261-Thumbnail Image.png

Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy of Radiofrequency Electrodes for Functional Electrical Stimulation in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

Description

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technology utilized to attempt to restore motor control in patients affected with paralysis, usually through techniques like intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). FES uses a surface

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technology utilized to attempt to restore motor control in patients affected with paralysis, usually through techniques like intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). FES uses a surface electrode to delivery extremely small to the target muscles that stimulate their movement and improve signaling within the neighboring nerves. This project sought to measure the impedance of an electrode used for FES in order to characterize other neural structures involved in the electrical impulse transmission process, either through the use of components added to the electrode or through the combination of multiple impedance readings. The electrode used in the present study was composed of 15 microelectrodes, which were fully characterized through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to analyze the impedance profile with change in frequency. The data points obtained from the microelectrodes were then averaged in order to obtain a larger picture of the impedance of the general electrode. As expected, the impedance of the microelectrodes decreased as frequency increased. The average impedance of a microelectrode at a frequency of 1 kHz was found to be 50 k, although high variance in the data requires further testing to be done to verify the validity of the values that were found.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

133535-Thumbnail Image.png

Optical Feedback Mechanism for Detecting Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks During Spinal Surgery

Description

For my honors thesis, I developed a proof of concept alpha prototype of a biomedical device for detection of cerebrospinal fluid leaks during spinal surgery. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks are a

For my honors thesis, I developed a proof of concept alpha prototype of a biomedical device for detection of cerebrospinal fluid leaks during spinal surgery. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks are a consequence of tears in the dura mater of the spinal cord and can result in potentially life-threatening conditions and are overall a large burden not only on the patient but upon the clinical teams managing the patient postoperatively. What I created was an optical sensor that I programmed to be sensitive to detecting green wavelength light. The device would ideally be attached to surgical drain tubing and used in conjunction with fluorescein (a green fluorescent dye) infused lumbar punctures into the spinal canal of patients. As the dye circulates through the spinal cord, any tears in the dura mater would cause the fluorescein to leak out with cerebrospinal fluid into the incision site. This fluid may then be collected by the surgical drain where the sensor may detect the fluorescein, triggering a buzzer response that would notify the patient or the surgeons of an ongoing leak that requires repair. The time I spent on my thesis involved sensor validation to ensure it could differentiate between colors, testing the sensor's color sensitivity by performing a fluorescein aliquot, and running proof of concept testing that could show the sensor can detect fluorescein drain tubing and provide an adequate response. The sensor was able to differentiate between varying concentrations of fluorescein in solution and provided exceptional results in its proof-of-concept testing. Next steps will be to re-run the sensor validation study with different dyes as well as consolidating the device's electrical hardware onto a single circuit board as development of beta and gamma prototypes move forward.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

133629-Thumbnail Image.png

Glare: NICU Environmental Consideration

Description

This study aimed to quantify glare induced into the NICU through phototherapy devices commonly used to treat neonatal jaundice. The blue light associated with the devices can cause a number

This study aimed to quantify glare induced into the NICU through phototherapy devices commonly used to treat neonatal jaundice. The blue light associated with the devices can cause a number of physiological affects including melatonin suppression, disturbances of one's circadian rhythm, and has the potential to lead to risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the long term. The study found that the phototherapy device tested emitted a sufficient amount of light to be considered 'disturbing' using the DeBoer scale. Due to this, phototherapy devices in the future should take into consideration the minimization of light emitted which is not directly treating the infant on the device to prevent potential physiological effects that nurses may experience.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05