Matching Items (47)

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Lower Limb Gait Simulator Based on a Pure External Force

Description

For the past two decades, advanced Limb Gait Simulators and Exoskeletons have been developed to improve walking rehabilitation. A Limb Gait Simulator is used to analyze the human step cycle

For the past two decades, advanced Limb Gait Simulators and Exoskeletons have been developed to improve walking rehabilitation. A Limb Gait Simulator is used to analyze the human step cycle and/or assist a user walking on a treadmill. Most modern limb gait simulators, such as ALEX, have proven themselves effective and reliable through their usage of motors, springs, cables, elastics, pneumatics and reaction loads. These mechanisms apply internal forces and reaction loads to the body. On the other hand, external forces are those caused by an external agent outside the system such as air, water, or magnets. A design for an exoskeleton using external forces has seldom been attempted by researchers. This thesis project focuses on the development of a Limb Gait Simulator based on a Pure External Force and has proven its effectiveness in generating torque on the human leg. The external force is generated through air propulsion using an Electric Ducted Fan (EDF) motor. Such a motor is typically used for remote control airplanes, but their applications can go beyond this. The objective of this research is to generate torque on the human leg through the control of the EDF engines thrust and the opening/closing of the reverse thruster flaps. This device qualifies as "assist as needed"; the user is entirely in control of how much assistance he or she may want. Static thrust values for the EDF engine are recorded using a thrust test stand. The product of the thrust (N) and the distance on the thigh (m) is the resulting torque. With the motor running at maximum RPM, the highest torque value reached was that of 3.93 (Nm). The motor EDF motor is powered by a 6S 5000 mAh LiPo battery. This torque value could be increased with the usage of a second battery connected in series, but this comes at a price. The designed limb gait simulator demonstrates that external forces, such as air, could have potential in the development of future rehabilitation devices.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Exoskeletal Hand Fixture for use with Tool Balancing arm for Packing/Warehouse Applications

Description

Many industries require workers in warehouse and stockroom environments to perform frequent lifting tasks. Over time these repeated tasks can lead to excess strain on the worker's body and reduced

Many industries require workers in warehouse and stockroom environments to perform frequent lifting tasks. Over time these repeated tasks can lead to excess strain on the worker's body and reduced productivity. This project seeks to develop an exoskeletal wrist fixture to be used in conjunction with a powered exoskeleton arm to aid workers performing box lifting types of tasks. Existing products aimed at improving worker comfort and productivity typically employ either fully powered exoskeleton suits or utilize minimally powered spring arms and/or fixtures. These designs either reduce stress to the user's body through powered arms and grippers operated via handheld controls which have limited functionality, or they use a more minimal setup that reduces some load, but exposes the user's hands and wrists to injury by directing support to the forearm. The design proposed here seeks to strike a balance between size, weight, and power requirements and also proposes a novel wrist exoskeleton design which minimizes stress on the user's wrists by directly interfacing with the object to be picked up. The design of the wrist exoskeleton was approached through initially selecting degrees of freedom and a ROM (range of motion) to accommodate. Feel and functionality were improved through an iterative prototyping process which yielded two primary designs. A novel "clip-in" method was proposed to allow the user to easily attach and detach from the exoskeleton. Designs utilized a contact surface intended to be used with dry fibrillary adhesives to maximize exoskeleton grip. Two final designs, which used two pivots in opposite kinematic order, were constructed and tested to determine the best kinematic layout. The best design had two prototypes created to be worn with passive test arms that attached to the user though a specially designed belt.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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DEVELOPMENT OF A SOFT ROBOTIC THIRD ARM

Description

For my thesis I worked in ASU’s Bio-Inspired Mechatronics lab on a project lead by PhD student Pham H. Nguyen (Berm) to develop an assistive soft robotic supernumerary limb. I

For my thesis I worked in ASU’s Bio-Inspired Mechatronics lab on a project lead by PhD student Pham H. Nguyen (Berm) to develop an assistive soft robotic supernumerary limb. I contributed to the design and evaluation of two prototypes: the silicon based Soft Poly Limb (SPL) and one bladder-based fabric arm, the fabric Soft Poly Limb (fSPL). For both arms I was responsible for the design of 3D printed components (molds, end caps, etc.) as well as the evaluation of the completed prototypes by comparing the actual performance of the arms to the finite element predictions. I contributed to the writing of two published papers describing the design and evaluation of the two arms. After the completion of the fSPL I attempted to create a quasi-static model of the actuators driving the fSPL.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Design, Modeling, and Optimization of a Hopping Robot Platform

Description

Laminate devices have the potential to lower the cost and complexity of robots. Taking advantage of laminate materials' flexibility, a high-performance jumping platform has been developed with the goal of

Laminate devices have the potential to lower the cost and complexity of robots. Taking advantage of laminate materials' flexibility, a high-performance jumping platform has been developed with the goal of optimizing jump ground clearance. Four simulations are compared in order to understand which dynamic model elements (leg flexibility, motor dynamics, contact, joint damping, etc.) must be included to accurately model jumping performance. The resulting simulations have been validated with experimental data gathered from a small set of physical leg prototypes spanning design considerations such as gear ratio and leg length, and one in particular was selected for the fidelity of performance trends against experimental results. This simulation has subsequently been used to predict the performance of new leg designs outside the initial design set. The design predicted to achieve the highest jump ground clearance was then built and tested as a demonstration of the usefulness of this simulation.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Design and Selection of the Blade and Valve Solutions for the High-Precision Micro-Drawing Wire Machine

Description

The sense of sight is arguably the most common method that our body uses for gathering data of the world around us. However, that primary tool is negated for those

The sense of sight is arguably the most common method that our body uses for gathering data of the world around us. However, that primary tool is negated for those who are visually impaired, and thus must be replaced with a new bodily sense. Over the years there have been multiple attempts to determine the second best sense from which the brain can generate the most information, and to create a device that utilizes that sense to gather and relay the data quickly and efficiently. However, the sense that has gained the most favor among users and the most experimentation is that of touch. A haptic display device employs the sense of touch by breaking down an image viewed by the haptic display into pixels; each pixel is then translated to a certain vibrational frequency or electrical charge for the user to feel (depending on the brightness of the pixel). One can then distinguish the feeling of the square-like object through the device, however the main problem that exists among the current haptic display devices is the low-resolution output. The low resolution thus makes it difficult for a user to decipher between objects that share a similar shape, but are still completely different.

By considering a different method of delivering information to the brain via touch, it may become possible to create a haptic display that can relay environmental information to the brain in 64x64 resolution. The alternative solution is to replace the vibrating motors with vibrating cantilever beams, thus allowing more beams to take up a specific area in comparison to vibrating motors. Each beam will vary in length to establish its own natural frequency while also making it easier for each beam’s vibration to be controlled by a single microcontroller. Nathan Eastburn, a student who graduated in the spring of 2018, designed a wire-cutting machine that could pull the beams through a metal plate to strip the beam into smaller cross-sections and cut the beams into the very precise lengths. To further complete the machine, the mechanical aspects of the machine needed to be finalized and installed, specifically the air cylinder valve and blade attachments.

The following report provides the details and thought process in converting the given designs of the air pump and blade systems into the physical additions to the wire-cutting machine. Both systems have further parts that need to be purchased, components that must be manufactured, and/or redesigns to the functionality of the systems; these will be explained for those desiring to continue and complete the assembly of this machine.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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ROBOTIC SHOE: AN ANKLE ASSISTIVE DEVICE FOR GAIT PLANTAR FLEXION ASSISTANCE

Description

The mean age of the world’s population is rapidly increasing and with that growth in an aging population a large number of elderly people are in need of walking assistance.

The mean age of the world’s population is rapidly increasing and with that growth in an aging population a large number of elderly people are in need of walking assistance. In addition, a number of medical conditions contribute to gait disorders that require gait rehabilitation. Wearable robotics can be used to improve functional outcomes in the gait rehabilitation process. The ankle push-off phase of an individual’s gait is vital to their ability to walk and propel themselves forward. During the ankle push-off phase of walking, plantar flexors are required to providing a large amount of force to power the heel off the ground.

The purpose of this project is to improve upon the passive ankle foot orthosis originally designed in the ASU’s Robotics and Intelligent Systems Laboratory (RISE Lab). This device utilizes springs positioned parallel to the user’s Achilles tendon which store energy to be released during the push off phase of the user’s gait cycle. Goals of the project are to improve the speed and reliability of the ratchet and pawl mechanism, design the device to fit a wider range of shoe sizes, and reduce the overall mass and size of the device. The resulting system is semi-passive and only utilizes a single solenoid to unlock the ratcheting mechanism when the spring’s potential force is required. The device created also utilizes constant force springs rather than traditional linear springs which allows for a more predictable level of force. A healthy user tested the device on a treadmill and surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors were placed on the user’s plantar flexor muscles to monitor potential reductions in muscular activity resulting from the assistance provided by the AFO device. The data demonstrates the robotic shoe was able to assist during the heel-off stage and reduced activation in the plantar flexor muscles was evident from the EMG data collected. As this is an ongoing research project, this thesis will also recommend possible design upgrades and changes to be made to the device in the future. These upgrades include utilizing a carbon fiber or lightweight plastic frame such as many of the traditional ankle foot-orthosis sold today and introducing a system to regulate the amount of spring force applied as a function of the force required at specific times of the heel off gait phase.

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Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Soft Robotics: A Quasi-Passive Knee Brace to Assist in Lifting

Description

This research evaluated soft robotic knee brace designs that were intended to reduce the risk of injury, chronic pain, and osteoarthritis in laborers tasked with repetitive lifting. A soft robotic

This research evaluated soft robotic knee brace designs that were intended to reduce the risk of injury, chronic pain, and osteoarthritis in laborers tasked with repetitive lifting. A soft robotic quasi-passive system was proposed due to energy efficiency, comfortability, and weight. The researcher developed three quasi-passive knee brace systems that would store energy when the user attempted a squat lift and release the energy when the user stood up. The first design focused on using clamped layered leaf springs to create an increased resistive force when the user bends at the knee. The researchers found that because of the unideal clamping of the springs the design failed to produce a significant increase to the forces the user experienced. The second design used a change in length of the layered leaf springs to provide a significant change in force. Through simple tests, the researchers found that the design did create a change in force significant enough to warrant further testing of the design in the future. The third and final design was inspired by a previous honors thesis by Ryan Bellman, this design used pre-stretched elastic bands to create an increased bending moment. Through experimental testing, the researchers found that the elastic bands created a factor increase of 8 from a non-loaded test. Further work would include prototyping a knee brace design and developing a method to allow the user to stretch and unstretch the elastic bands at will. In conclusion, design 2 and design 3 have the potential to significantly increase the well being of workers and increase their knee longevity.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a New Design of Soft Robotic Module Using Knit FRTAs

Description

For the basis of this project, a particular interest is taken in soft robotic arms for the assistance of daily living tasks. A detailed overview and function of the soft

For the basis of this project, a particular interest is taken in soft robotic arms for the assistance of daily living tasks. A detailed overview and function of the soft robotic modules comprised within the soft robotic arm will be the main focus. In this thesis, design and fabrication methods of fabric reinforced textile actuators (FRTAs) have their design expanded. Original design changes to the actuators that improve their performance are detailed in this report. This report also includes an explanation of how the FRTA’s are made, explaining step by step how to make each sub-assembly and explain its function. Comparisons between the presented module and the function of the soft poly limb from previous works are also expanded. Various forms of testing, such as force testing, range of motion testing, and stiffness testing are conducted on the soft robotic module to provide insights into its performance and characteristics. Lastly, present plans for various forms of future work and integration of the soft robotic module into a full soft robotic arm assembly are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Design and Fabrication of Pneumatic Actuators for a Soft Ankle Foot Orthosis

Description

This paper presents the design of a pneumatic actuator for a soft ankle-foot orthosis, called the Multi-material Actuator for Variable Stiffness (MAVS). This pneumatic actuator consists of an inflatable soft

This paper presents the design of a pneumatic actuator for a soft ankle-foot orthosis, called the Multi-material Actuator for Variable Stiffness (MAVS). This pneumatic actuator consists of an inflatable soft fabric actuator fixed between two layers of rigid retainer pieces. The MAVS is designed to be integrated with a soft robotic ankle-foot orthosis (SR-AFO) exosuit to aid in supporting the human ankle in the inversion/eversion directions. This design aims to assist individuals affected with chronic ankle instability (CAI) or other impairments to the ankle joint. The MAVS design is made from compliant fabric materials, layered and constrained by thin rigid retainers to prevent volume increase during actuation. The design was optimized to provide the greatest stiffness and least deflection for a beam positioned as a cantilever with a point load. The design of the MAVS took into account passive stiffness of the actuator when combining rigid and compliant materials so that stiffness is maximized when inflated and minimal when passive. An analytic model of the MAVS was created to evaluate the effects in stiffness observed by varying the ratio in length between the rigid pieces and the soft actuator. The results from the analytic model were compared to experimentally obtained results of the MAVS. The MAVS with the greatest stiffness was observed when the gap between the rigid retainers was smallest and the rigid retainer length was smallest. The MAVS design with the highest stiffness at 100 kPa was determined, which required 26.71 ± 0.06 N to deflect the actuator 20 mm, and a resulting stiffness of 1,335.5 N/m and 9.1% margin of error from the model predictions.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Personalized Transtibial Prosthesis Aesthetic Cover

Description

This thesis worked towards the development of a parameterized 3D model off a cover that could go over any specific prosthesis depending on the parameters that had been entered. It

This thesis worked towards the development of a parameterized 3D model off a cover that could go over any specific prosthesis depending on the parameters that had been entered. It also focused on gathering user inputs, which was done with the aid of the Amputee Coalition, that could be used to create an aesthetic design on this cover. The Amputee Coalition helped to recruit participants through its website and social media platforms. Finally, multiple methods of creating a design were developed to increase the amount of customization that a user could have for their cover.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05