Matching Items (14)

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Working towards Garden of Eden: Developing practical solutions to combat food insecurity in food deserts

Description

Food deserts and food insecurity can negatively impact the health of communities. Urban farming, specifically with aeroponics systems, could be a possible solution in alleviating food insecurity in food deserts.

Food deserts and food insecurity can negatively impact the health of communities. Urban farming, specifically with aeroponics systems, could be a possible solution in alleviating food insecurity in food deserts. In order to test and understand what type of system and products work best in such areas, this thesis looks at urban farming from farms' and consumers' perspective using qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data was collected from current businesses that are using urban farming techniques within the Phoenix valley. Based on the quantitative research, the consumers studied seemed willing to eat leafy greens and vegetables given that they are affordable, fresh, and they understand how to cook them. Further research could be a more focused study on residents of specific neighborhoods that are classified as food deserts. Another aspect that could be researched further is the other factors affecting the health of residents located in food deserts other than the availability of food. This could include, but is not limited to, lack of nutritional education, insufficient cooking materials, and personal food preferences.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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It's All In the Genes: Designing and Administering a Brief Survey to Local Dairymen In Order to Gauge their Interest In Genomics

Description

One of the newest technologies available for agricultural use is the sequencing of the bovine genome and the identification of specific genes that would ensure favorable physical traits in the

One of the newest technologies available for agricultural use is the sequencing of the bovine genome and the identification of specific genes that would ensure favorable physical traits in the herd. An easy way for this technology to be utilized is in the milking herds of dairies, the herd has already been bred for specific traits and any change due to a genomic influence would be easily seen. Dairy cattle are commonly bred through artificial insemination, and this would be a perfect place for the genomic programs to prove themselves. In order to determine the attitudes of local dairymen toward genomics, I designed and administered a survey to gauge their opinions. The survey was given to a meeting of the United Dairymen of Arizona at their Tempe offices. The survey covered the current breeding methods used by the dairies, the desired attributes in a milking herd and a breeding program, and a place for the dairymen to give their own opinions on genomics. The results indicated that the dairymen are interested of using genomics, but they are unsure of the cost. Dairymen are often looking for new methods to increase their milk production and herd value, but are reluctant to pay a high amount. One recommendation is for these dairymen to utilize bulls that have had their genome analyzed when they are breeding their cows. This would allow the dairymen to see the effects and benefits of genomics on their herd without the dairymen having to front the large start up cost for their own genomic program.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The Hispanic Opportunity: An Analysis of Consumer Packaged Goods Manufacturer and Retailer Performance among Hispanic Consumers

Description

As the landscape of the mass channel of retailing has become increasingly competitive, the leading mass retailer in the world, Retailer A*, has identified the Hispanic market as their last

As the landscape of the mass channel of retailing has become increasingly competitive, the leading mass retailer in the world, Retailer A*, has identified the Hispanic market as their last organic growth opportunity within the United States. In this pursuit, Retailer A has named Manufacturer A., the largest food and beverage manufacturer in the world, as their sole category advisor for the Hispanic market across their entire store. Developing aligned strategies that leverage the size and power of these partners creates the potential opportunity for both organizations to benefit from increased profits and increased market shares. Manufacturer A has performed extensive research on the Hispanic market in order to gain a deep understanding of who Hispanic consumers are and the unique shopping behaviors they exhibit that make this market the most profitable ethnic group in the US.** Along with this research, an analysis of the top eight Manufacturer A brands’ performances at Walmart reveals that although both organizations already have footholds within the Hispanic market, there still remains large opportunities for growth. Through prioritizing business and marketing strategies aimed at appealing more to Hispanic consumers at Retailer A, Manufacturer A stands to potentially gain over $39M in incremental sales from this partnership.

* All company, brand, and product names have been redacted to protect confidentiality.
**All market demographics and statistical market information mentioned hereafter were originally researched and verified by Retailer A. Information mentioned throughout this paper was sourced from internal company documents.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Anonymous social networks versus peer networks in restaurant choice

Description

I compare the effect of anonymous social network ratings (Yelp.com) and peer group recommendations on restaurant demand. I conduct a two-stage choice experiment in which restaurant visits in the first

I compare the effect of anonymous social network ratings (Yelp.com) and peer group recommendations on restaurant demand. I conduct a two-stage choice experiment in which restaurant visits in the first stage are informed by online social network reviews from Yelp.com, and visits in the second stage by peer network reviews. I find that anonymous reviewers have a stronger effect on restaurant preference than peers. I also compare the power of negative reviews with that of positive reviews. I found that negative reviews are more powerful compared to the positive reviews on restaurant preference. More generally, I find that in an environment of high attribute uncertainty, information gained from anonymous experts through social media is likely to be more influential than information obtained from peers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Three essays on consumer behavior under uncertainty

Description

It is well understood that decisions made under uncertainty differ from those made without risk in important and significant ways. Yet, there is very little research into how uncertainty manifests

It is well understood that decisions made under uncertainty differ from those made without risk in important and significant ways. Yet, there is very little research into how uncertainty manifests itself in the most ubiquitous of decision-making environments: Consumers' day-to-day decisions over where to shop, and what to buy for their daily grocery needs. Facing a choice between stores that either offer relatively stable "everyday low prices" (EDLP) or variable prices that reflect aggressive promotion strategies (HILO), consumers have to choose stores under price-uncertainty. I find that consumers' attitudes toward risk are critically important in determining store-choice, and that heterogeneity in risk attitudes explains the co-existence of EDLP and HILO stores - an equilibrium that was previously explained in somewhat unsatisfying ways. After choosing a store, consumers face another source of risk. While knowing the quality or taste of established brands, consumers have very little information about new products. Consequently, consumers tend to choose smaller package sizes for new products, which limits their exposure to the risk that the product does not meet their prior expectations. While the observation that consumers purchase small amounts of new products is not new, I show how this practice is fully consistent with optimal purchase decision-making by utility-maximizing consumers. I then use this insight to explain how manufacturers of consumer packaged goods (CPGs) respond to higher production costs. Because consumers base their purchase decisions in part on package size, manufacturers can use package size as a competitive tool in order to raise margins in the face of higher production costs. While others have argued that manufacturers reduce package sizes as a means of raising unit-prices (prices per unit of volume) in a hidden way, I show that the more important effect is a competitive one: Changes in package size can soften price competition, so manufacturers need not rely on fooling consumers in order to pass-through cost increases through changes in package size. The broader implications of consumer behavior under risk are dramatic. First, risk perceptions affect consumers' store choice and product choice patterns in ways that can be exploited by both retailers and manufacturers. Second, strategic considerations prevent manufacturers from manipulating package size in ways that seem designed to trick consumers. Third, many services are also offered as packages, and also involve uncertainty, so the effects identified here are likely to be pervasive throughout the consumer economy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Consumers’ Health-Related Food Choices and Behaviors

Description

This dissertation offers three essays that investigate consumers’ health-related food choices and behaviors from three different, yet complementary, angles. The first essay uses an eye-tracking experiment to examine consumers’ visual

This dissertation offers three essays that investigate consumers’ health-related food choices and behaviors from three different, yet complementary, angles. The first essay uses an eye-tracking experiment to examine consumers’ visual attention to the Nutrition Facts Panels for healthy and unhealthy products. In this essay, I focus on how involvement and familiarity affect consumers’ attention toward the Nutrition Facts panel and how these two psychological factors interact with new label format changes in attracting consumers’ attention. In the second essay, I demonstrate using individual-level scanner data that nutritional attributes interact with marketing mix elements to affect consumers’ nutrition intake profiles and their intra-category substitution patterns. My findings suggest that marketing-mix sensitivities are correlated with consumers’ preferences for nutrient attributes in ways that depend on the “healthiness” of the nutrient. For instance, featuring promotes is positively correlated with “healthy” nutritional characteristics such as high-protein, low-fat, or low-carbohydrates, whereas promotion and display are positively correlated with preferences for “unhealthy” characteristics such as high-fat, or high-carbohydrates. I use model simulations to show that some marketing-mix elements are able to induce consumers to purchase items with higher maximum-content levels than others. The fourth chapter shows that dieters are not all the same. I develop and validate a new scale that measures lay theories about abstinence vs. moderation. My findings from a series of experiments indicate that dieters’ recovery from recalled vs. actual indulgences depend on whether they favor abstinence or moderation. However, compensatory coping strategies provide paths for people with both lay theories to recover after an indulgence, in their own ways. The three essays provide insights into individual differences that determine approaches of purchase behaviors, and consumption patterns, and life style that people choose, and these insights have potential policy implications to aid in designing the food-related interventions and policies to improve the healthiness of consumers’ consumption profiles and more general food well-being.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Consumer Demand for Local Food from Direct-to-Consumer versus Intermediated Marketing Channels

Description

Consumers can purchase local food through intermediated marketing channels, such as grocery stores, or through direct-to-consumer marketing channels, for instance, farmers markets. While the number of farms that utilize direct-to-consumer

Consumers can purchase local food through intermediated marketing channels, such as grocery stores, or through direct-to-consumer marketing channels, for instance, farmers markets. While the number of farms that utilize direct-to-consumer outlets keeps increasing, the direct-to-consumer sales remain lower than intermediated sales. If consumers prefer to purchase local food through intermediated channels, then policies designed to support direct channels may be misguided. Using a variety of experiments, this dissertation investigates consumer preferences for local food and their demand differentiated by marketing channel. In the first essay, I examine the existing literature on consumer preferences for local food by applying meta-regression analysis to a set of eligible research papers. My analysis provides evidence of statistically significant willingness to pay for local food products. Moreover, I find that a methodological approach and study-specific characteristics have a significant influence on the reported estimates for local attribute. By separating the demand for local from the demand for a particular channel, the second essay attempts to disentangle consumers’ preferences for marketing channels and the local-attribute in their food purchases. Using an online choice experiment, I find that consumers are willing to pay a premium for local food. However, they are not willing to pay premiums for local food that is sold at farmers markets relative to supermarkets. Therefore, in the third essay I seek to explain the rise in intermediated local by investigating local food shopping behavior. I develop a model of channel-selection in a nested context and apply it to the primary data gathered through an online food diary. I find that, while some consumers enjoy shopping at farmers markets to meet their objectives, such as socialization with farmers, the majority of consumers buy local food from supermarkets because they offer convenient settings where a variety of products can be bought as one basket. My overall results suggest that, if the goal is to increase the sales of local food, regardless of the channel, then existing supply-chain relationships in the local food channel appear to be performing well.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Three essays on innovation: optimal licensing strategies, new variety adoption, and consumer preference in a peer network

Description

It is well understood that innovation drives productivity growth in agriculture. Innovation, however, is a process that involves activities distributed throughout the supply chain. In this dissertation I investigate

It is well understood that innovation drives productivity growth in agriculture. Innovation, however, is a process that involves activities distributed throughout the supply chain. In this dissertation I investigate three topics that are at the core of the distribution and diffusion of innovation: optimal licensing of university-based inventions, new variety adoption among farmers, and consumers’ choice of new products within a social network environment.

University researchers assume an important role in innovation, particularly as a result of the Bayh-Dole Act, which allowed universities to license inventions funded by federal research dollars, to private industry. Aligning the incentives to innovate at the university level with the incentives to adopt downstream, I show that non-exclusive licensing is preferred under both fixed fee and royalty licensing. Finding support for non-exclusive licensing is important as it provides evidence that the concept underlying the Bayh-Dole Act has economic merit, namely that the goals of university-based researchers are consistent with those of society, and taxpayers, in general.

After licensing, new products enter the diffusion process. Using a case study of small holders in Mozambique, I observe substantial geographic clustering of new-variety adoption decisions. Controlling for the other potential factors, I find that information diffusion through space is largely responsible for variation in adoption. As predicted by a social learning model, spatial effects are not based on geographic distance, but rather on neighbor-relationships that follow from information exchange. My findings are consistent with others who find information to be the primary barrier to adoption, and means that adoption can be accelerated by improving information exchange among farmers.

Ultimately, innovation is only useful when adopted by end consumers. Consumers’ choices of new products are determined by many factors such as personal preferences, the attributes of the products, and more importantly, peer recommendations. My experimental data shows that peers are indeed important, but “weak ties” or information from friends-of-friends is more important than close friends. Further, others regarded as experts in the subject matter exert the strongest influence on peer choices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Umbrella branding of private labels

Description

Private labels command a growing share of food retailers' shelf space. In this dissertation, I explain this phenomenon as resulting from "umbrella branding," or the ability of a single

Private labels command a growing share of food retailers' shelf space. In this dissertation, I explain this phenomenon as resulting from "umbrella branding," or the ability of a single brand to reach across categories. Conceptually, I define umbrella branding as a behavioral attribute that describes a shopper's tendency to ascribe a performance bond to a brand, or to associate certain performance characteristics to a private label brand, across multiple categories. In the second chapter, I describe the performance bond theory in detail, and then test this theory using scanner data in the chapter that follows. Because secondary data has limitations for testing behavioral theories, however, I test the performance bond theory of umbrella branding using a laboratory experiment in the fourth chapter. In this chapter, I find that households tend to transfer their perception of private label performance across categories, or that a manifestation of umbrella branding behavior can indeed explain private labels' success. In the fifth chapter, I extend this theory to compare umbrella branding in international markets, and find that performance transference takes its roots in consumers' cultural backgrounds. Taken together, my results suggest that umbrella branding is an important behavioral mechanism, and one that can be further exploited by retailers across any consumer good category with strong credence attributes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014